CASE CLOSED … what really happened in the 2001 anthrax attacks?

* Under the Agreement between JHU/APL and USAMRIID’s DSD, USAMRIID was to include work with virulent strains, and not just the Ames from Flask 1029 (Dugway Spores) that had been irradiated. 98 vials of Dugway spores are missing — claimed to have been destroyed the previous year.

Posted by Lew Weinstein on October 27, 2014

Screen shot 2014-10-26 at 6.41.31 PM

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91 Responses to “* Under the Agreement between JHU/APL and USAMRIID’s DSD, USAMRIID was to include work with virulent strains, and not just the Ames from Flask 1029 (Dugway Spores) that had been irradiated. 98 vials of Dugway spores are missing — claimed to have been destroyed the previous year.”

  1. DXer said

    Dr. Joany Jackman,

    I notice that you providing Ames to researchers like UAB. Did you or John Ezzell also provide Ames to the DARPA-funded researchers at the UAB-affiliated Southern Research Institute?

    Where and when did Southern Research Institute first obtain virulent Ames? (The former SRI Prez Voss and usually helpful VP Franz declined to tell me when I asked some years ago). Did the rumored misshipment of Ames involve a shipment from USAMRIID and/or Southern Research Institute? The wonderful and ever-efficient USAMRMC FOIA Officer (who is necessarily dependent on personnel at USAMRIID doing the search for responsive records) has not yet been able to lay its hands on the documents relating to the re-shipment of the 340 ml that arrived on June 28, 2001.

    Did SRI get its virulent Ames from USAMRIID’s Special Pathogens or from you?

    https://caseclosedbylewweinstein.wordpress.com/2015/07/29/dugway-anthrax-will-it-take-congressional-subpoena-power-to-fill-in-the-blanks-in-the-email-asking-about-weaponized-anthrax-that-came-to-detrick-and-then-was-shipped-out-and-some-was-missing/

    Convicted salafist Ali Al-Timimi shared a fax with Ken Alibek and Charles Bailey at the DARPA-funded Center for Biodefense. The fax number for the Center for Biodefense was 993-4288. His conviction has been shrouded in classified materials dating to the 2000 and 2001 period.

    The Executor Director of the DARPA Center for Biodefense was Ken Alibek. He was 156D Prince William II.

    The Deputy Director was Charles Bailey 156B Prince William II who, as I vaguely recall, long served as head of DTRA biothreat assessment. (I lived in Arlington, VA (Rosslyn) for 15 years very near where John Ezzell would come to report his research.)

    Kathryn Crockett, Ali Al-Timimi’s neighbor who wrote so brilliantly in her thesis about the Amerithrax forensics and microencapsulation, was at 157 Prince William II. (See the ProQuest dissertation database at your local University library).

    Ali Al-Timimi was in the Center for Biomedical Genomics. His phone was 3-4294.

    The groups both shared the same department fax of 993-4288.

    Dr. Charles Bailey for DIA wrote extensively on the biothreat posed by other countries (and presumably terrorists). (In Fall 2001 he said in the press that he was not going to discuss the purpose of silica because he did not want to give any terrorists ideas.) Dr. Bailey shared a fax number with convicted seditionist Al-Timimi.
    (Charles, that’s pretty lame biothreat assessment or counterintelligence analysis).

    What came over that fax line in Spring and Summer of 2001? Perhaps an EA-101 announcing the imminent transfer of virulent Ames? The requestor fills out Parts 1 and 2 and the transferor fills out parts 3 and 4. (For example, in the case of the 340 ml., notes that Dr. Hawley faxed the EA-101 on June 25, 2001 regarding the planned FedEx shipment on June 27, 2001).

    So it seems that Ali Al-Timimi could have advance notice of any planned transfer of a Select Pathogen if the EA 101 simply was faxed to the Executive Director or Deputy at the DARPA Center for Biodefense at GMU, where they shared a suite with a salafist imam preaching on the destruction of the United States.

    The DARPA researchers shared a multimillion dollar project involved research with virulent Ames at Southern Research Institute in Frederick, MD. The original contact, as I recall it, included DARPA-funded researchers USAMRMC/USAMIID researchers. (see DTIC database).

    Consider this research, for example:

    http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Charles_Bailey2/publication/8885478_Systemic_cytokine_response_in_murine_anthrax/links/5447a8d20cf2f14fb8120cc6.pdf

    “Acknowledgements

    Authors thank ____ for excellent technical assistance, personnel of the Homeland Security Division of Southern Research Institute, Frederick, MD, for carrying out experiments with virulent B. anthracis strain, and Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Herndon, VA, for pathology liver analyses.
    This work was supported in part by grants from the United States Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, and by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, USA.

    See, e.g., “Systemic cytokine response in murine anthrax” Serguei G. Popov 1 *, Taissia G. Popova 1 , Edith Grene 1 , Francis Klotz 1 , Jennifer Cardwell 1 , Chris Bradburne 1 , Yusuf Jama 1 , Matthew Maland 2 , Jay Wells 2 , Aysegul Nalca 2 , Tom Voss 2 , Charles Bailey 3 and Ken Alibek 1,3
    1 Advanced Biosystems Inc., Manassas, VA 20110, USA.
    2 Southern Research Institute, Frederick, MD, USA.
    3 George Mason University Center for Biodefense, Manassas, VA 20110, USA.”

    Systemic pro-inflammatory cytokine release has been previously implicated as a major death-causing factor in anthrax, however, direct data have been absent. We determined the levels … of mice challenged with virulent (Ames) or attenuated (Sterne) strains of Bacillus anthracis. …

    The article notes that “All experiments with Ames strain were carried out in the BSL-3 facility of Southern Research Institute, Frederick, MD. This work was supported in part by grants from the United States Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, and by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, USA.”

    “Authors thank … personnel of the Homeland Security Division of Southern Research Institute, Frederick, MD, for carrying out experiments with virulent B. anthracis strain ….”

    After agents raided Al-Timimi townhouse on February 26, 2003 — 100 agents came here the same day and minute so I was paying attention that day — I called Dr. Alibek to ask if and where he was using virulent Ames. He was. He said the research was done at the local BL-3 in the area. At the time, he declined to identify it to me. At some point later, he abruptly left the country but according to my friend Serge, that’s another story.

    It turns out that Alibek’s research was being done at SRI. Indeed, it had been announced that Southern Research Institute was a subcontractor on the DARPA award to Advanced Biosystems when the grant was made in 2000. The press releases were retrievable through the Wayback Machine.

    PR Newswire
    May 4, 2000, Thursday
    HADRON Subsidiary Awarded $3.3 Million Biodefense Contract by DARPA

    DATELINE: ALEXANDRIA, Va., May 4

    “Hadron’s subsidiaries, Avenue Technologies, Inc. and Advanced Biosystems, Inc., will perform the biodefense research programs under this contract. The scientific and medical research will consist of several related programs regarding the development of rapid-acting broad-spectrum protection against biological threat agents. Southern Research Institute, a well known research organization … is a subcontractor on this program.”

    Dr. Al-Timimi, Dr. Alibek and Dr. Bailey also shared the same maildrop. It certainly would not be surprising that the two directors who headed the DARPA-funded Center for Biodefense — and had received the biggest defense award in history for work with Ames under a contract with USAMRIID — would have been briefed on the threat of mailed anthrax. The 1999 short report by William Patrick to Hatfill at SAIC on the general subject was far less important given that it did not relate to actual experimental findings.

    It is common sense that while someone might use as a model something they had surreptitiously learned of — they would not use as a model something in a memo that they had commissioned. Thus, it was rather misdirected to focus on the 1999 SAIC report commissioned by Dr. Hatfill rather than the 2001 Canadian report. The Canadian report related to the anthrax threat sent regarding the detention of Vanguards of Conquest #2 Mahjoub in Canada. Mahjoub had worked with al-Hawsawi in Sudan (the fellow with anthrax spraydrying documents on his laptop). The anthrax threat in late January prompted the still-classified PDB in early February 2001 to President Bush on the subject.

    You might also ask Jeb about the attachment from his early February 2001 email; it is subject to FOIA directed to the Florida State government. The attachment involved state intelligence officials and the notice about anthrax threat was very closely coincident in timing to the PDB. The PDB is merely a summary by the CIA of intelligence for the benefit of the United States President. It very typically includes lots of intelligence known by many others. Indeed, as Richard Clarke has often explained, most intelligence is open source.

    Especially if you are at the end of the right university departmental fax machine.

    Anthrax, Al Qaeda and Ayman Zawahiri: The Infiltration of US Biodefense
    http://www.amerithrax.wordpress.com

  2. DXer said

    Both Johns-Hopkins and its subcontractors were given gamma-irradiated Ames spores from Bruce Ivins’ Flask 1029.

  3. DXer said

    “MONDAY PREVIEW: Mishap reports reveal lost and forgotten vials at Fort Detrick. Read the next part of the series in Tuesday’s Frederick News-Post.”

  4. DXer said

    “In addition to her own material, ABSHIRE has seen another same that phenotypically resembles the anthrax contained in the letters. This was a Ba sample prepared by _______________________________ was tasked ____________ to assess USAMRIID’s internal repository. Specifically, ___________ was to make certain that USAMRIID’s Repository contained only pure cultures.”

    • DXer said

      Terry Abshire was interviewed by Special Agent Langham. Virulent Ames was seized from USAMRIID Building 1412, room 212.

      AUSA Lieber, in a filmed Frontline interview, has said that the FBI knows that under B3 containment conditions a lyophilizer can be used to make anthracis into a dried powder because FBI scientists have done it.

      Thus, all documents relating to the virulent Ames in USAMRIID Building 1412, room 212 and use of the lyophilizer that had been in Building 1412, room 212, should be disclosed to GAO.

      Terry got the inoculum from Flask 1029 — the “Dugway Spores — in August 2000 for the JHU-APL study.

      More anthrax was grown by Terry Abshire from the anthrax supplied by Bruce Ivins.

      Abshire says that the “Dugway Ames Spores “did not look like the spores from the preparations , but that some of her own Bacillus anthracis (Ba) spore preparations resemble the material contained in the letters.

      “In examining the spores from the letters ABSHIRES observed two (2) distinct colony morphologies; this resembles one of ABSHIRE’s. ABSHIRE believes this sample has already been submitted to the FBI Bacillus anthracis Ames Repository (FBIR).

      “In addition to her own material, ABSHIRE has seen another same that phenotypically resembles the anthrax contained in the letters. This was a Ba sample prepared by _______________________________ was tasked ____________ to assess USAMRIID’s internal repository. Specifically, ___________ was to make certain that USAMRIID’s Repository contained only pure cultures.”

      ABSHIRE thinks that the spores contained in the letters have a morphology different from the Ba isolated from an infected animal. Samples isolated from infected animals often have a medusa-based morphology, and …”

    • DXer said

      “In addition to her own material, ABSHIRE has seen another same that phenotypically resembles the anthrax contained in the letters. This was a Ba sample prepared by _______________________________ was tasked ____________ to assess USAMRIID’s internal repository. Specifically, ___________ was to make certain that USAMRIID’s Repository contained only pure cultures.”

      Isn’t the person who had the virulent Ames with the morphs that looked like the mailed anthrax standing alongside Rauf Ahmad at the 1999 international conference on anthrax? Rauf Ahmad was the scientist who attended the conferences and B3 labs on a mission to obtain virulent anthrax in 1999.

      http://www.amerithrax.wordpress.com

  5. DXer said

    Dr. Vahid Majidi, speaking for the FBI, agrees that the silica could have been in the medium used to grow the bacillus anthracis.

    Dr. Joany Jackman explains encapsulants in a 2012 chapter, “The Microbe: The Basics of Structure, Morphology, and Physiology as They Relate to Microbial Characterization and Attribution:

    “Finally, an important concept in the analysis of microbes for forensic analysis is related to the concept of intent. Since natural infections of high-consequence microbial pathogens occur worldwide, it is important to be able to distinguish the origination of materials. This information can be used to determine attribution. Particularly important to the concept of attribution is the addition of specific materials to the microbial preparation intended to enhance microbial virulence or to promote microbial survival. These materials include flow factors added to aerosolized preparation to improve distribution of the target microbe and encapsulants which can be used to stabilize microbes. The purpose of these types of stabilizers is to promote the survival of the microbe in harsh environments or to act as a trigger for microganism growth until the correct environment (pH, temperature, pressure, etc) is reached.”

    Armed Forces Institute of Pathology … the mailed anthrax was not genetically manipulated; but wasn’t it microencapsulated?
    Posted by Lew Weinstein on April 15, 2010
    https://caseclosedbylewweinstein.wordpress.com/2010/04/15/armed-forces-institute-of-pathology-the-mailed-anthrax-was-not-genetically-manipulated-but-wasnt-it-microencapsulated/

    All of Dr. Jackman’s laboratory notes should be obtained and disclosed to include her work with the DARPA-funded research on encapsulants.

    Anonymous states … This DARPA budget document shows that DoD was experimenting with microencapsulated pathogens in 2000-2001 … Bruce Ivins could not have produced such a dry anthrax powder that was microencapsulated
    Posted by Lew Weinstein on October 7, 2011
    https://caseclosedbylewweinstein.wordpress.com/2011/10/07/anonymous-states-this-darpa-budget-document-shows-that-dod-was-experimenting-with-microencapsulated-pathogens-in-2000-2001-bruce-ivins-could-not-have-produced-such-a-dry-anthrax-powder-that/

  6. DXer said

  7. DXer said

    Terry Abshire agreed that her own material resembled what was in letters; said also the person tasked to make certain USAMRIID’s internal repository contained only pure cultures

    Who was the scientist “tasked to make certain that USAMRIID’s internal repository contained only pure cultures”? If it was Ivins, the name would not have been redacted.

    Terry Abshire says that in addition to her own material, she saw another sample that looked to have the same morphs — a scientist tasked to make certain that USAMRIID’s internal repository contained only pure cultures.
    Posted by Lew Weinstein on March 22, 2011

  8. DXer said

    It is in the public domain, but overlooked, that the DARPA program at USAMRIID in Building 1412 involving the FBI’s expert, John Ezzell — whose lab threw out Ivins’ February 2002 sample — involved both live virulent Ames (from Ivins Flask 1029) and the use of microencapsulated agents and subtilis. Senator Leahy’s anger on these issues is fully justified.

    http://www.amerithrax.wordpress.com

    Source:

    Donlon, Mildred and Joany Jackman. “DARPA Integrated Chemical and Biological Detection System.” Johns Hopkins APL Technical Digest, September 1999, v. 20, no. 3, p. 320-325.

    http://techdigest.jhuapl.edu/td/td2003/donlon.pdf

    The bio in the linked article explains:

    “Since 1997, Dr. Jackman has been an IPA with the Special Pathogens Branch of the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. She is involved with the testing of biosensors and their component parts against live biological threat agents as part of the DARPA Biosensor Program.”

    Her work included spent material and microencapsulation with silica.

    “As pointed out, chemical building blocks making up bacteria and viruses can be measured by mass spectrometry. In addition, the broadband mass spectrometer can be used to measure contaminants (spent media, encapsulation materials, and other cofactors of weaponization) that are present in weaponized biological materials.”

    • DXer said

      DARPA’s concern was that microencapsulation and contaminants (mixtures) would make a deadly aerosol harder to detect.

      As I explained in a blog post on October 6, 2011 on Dr. Nass’ blog:

      “Microencapsulation serves to protect from UV and heat and was discussed in the book seized from Dr. Ayman’s material by Osterholm and a NYT correspondent from 2000. It is a straw man argument and semantics for the FBI scientists to use “weaponization” to refer only to “floatability.” Chris Hassell says he is obscuring things somewhat and people will just have to understand that. see science press conference. But the FBI’s approach obscures analysis — and given that has previously been described in a best-selling book, it only serves to confuse analysis.

      It was the FBI’s scientist who made dried powder out of Ames from RMR-1029 and that lab did not submit the Ames they had, they report, in early 2002 and then threw out the sample submitted by Dr. Ivins. Once one understands the silicon signature points to microencapsulation, you realize the importance of understanding where the DARPA research on microencapsulation was done.

      Was it done at SRI which was doing the work with AMES for the researchers at the Center for Biodefense who invented the microdroplet cell culture method that involved growing anthrax with silica or a silanizing agent in the culture medium? The head of SRI (Voss who I last contacted at Tulane and the VP Franz) won’t tell me when SRI first acquired Ames. In fact, DF lost touch with me when I pressed to find out.

      The FBI director acknowledged there was a third lab that made a virulent dried powder (in addition to Dugway and Battelle) but could not say in open session. It is against a MD state law to identify a lab that works with a pathogen.

      Chris Hassell should reconsider the wisodm of the “hold-back” here — especially given the role the FBI scientists played in making the dried powder out of Ames and the resulting conflict of interest, the scientists’ failure to submit the AMES for testing revealed in the documenst uploaded this week etc. If GAO does not address these conflicts of interest, it will not have fulfilled its most important mission.”

    • DXer said

  9. DXer said

    When did Southern Research Instiute, in downtown Frederick — who did the work with the virulent Ames for the leading Ames researchers funded by DARPA — first obtain virulent Ames? Its Prez and VP wouldn’t tell me. It’s VP signed the MOA and consulted on Amerithrax in November 2001.

    The public was never told that the agreement required the supply of virulent pathogens, including anthrax, to JHU-APL subcontractors and collaborators as required. Indeed, I specifically corresponded with SRI VP DF on these issues.

    At GMU, the scientist coordinating with the 911 imam shared a suite with the Ames researchers. Al-Al-Timimi had done bioinformatics work at SRA International under a contract with the Navy.

    GAO should interview FBI Special Agent Wade Ammerman and his colleague who are knowledgeable about these issues.

    • DXer said

      PR Newswire
      May 4, 2000, Thursday
      HADRON Subsidiary Awarded $3.3 Million Biodefense Contract by DARPA

      DATELINE: ALEXANDRIA, Va., May 4

      Hadron, Inc. (OTC Bulletin Board: HDRN) today announced that one of its wholly-owned subsidiaries has been awarded a $3.3 million, one-year contract by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).

      Hadron’s subsidiaries, Avenue Technologies, Inc. and Advanced Biosystems, Inc., will perform the biodefense research programs under this contract. The scientific and medical research will consist of several related programs regarding the development of rapid-acting broad-spectrum protection against biological threat agents. Southern Research Institute, a well known research organization … is a subcontractor on this program.

      “We are pleased to be working with DARPA to provide proof of concept of certain innovative medical concepts regarding protection against biological threat agents,” said Dr. Ken Alibek, Hadron’s Chief Scientist and President of Advanced Biosystems. “There are many novel approaches to biological weapons defense that I believe may provide superior protection than those methods currently in use,” Dr. Alibek continued. “We hope this program is just the beginning of new, innovative research, funded by government agencies and the private sector, to develop new prophylactic means and treatments for a broad spectrum of infectious diseases,” he concluded.

    • DXer said

      The salafist sharing the suite with the Hadron researchers was coordinating with the 911 imam. Al-Timimi’s attorney explained in a court filing that unsealed in April 2008 that Ali “was a participant in dozens of international overseas calls to individuals known to have been under suspicion of Al-Qaeda ties like Al-Hawali” and “was described during his trial by FBI agent John Wyman as having ‘extensive ties’ with the ‘broader al-Qaeda network.”

      Thus, if the FBI had disclosed that its lead anthrax scientist, Ezzell, had agreed to provide virulent Ames to the DARPA subcontractors, the FBI might have avoided a failed investigation and unsolved case.

      But inside the beltway, it is all about “CYA.”

      As the former WTC 1993 prosecutor once said, “IMAGINE THE LIABILITY.”

      The GAO should interview both Wade Ammerman and his colleague John Wyman. They did good work but were working within a compartmentalized investigation influenced, if not controlled, by people who did not want to be blamed for allowing virulent Ames to have been accessed by Al Qaeda.

    • DXer said

      The top DIA bio threat assessment person had long been Dr. Bailey, a former acting USAMRIID Commander. So it might have been awkward for Charles to know that the FBI suspected his suitemate, Ali Al-Timimi, of accessing his private company’s virulent Ames.

    • DXer said

  10. DXer said

    NAS excerpt:

    Finding 4.6: The flask designated RMR-1029 was not the immediate, most proximate source of the letter material. If the letter material did in fact derive from RMR-1029, then one or more separate growth steps, using seed material from RMR-1029 followed by purification, would have been necessary. Furthermore, the evidentiary material in the New York letters had physical properties that were distinct from those of the material in the Washington, D.C. letters.

    SEM-EDX measurements showed no silicon in the coats of spores taken directly from RMR-1029, whereas the majority of spores analyzed from the New York Post, Daschle, and Leahy letter materials contained silicon in the coat. Based on recent studies of the mechanism of silicon incorporation, silicon could have been incorporated in the coats of the letter spores only if spores from RMR-1029 were subjected to one or more subsequent growth steps. Another observation consistent with a separate growth step was the detection of B. subtilis in the New York Postand Brokaw letter material but not in RMR-1029 (discussed in Chapter 5). The detection of meglumine and diatrizoate in RMR-1029 but not in the Leahy and New York Post samples also is consistent with this finding; however, it is not conclusive because it might have been possible to rinse these impurities away without requiring later growth. Some of these findings, as well as others, indicate that the New York letter materials were prepared separately from the materials in the Washington, D.C., letters. The presence of B. subtilis in the New York but not the Washington letter materials and the different physical properties of the materials indicate that the two sets of letter materials were prepared separately.

    • DXer said

      Alibek and Hadron press releases are my source for the claim that SRI was doing Hadron’s work with virulent Ames under the DARPA grant.

  11. DXer said

    The work related to some party’s desire “to extend the study to the analysis of real _________ rather than just simulants.”

    Initially, a commercial mass spectrometer was used to obtain the biological signatures of myriad agents. …

    Extension of the project, to include ___________ required the construction of a ______….

  12. DXer said

    Dr. Ezzell explained that Ba was stored in numerous locations, including the refrigerator in Room 212 of Building 1412 with sliding doors.

    Given that the FBI’s lead anthrax scientist kept Ames in Room 212 of Building 1412, why did US Attorney Taylor suggest that the genetically matching Ames was stored only in Building 1425? That was known by the FBI and prosecutors to be untrue.

    In 2009, Dr. Ezzell didn’t remember the quantities made into a dried powder because it was a long time ago. (Note records, incredibly, apparently were not kept, judging from the subpoena response in February 2002).

    An investigative priority should have been to determine who was given virulent Ames pursuant to the JHU-APL MOA with DSD-USAMRIID.

    FBI Director Mueller declined to name the third lab that made dried powder out of virulent Ames (besides Battelle and Dugway) in open session when asked at the Congressional Committee hearing.

    Perhaps the work was classified — there was classified work done pursuant to the MOA posted above.

    Alternatively, or additionally, perhaps it was in Maryland, in light of the state statute that purports to prevent work with virulent pathogens at Maryland labs from being discussed.

  13. DXer said

    Amerithrax remains interesting in that Dr. Ayman Zawahiri and Adnan El-Shukrijumah still want to attack the United States in a mass attack. But there are other mysteries afoot, to be sure.

    Last night I watched a marathon on the HISTORY CHANNEL on Oak Island treasure mystery. I yearn to be able someday to be a tourist and camper in Mahone Bay, Nova Scotia. The season premier is tomorrow, November 4.

    Closer to home, Steve Kurkjian’s book on the Isabella Gardner mystery is expected in March 2015, in time for the 25th anniversary of the heist. I’ve never looked forward to a book more. Meanwhile the meaty and substantive book BLACK MASS is being filmed in Boston in connection with the Whitey Bulger saga. The actor who plays Sherlock Holmes (due to return for another for an eagerly awaited additional season) is playing Billy Bulger, who was head of the Mass. state legislature. The Gardner museum security director Tony Amore recently took the Sherlock Holmes actor on a tour of the museum. Perhaps Tony and the Boston FBI are planning a publicity push on the 25th anniversary of the Isabella Gardner heist. An Amerithrax alum now heads that office.

    I prefer the Isabella Gardner mystery more than the Oak Island mystery in that it is known that the paintings are out there somewhere. In contrast, it is not actually known that there is a treasure (of any sort) associated with Oak Island.

    On the other hand, Amerithrax has Al Qaeda killers of innocents and the $500 million art heist has gangsters — whereas Oak Island has majestic bald eagles.

    In the heist matter, I like the fellow that Elena Guarente and her daughter worked with as the not-yet-public potential lead to work. Recently living in my hometown, he doesn’t hold his liquor better than anyone else.

    In the Oak Island treasure mystery, I like the idea of buying the nearby 2.5 acre Apple Island and building a seawall around it, so as to preserve the home for the nesting bald eagles. The island last sold in the car-price bracket in case any world traveler and nature lover wants to own an island in Mahone Bay, Nova Scotia.

  14. DXer said

    an interview with David Relman, vice chair of the NAS review committee, reveals clearly that the science cannot prove that Dr. Bruce Ivins is the sole perpetrator or even involved … and, by the way, it seems Al Qaeda had Ames anthrax
    Posted by Lew Weinstein on February 25, 2011

    https://caseclosedbylewweinstein.wordpress.com/2011/02/25/an-interview-with-david-relman-vice-chair-of-the-nas-review-committee-reveals-clearly-how-that-the-fbi-botched-the-scientific-investigation-of-the-2001-anthrax-attacks-and-that-the-science-cannot/

  15. DXer said

    Dr. Ayman Zawahiri (Vanguards of Conquest) planned to use universities and charities as cover to develop anthrax for use against the U.S.
    Posted by Lew Weinstein on February 13, 2011

  16. DXer said

    Dr. Ezzell graciously and voluntarily answered my questions in-person, on film. At the time, I did not have the benefit of the MOA Lew has posted between DSD-USAMRIID and JHU-APL.

    https://caseclosedbylewweinstein.wordpress.com/2010/12/07/fbi-anthrax-expert-answers-questions-at-washington-seminar/

    Dr. Ezzell explained that the virulent Ames was kept in the unlocked refrigeration in Rm. 212 of Building 1412.

    Many of you met the federal undercover who did my graphics at the conference and over dinner. Multi-talented, he also made a handy dandy transcript of Dr. Ezzell’s presentation. The transcript can be compared to the MOA.

    The graphic on the screen during my questions to Dr. Ezzell is this one.

    “Combination Shot.
    More than one person could have been involved. The mailer could be someone other than the processor. The processor could be someone other than the source of the virulent Ames anthrax. Sometimes being on target requires a combination shot.”

    http://amerithrax.wordpress.com/2012/12/05/anthrax-and-al-qaeda-the-big-picture/screen-shot-2012-12-05-at-6-20-25-am/

    • DXer said

      Additional sources:

      The Dried Aerosol Project At USAMRIID Was to Determine The Breakthrough Point for the Recombinant Protective Antigen Vaccine; Equipment Was Purchased and Preliminary Experiments Were Performed : Dugway Was Considered As Supplier Of Dried Virulent Spores
      Posted by Lew Weinstein on January 1, 2012
      https://caseclosedbylewweinstein.wordpress.com/2012/01/01/the-dried-aerosol-project-at-usamriid-was-to-determine-the-breakthrough-point-for-the-recombinant-protective-antigen-vaccine-equipment-was-purchased-and-preliminary-experiments-were-performed-dug/

      Dr. Ivins reports he had not known the FBI anthrax expert made a dried powder out of Ames from RMR 1029 for DARPA until after 9/11; did the FBI scientist and his assistants participate in the dried aerosol project at USAMRIID?
      Posted by Lew Weinstein on December 13, 2011
      https://caseclosedbylewweinstein.wordpress.com/2011/12/13/dr-ivins-reports-he-had-not-known-the-fbi-anthrax-expert-made-a-dried-powder-out-of-ames-from-rmr-1029-for-darpa-until-after-911-did-the-fbi-scientist-and-his-assistants-participate-in-the-dried/

      In the 5 February 2002 Response to subpoena produced today, USRMIID notes dry simulants of anthrax were produced and stored in room 212 of building 1412 (which was where FBI’s scientist was located and not building 1425 where Ivins was located)
      Posted by Lew Weinstein on May 22, 2014
      https://caseclosedbylewweinstein.wordpress.com/2014/05/22/in-the-5-february-2002-response-to-subpoena-produced-today-usrmiid-notes-dry-simulants-of-anthrax-were-produced-and-stored-in-room-212-of-building-1412-which-was-where-fbis-scientist-was-located/

      Will it take Congressional subpoena power to fill in the blanks in the email asking about weaponized anthrax that came to Detrick and then was shipped out and some was missing?
      Posted by Lew Weinstein on September 27, 2010
      https://caseclosedbylewweinstein.wordpress.com/2010/09/27/will-it-take-congressional-subpena-power-to-fill-in-the-blanks-in-the-email-asking-about-weaponized-anthrax-that-came-to-detrick-and-then-was-shipped-out-and-some-was-missing/

    • DXer said

      The only place on witness recalled seeing Ba in an odd location was in Room ____ of Building ____. This is a lab where ______________ and __________ were working on a Johns Hopkins project involving the use of aerosol samples of Ba in a study of _________________. The labeled tubes of Ba samples were stored in a refrigeragor which had a sliding glass door where ____ ahd intended to place ____________.

      http://amerithrax.wordpress.com/?attachment_id=44

      Isn’t voluntary submission to the FBI repository going to necessarily miss the mark as to anyone who reached in the unlocked refrigerator for material that was not his?
      Posted by Lew Weinstein on March 22, 2011
      https://caseclosedbylewweinstein.wordpress.com/2011/03/22/isnt-voluntary-submission-to-the-fbi-repository-going-to-necessarily-miss-the-mark-as-to-anyone-who-reached-in-the-unlocked-refrigerator-for-material-that-was-not-his/

      Amerithrax Science Update (B3D1, p. 270) States that Missions By FBI Personnel Detected DNA from the Ames strain of Bacillus anthracis on both the May 2004 and November 2004 Missions; Samples From The First Mission Were Processed By NBFAC and Samples From the Second Mission Were Processed At Aberdeen Proving Ground
      Posted by Lew Weinstein on November 24, 2012
      https://caseclosedbylewweinstein.wordpress.com/2012/11/24/amerithrax-science-update-b3d1-p-270-states-that-missions-by-fbi-personnel-detected-dna-from-the-ames-strain-of-bacillus-anthracis-on-both-the-may-2004-and-november-2004-missions-samples-from-t/

      http://www.amerithrax.wordpress.com

    • DXer said

      NAS report at pages 49-50:

      “In December 2010-January 2011, the FBI first made available to the Committee “AMX Weekly Science Updates” and a newly de-classified document that described the collection and analysis of environmental samples from an undisclosed site outside the continental United States (OCONUS) for the presence of B. anthracis Ames (FBI/USDOJ, 2011, FBI Documents, WFO Report). This work was performed as part of the anthrax letters investigation. Few details were made available to the committee.

      At least three sample collection missions were conducted by the FBI and/or partners from the intelligence community at an overseas site because of information about efforts by Al Qaeda to develop an “anthrax program” (FBI/USDOJ, 2011). In May 2004, the FBI and partners from the intelligence community visited an overseas location at which they had been told an anthrax program had been operating, and brought back swab and swipe samples to the United States. None of the samples grew B. anthracis after incubation in culture media. However, three swab samples were reported as positive for B. anthracis and for B. anthracis Ames-specific sequences by PCR, including swabbings from the outside of an unopened medicine dropper package, a sink, and a sink drain hose. Repeat testing of these three positive samples as part of a group of 15 blinded samples, including soil samples, water blanks and non-Ames Bacillus species, again yielded positive results for two of the three same samples (and for none of the other samples). However, not all replicates of the DNA extracts from the positive samples gave positive results. Apparently, an earlier collection mission to this site, prior to May 2004, by others in the intelligence community had also yielded samples with positive PCR results for B. anthracis DNA and negative culture results. As a result of these findings, a third collection mission was conducted in November 2004 and this time large portions of the site were returned intact to the United States, including the entire sink, drain, and associated plumbing that had been the source of the positive March 2004 samples. These items were extensively sampled, and again tested for both viable B. anthracis and for B. anthracis DNA. This time, according to the June 2008 declassified document, all the tests were negative (FBI Documents, WFO Report).

      The committee was provided only fragmentary information about and limited primary data from this work and received them very late in our study. We consider these data to be inconclusive regarding the possible presence of B. anthracis Ames at this undisclosed overseas site. Several scientific and technical issues should be explored in more detail, such as the performance characteristics of the assays, whether or not the assays were validated for use with these sample types, the degree to which samples or sample locations gave repeatedly positive results, interpretation of inconsistent positive results, whether or not the Ames genetic mutations in the anthrax letters were detected in any of these overseas samples, and the natural distribution of B. anthracis strain types in this overseas geographic region.”

      In Have We “Met the Enemy”?, Science 3 February 2012: Vol. 335 no. 6068 pp. 540-541, Dr. David Relman, who had been vice-chairman of the NAS Committee, explains:
      Posted by Lew Weinstein on March 5, 2012
      https://caseclosedbylewweinstein.wordpress.com/2012/03/05/in-have-we-met-the-enemy-science-3-february-2012-vol-335-no-6068-pp-540-541-dr-david-relman-who-had-been-vice-chairman-of-the-nas-committee-explains/

    • DXer said

      NAS report, at page 72:

      “Detection of diatrizoate and meglumine in purified spore samples was first demonstrated with control samples of B. cereus spores (FBI Documents, B1M12). The spores were purified using the standard method for spore purification at USAMRIID, involving centrifugation through two RenoCal-76 gradients, followed by two water washes. They were then gamma-irradiated in the same manner as the attack letter samples. The spores were dried and extracted with pure water and then removed by centrifugation, and the supernatant was assayed for the presence of diatrizoate and meglumine. Both compounds were clearly detectable in the control B. cereus spores purified using RenoCal-76.

      Samples taken directly from RMR-1029 tested positive for meglumine in assay tiers 1-4 and for diatrizoate in assay tiers 3 and 4. Samples from the Leahy and New York Post letters tested negative for both meglumine and diatrizoate in all tiers of both assays.

      This analysis was sufficient to answer one question: Were the letter spores taken directly from RMR-1029 and used without further purification? The presence of diatrizoate and meglumine in the RMR-1029 samples and their absence in the letter samples is consistent with the idea that the letter spores were not derived directly from RMR-1029. These data, in conjunction with evidence discussed elsewhere in this report (primarily concerning silicon in the spore coat), led the FBI to conclude that the letter spores were produced by a further cultivation of a sample from RMR-1029. The resulting spores were either not purified using diatrizoate and meglumine or they were washed extensively following purification, lowering the diatrizoate and meglumine to levels below the assays’ limits of detection (0.01 μg/ml for diatrizoate and 0.001 μg/ml for meglumine) (FBI Documents, B1M12D4).”

    • DXer said

      NAS excerpt at p. 89:

      “Relatively early in the investigation (fall 2001), Terry Abshire, a microbiologist at USAMRIID, observed the presence of multiple phenotypic variants (morphotypes) among the colonies generated from the anthrax letter spore samples. The analysis of these variants eventually became a major feature in the FBI’s effort to identify the most likely source of the specific culture used to produce the letter samples. To the advantage of the FBI, Patricia Worsham was one of the USAMRIID scientists that assisted with the analysis of the letter spore samples. Due to her extensive experience with B. anthracis and her specific experience studying B. anthracis phenotypic variants, Worsham and her colleagues were readily able to apply methods for the study and characterization of phenotypic variants in the letter samples.

      In early analysis of the Leahy letter sample, spores were plated on sheep blood agar and incubated for three days. On these plates, Abshire observed the presence of morphotypes with more defined colony edges and a yellow tint relative to the majority of the colonies. Based on
      this observation, Worsham was asked to develop a protocol to characterize morphotypes in the multiple evidentiary samples. The goal of this analysis was the identification of phenotypic and eventually genetic signatures of the letter samples that might contribute to determining the source of the letter material.”

    • DXer said

      NAS Report, at p. 103:

      “The FBI described their approach to assessing Ames strains internationally in the following way: Complementing this initiative was a separate intensive effort to assess whether a foreign government or a terrorist organization may have gained access to the Ames strain and perpetrated the attacks. An exhaustive initiative, one that continued until the closing of the case, addressed this concern. As with the domestic investigation, it included reviews of published research and transfer records. In addition, it involved an assessment of available intelligence on foreign government and foreign actor capability, meetings with foreign experts, witness interviews, and the collection of Ames strain isolates from certain governments. (FBI/USDOJ, 2011).”

      Anthrax, Al Qaeda and Ayman Zawahiri: The Infiltration of US Biodefense
      http://www.amerithrax.wordpress.com

    • DXer said

      NAS Report, at 106:

      “It is important, however, to recognize not only several inherent limitations of the FBIR collection that make it difficult to assess the evidence in any formal statistical sense, but also the effects of the decision to require growth of the samples before testing for the four mutant genotypes. In addition to issues of representativeness, there are issues with the independence of the samples.
      First, statistical analyses typically assume that samples are taken at random from a defined population. The FBI aimed to create a comprehensive repository that encompassed the entire population of stocks derived from the Ames strain, rather than a representative fraction thereof. Given uncertainties in the extent of the entire population of Ames stocks worldwide (highlighted by concern about the possibility of clandestine stocks held by terrorist organizations—see section 3.4.3), the lack of specificity in the subpoena protocol, the uncertainties in compliance with the subpoena protocol, the incomplete information on transfers of Ames-derived stocks between laboratories, and the possibility that some stocks were produced but later destroyed, the repository was unlikely to have been comprehensive.16 ”

      Anthrax, Al Qaeda and Ayman Zawahiri: The Infiltration of US Biodefense
      http://www.amerithrax.wordpress.com

    • DXer said

      NAS excerpt at p. 121:

      Finding 6.5: The scientific data generated by and on behalf of the FBI provided leads as to a possible source of the anthrax spores found in the attack letters, but these data alone did not rule out other sources.
      The committee was not charged with reviewing, nor was it given access to, the findings from the criminal investigation component of this case. The committee therefore could not assess the potential value of additional scientific investigation with respect to better establishing the source of the B. anthracis attack spores. Additional experiments might be of value were there a need to strengthen the scientific aspects of the case (in particular, if the case depended on the findings of the scientific investigation component as opposed to the criminal evidence).

      NAS excerpt at p. 124:

      “Finding 6.10: The evidentiary material from this case is, and will be, immensely valuable, especially in the event of future work on either this case or other cases involving biological terrorism or warfare. It is critically important to continue to preserve all remaining evidentiary material and samples collected during the course of this (the anthrax letters investigation) and future investigations, including the overseas environmental samples, for possible additional studies.

      Recent and future advances in scientific methods and insight may provide the means to extract additional valuable information from case-associated material and samples. In addition, in the event of a future biological attack, these materials and samples may prove useful for comparative analyses. Therefore, despite the closure of this case, all remaining case-associated materials and samples should be retained and preserved for possible further studies.”

    • DXer said

      David Franz — who signed the DSD-USAMRIID MOA with JHU-APL — attended the Technical Review Panel on November 14, 2001. He is listed as from SRI, former head USAMRIID.

      Then other participants were from:

      Dugway Proving Grounds,
      retired, US Offensive Weapons Program
      former head Anthrax program, USAMRIID
      CPT James Buran, PhD CO US Navy Medical Research Department, Lima Peru
      and
      Peter Turnbull, PhD, Center for Applied Microbiolgy R7D, Porton Down, UK.

      The report was classified until a full year after Dr. Ivins’ suicide.

      The November 14, 2001 report explained the Canadian study:

      “Canadian simulation … [s]howed that remarkable dispersion efficiency is possible, producing more than … 80 000 spores .. opening a single letter. Unclassified report has been widely distributed to Canadian government agencies.”

      “Apparently coated with hydrophilic silica.”

      “One test (on guinea pigs) showed it was easier to protect from Vollum 1B than from Ames. When the Gulf War began, it was decided to use Ames, rather than Vollumb 1B, for vaccine testing.”

      “There is no evidence that Ames is a more virulent strain.” USAMRIID sent the Ames strain to a few other labs. Keim and Jackson acquired their Ames sample from ___________________.

      The NAS, at page 51, discusses the Canadian study mentioned by the experts in the November 2001 Technical Summary.

      The NAS wrote:

      “On September 1, 2001, Defence Research Establishment Suffield (DRES) in Canada
      released the results of a study (FBI Documents, B2M11D1) that had been designed to measure
      and better understand the dispersion of spores that might occur after the opening of an envelope
      containing B. anthracis spores. This study involved a series of experiments in which envelopes
      containing either 0.1 or 1.0 gram of B. globigii spores at a concentration of ~1 × 1011 cfu/g (as a
      surrogate for B. anthracis spores) were opened in a DRES aerosol test chamber that was
      configured to represent a mail room or office. The chamber measured 18 × 10 × 10 ft (i.e., with a
      volume of 1,800 cu ft) and had a recirculating air handling system operating at 1,050 cu ft/min.

      The presence of spores at various sites in the chamber was assessed using culture-based
      approaches, not molecular detection methods. The results showed that the act of handling or
      opening these envelopes was “far more effective than initially suspected” in causing dispersion
      of spores in the chamber. Particles of respirable size were released quickly and spread
      throughout the chamber, such that after the opening of a 0.1 g spore envelope, 10 minutes of
      exposure to the air in the chamber would have provided a dose 480-fold greater than the amount
      needed to kill a human with 50 percent probability. The investigators noted that envelopes were
      more likely to cause cross contamination of the local environment, including the envelope
      handler, if the open corners of the envelope were not deliberately sealed by the preparer. The
      investigators at DRES did not seal the corners of the envelopes they used in these experiments.
      However, the corners of the envelopes mailed through the U.S. Postal System with B. anthracis
      spores in September and October 2001 apparently were sealed. This study was valuable in
      revealing the potential speed, magnitude, and spatial distribution of environmental contamination
      by spores subsequent to the handling or opening of a spore-laden envelope.”

      __________

      The Reason The Canadian Study Was Done: Al Qaeda’s 2001 Threat To Use Mailed Anthrax In Connection With Jailed Vanguards Of Conquest No. 2 Leader And Former Bin Laden Sudan Farm Manager Mohammad Mahjoub

      On January 23, 2001, a Canadian court held that the Court did not have jurisdiction to decide the constitutional and Charter issues raised by detainee Mahjoub, thought to be #2 of the Vanguards of Conquest, and dismissed that part of the motion. A letter was received January 30, 2001 at the Citizenship and Immigration Office threatening to use anthrax. It was sent to Immigration Minister Elinor Caplan who had co-signed the detention certificate. Mahjoub had been sentenced in absentia to 15 years in prison in 1999 by Egyptian authorities for his involvement in Egyptian Islamic Jihad. Now, he was being detained without charges under an order co-signed by Immigration Minister Caplan and threatened with deportation. The postmark has never been publicly identified. Separately, hoax letters were also sent to American businesses and a Walmart in Saanich, British Columbia. Mahjoub had been in regular contact with a man named Marzouk, who had trained the 1998 embassy bombers and was captured in Baku, Azerbaijan in August 1998.

      Suspecting Mahjoub of being a shura member of the Vanguards of Conquest and Egyptian Islamic Jihad, the Canadian intelligence officials alleged Mahjoub had significant contacts with persons associated with international Islamic terrorism including Osama Bin Laden, Ahmad Khadr, Essam Marzouk, Vanguards founder Ahmed Agiza, and Osama Bin Laden’s principal procurement agent for weapons of mass destruction Mubarak Al Duri.

      When the letter was received in January 2001, the letter was sent by Department of National Defence jet to the Canadian Science Center for Human and Animal Health in Winnipeg for examination. Authorities also sent the filters from the Jean Edmonds building’s ventilation system. Authorities said they were treating it as a possible terrorist act against the department and noted that it “was the first time a government department has been targeted in this way.” The Ottawa alert came after one of the employees working in the Minister’s office opened a plain white envelope at 11:15 a.m. The employee discovered powder and a piece of paper in the envelope. Police refused to reveal from where it had been mailed. One source said the letter was unsigned and “mostly gibberish.” Indeed, the Fall 2001 letters might be described as mostly gibberish, and certainly the “JLo letter” — talking about Jennifer Lopez’ planned wedding — was. An internal government memo distributed to staff said “an initial analysis of the envelope revealed some traces of bacteria.”

      Anthrax, Al Qaeda and Ayman Zawahiri: The Infiltration of US BIodefense
      http://www.amerithrax.wordpress.com

    • DXer said

      June 2001 presentation at USAMRIID-sponsored conference on “Purification of DNA for PCR from Bacillus anthracis Spores in Soil Samples”
      Posted by Lew Weinstein on May 31, 2011

      https://caseclosedbylewweinstein.wordpress.com/2011/05/

    • DXer said

      The GAO/DOJ should disclose the 2004 article that Dr. Ivins helpfully provided the FBI about adding silica to spore coat in bacillus spore suspensions. He had been given it by someone.

    • DXer said

      Former Amerithrax investigator Bradley Garrett, who took the lead on the Hatfill searches, rode on the plane with KSM’s nephew, WTC bomber Ramzi Yousef, upon his rendering to the US. How did Agent Garrett exclude the subtilis expert living 20 miles from the mailbox who frequently called and was called by the number associated with Abdul Yasin and Ramzi Yousef in February 1993? On the mistaken grounds that Dr. Ayman Zawahiri did not have access to virulent anthrax?
      Posted by Lew Weinstein on May 22, 2011

      https://caseclosedbylewweinstein.wordpress.com/2011/05/22/former-amerithrax-investigator-bradley-garrett-who-took-the-lead-on-the-hatfill-searches-rode-on-the-plane-with-ksms-nephew-wtc-bomber-ramzi-yousef-upon-his-rendering-to-the-us-how-did-agen/

    • DXer said

      People who don’t understand the importance of obtaining and being informed by the relevant documents are singularly unqualified to be addressing the subject.

  17. DXer said

    The same scientists who made the dried powder out of Flask 1029 Ames (Dugway Spores) collected the submissions of Ames for the FBI’s repository of samples in the Amerithrax investigation. This posed an acute conflict of interest notwithstanding the presumed good faith of all involved.

    Email from James Estep at Battelle to John Ezzell at USAMRIID
    https://caseclosedbylewweinstein.wordpress.com/2011/03/09/email-correspondence-between-dr-john-ezzell-and-battelle-about-shipment-of-battelle-samples/

    Incoming shipment

    Despite the presumed good faith of all the parties involved, conflict of interest riddled the scientific investigation.

    TABLE 3-1, “Timeline of Scientific Events in the Anthrax Mailings Investigation identifies the Agency/institution/individual conducting the work.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK209414/

    On 10/18/01 through 11/27/01 USAMRIID made the “Initial characterization of letter material (CFU, EM, visual inspection ) Source: FBI document number B1M1D2

    The Bacillus contaminant was identified as subtilis by the CDC In November 2001. Source: FBI document number B2M1D2. Yet inexplicably not all suspect labs were swabbed for the genetically matching subtilis.

    Battelle Memorial Institute studied the silicon incorporation into spore coat in Fall 2001. B2M13D7

    From Fall 2001 through Spring 2001, USAMRIID — in particular Terry Abshire — was involved in the “Detection of phenotypic variants (“morphotypes”) among colonies derived from letter spores.

    University of Maryland (UMD) (Fenselau et al) did the Agar analysis between 2/01/02 and 2/01/06. B1M10

    Then University of Maryland (Fenselau et al) worked on the heme analysis from 8/02 through 9/02.

    From 10/02 throught 2/04, FBI contractor Commonwealth Biotechnologies, Inc. (CBI) had the Contract to develop Morph A assays; only A1 and A3 were validated

    From 3/04 through 2/06, Commonwealth Biotech “Repository” (1104 samples) screening for A1 and A3; second screening (300 samples) 7/07-10/07

    In 2001, FBI Kept Its Ames Anthrax In An Old Building In Virginia That Didn’t Have Secure Evidence Storage For Samples Before Or After Testing
    Posted by Lew Weinstein on January 7, 2012
    https://caseclosedbylewweinstein.wordpress.com/2012/01/07/before-2001-fbi-kept-its-ames-anthrax-in-an-old-building-in-virginia-that-didnt-have-secure-evidence-storage-for-samples-before-or-after-testing/

    USAMRIID was then involved from 7/13/04 through 9/14/04 in the “Screening of selected samples of FBIR for presence of Morphotype” B1M2D13

    The same scientist/s who collected and then did the screening of selected samples of FBIR threw out Dr. Ivins sample submitted in February 2002. That lab, according to Dr. Abshire, did NOT submit a sample of the virulent Ames later found to the repository.

    That is, Dr. Ezzell and Dr. Abshire had been provided virulent Ames from Flask 1029 for the DARPA work but did not submit a sample. (Though note the dried powder was provided to the FBI and another vial was given to Ivins by Dr. Ezzell. Ivins was told (he reports) that Dr. Ezzell said it was from Iraq! WTF!? If tested, the so-called Iraq sample should have contained the four morphs given that it came from Flask 1029.

    Even University of Maryland, a central institution under the JHU-APL MOA with DSD-USAMRIID, had a central role in the FBI’s investigation in its efforts to determine how the attack anthrax was grown.

    Question: How did it constitute sound science — and how was it consistent with good faith — for Dr. Ezzell to tell Ivins that the dried powder from Flask 1029 was a sample from Iraq? What does John say about what he told Ivins about the diagnostic sample. And why was it misrepresented?

    Did “CYA” instincts prompt the FBI’s lead anthrax consultant to play hide the ball? And didn’t that doom the reliability of the FBI’s “Ivins Theory”?

    • DXer said

      The Dugway Ames Spores from Building 1412, Rm 212 did indeed have three morphs present. The one vial submitted from among the 100 whose origin was Flask 1029 — 98 vials were unavailable to be tested.

      053-070 USAMRIID Bldg . 1412, Rm 212 Dugway Ames Spores

      https://caseclosedbylewweinstein.wordpress.com/tag/nas-anthrax-study/page/4/

    • DXer said

      Ivins switched from using Vollum 1 B to Ames after the Ames strain was shown to very “hot” in 1996. Prior to that time, Vollum 1B was the standard strain that was used in Ivins’ vaccine research. Page 8 of 1274, BEI, on 1/29/02, page 2.

      Relatedly, it was after it was shown to be very “hot” that DARPA began using it under the MOA between DSD-USAMRIID and JHU-APL — using the “Dugway Spores 1997” supplied by Bruce Ivins.

      All transfers needed to be approved by the USAMRIID Commander. Under the MOA then Commander David Franz approved such transfers of virulent Ames to JHU-APL contractors as they required.

  18. DXer said

    In April 2010, I wrote:

    DXer said

    April 19, 2010 at 11:21 pm
    Dr. Catherine Fensealu’s work is described on this faculty page. Her expertise is clearly central to the FBI’s scientific approach to the use of airborne anthrax — and was relied upon in Amerithrax. I expect she has testified (or will testify) What “other companies” has she worked with? Has she worked with Southern Research Institute which had DARPA as its client? They have BL-3 near Hopkins and the University of Maryland. Did Southern Research Institute make dried powder using virulent Ames from Flask 1029 as part of the DARPA research? Dr. Voss, the former lab head, has declined to tell me when they first obtained virulent Ames. The former VP national security Dave F. has also (and he is normally very responsive to inquiries).

    http://www.umresearch.umd.edu/DHS-UM-website/faculty_page/fenselau.htm

    “Dr. Fenselau’s research program is funded by DARPA since 1995. She has also been funded by the FBI, the FDA, NSF, NIH and the USDA. Dr. Fenselau has written numerous articles on rapid detection of airborne microorganisms using mass spectrometry, beginning with the first report in the field, in 1975. Most of her papers have been published in “Analytical Chemistry.” She has organized or participated in workshops sponsored by NSF, the NRC, the FBI, and the US Postal Service to address biological warfare agents, forensic and counter-terrorism. Her lab has worked on R&D teams with groups from Hopkins Medical School, Hopkins Applied Physics Lab, SESI Inc. and other companies.”

    DXer said

    April 19, 2010 at 11:50 pm
    Compare the chapter, for example, by Catherine Fenselau, on “BIONFORMATICS FOR FLEXIBILITY, RELIABILITY, AND MIXTURE ANALYSIS OF INTACT MICROORGANISMS” and Ali Al-Timimi’s description of his protein-based bioinformatics as of Fall 2000. By that time he had moved on from University of Maryland, where Dr. Fenselau was doing her DARPA-funded work, to the George Mason University, where the DARPA-funded researchers in Dr. Al-Timimi’s suite would be doing their work. Did Ali know Dr. Fenselau? Did he ever do work with her relating to her work with DARPA and the FBI?

    https://caseclosedbylewweinstein.wordpress.com/2010/04/19/nas-open-session-thursday-april-22-2010-220-345-pm/comment-page-1/#comment-5320

    Where was the work with the 100 vials of Ames done, putting aside the issue whether they all had been irradiated. Where were they used? Where were they destroyed? Who used them? Who destroyed them?

    • DXer said

      Additional source:

      Factors contributing to peak broadening and mass accuracy in the characterization of intact spores using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry
      • Javier Ramirez and
      • Catherine Fenselau*

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2001

      Author Information

      Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
      Email: Catherine Fenselau (omitted)

      Funded by
      • DARPA

      DOI: 10.1002/jms.196
      http://www2.chem.umd.edu/groups/fenselau/

      “Factors contributing to peak broadening, accuracy and precision in mass assignment in the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization characterization of a lipopeptide desorbed from intact Bacillus spores were investigated.”

      http://www.readcube.com/articles/10.1002%2Fjms.196?r3_referer=wol&show_checkout=1

  19. DXer said

    Dr. Majidi and Dr. Decker,

    With respect to the lab where the JHU-APL researchers used the sonicated or CPD-treated (corona plasma discharge) on the subtilis, was that lab swabbed for the genetically matching subtilis that was found in the mailed anthrax? What lab and room was the work with the subtilis done? Was it done in Building 1412 at USAMRIID by Dr. Jackman?

    GAO, what exactly happened to the 98 vials of Dugway 1997 spores — the Ames anthrax that Dr. Bruce Ivins supplied from Flask 1029, said to be the origin of the murder weapon?

    Rapid Characterization of Spores of Bacillus cereusGroup Bacteria by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry
    • Victor Ryzhov,
    • Yetrib Hathout, and
    • Catherine Fenselau*

    http://aem.asm.org/content/66/9/3828.full

    “Spectra of sonicated or CPD-treated spores displayed an ensemble of biomarkers common for B. cereus group bacteria. Based on the spectra available, these biomarkers differentiate B. cereus group spores from those of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus globigii.”

    “The majority of viable airborne bacteria occur in the form of spores. A limited number of papers have discussed their rapid characterization by MS techniques (5, 12, 14). It is more difficult to release biomarkers from spores than from vegetative cells, and we previously applied corona plasma discharge (CPD) to increase the number and amount of observable biomarkers (6). Here, in addition to CPD, we evaluate another technique to release protein biomarkers from spores, ultrasonication…”

    ***

    “Identification of protein biomarkers.Recently, our laboratory has proposed identification of microorganisms by phyloproteomics (9; Pineda et al., submitted). Vegetative bacteria such as E. coli and B. subtilis were identified from their MALDI spectra by comparing the molecular masses of protein biomarkers determined by MS with the molecular masses of proteins in the SwissProt-TrEMBL database. Extension of this approach to characterization of spores is hampered by detection of limited numbers of biomarkers in the spore spectra. For example, the MALDI mass spectrum of CPD-treated B. subtilisspores contained only 3 peaks in the range of 4,000 to 10,000 m/z(14), compared to 15 peaks in the spectrum of vegetative cells (9).”

    ***

    “More individual strains of B. cereus and B. anthracisshould be studied to test the hypothesis that this ensemble of peaks can be used to assign B. cereus group identity to unknown samples.”

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    We thank Danying Zhu for culturing most of the spores used in these studies. Joany Jackman of USAMRIID, Frederick, Md., is gratefully acknowledged for providing some of the spore lines and for helpful discussions.

    This work was supported by contracts from the Applied Physics Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins University.

    FOOTNOTES

    • Received 22 March 2000.
    • Accepted 5 July 2000.
    _________

    The FBI’s anthrax expert made dried powder for DARPA-funded researchers who were examining the effect of corona plasma discharge on the Ames spores
    Posted by Lew Weinstein on April 25, 2010
    https://caseclosedbylewweinstein.wordpress.com/2010/04/25/the-fbis-anthrax-expert-made-dried-powder-for-darpa-funded-researchers-who-were-examining-the-effect-of-corona-plasma-discharge-on-the-ames-spores/

    • DXer said

      See also

      Corona plasma discharge for rapid analysis of microorganisms by mass spectrometry
      • Joseph Birmingham1,
      • Plamen Demirev2,
      • Yen-Peng Ho2,
      • John Thomas2,
      • Wayne Bryden3and
      • Catherine Fenselau2,*

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 1999

      Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry
      Volume 13, Issue 7, pages 604–606,15 April 1999
      http://www.readcube.com/articles/10.1002%2F(SICI)1097-0231(19990415)13%3A7%3C604%3A%3AAID-RCM529%3E3.0.CO%3B2-M?r3_referer=wol&show_checkout=1

      Contract/grant sponsor: Applied Physics Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins University.

      Bacteria, spores and viruses used in this study were grownunder standard conditions, harvested by mild centrifugation,lyophilized and stored at À10°C.

      ***
      Warning: Corona plasma discharge disperses some sample into the atmosphere. Samples should be processed in a biosafety hood.

      ***

      Treatment of microorganisms with corona plasma discharge (CPD) did indeed release higher mass biomarkers that wereundetectable in spectra of unprocessed control samples. An example is shown in Fig. 1, which presents partial MALDIspectra of a sample of Bacillus subtilis 168 (Fig. 1(a)) and ofa sample of the same Gram positive vegetative bacteria thathad been subjected to a 15-s CPD.

    • DXer said

      Can lipopeptide biomarkers be used to attribute the subtilis contaminant in the attack anthrax to a source?

      All we’ve been told to date is that the subtilis was genetically distinct and that it was not in Ivins’ lab.

      Were the lab(s) using the Ames from Flask 1029 (Dugway Spores) swabbed for the genetically matching subtilis?

      Structural characterization of lipopeptide biomarkers isolated from Bacillus globigii
      Bruce H. Williams, Yetrib Hathout, Catherine Fenselau *
      Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA
      email: Catherine Fenselau [ omitted ]
      *Correspondence to Catherine Fenselau, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA.
      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11921366

      Funded by:
      Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).
      United States Army.

      Keywords
      Bacillus globigii; biomarker; lipopeptides; mass spectrometry; fengycin

      Abstract

      Spectra obtained using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry of Bacillus globigii (Bacillus subtilis niger) spores, vegetative cells and the culture supernatant show a cluster of biomarkers centered at a molecular mass of 1478 Da. Three biomarkers were isolated from the cell-free culture supernatant by solid-phase extraction and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and characterized using various kinds of mass spectrometry. A Fourier transform mass spectrometer with a MALDI source was used to determine the monoisotopic protonated masses at 1463.8, 1477.8, and 1505.8 Da in order of elution. The mass differences of 14 and 28 Da suggest that they are homologous molecules. Alkaline hydrolysis of each species showed that it contained a lactone linkage. Strong acid hydrolysis released a fatty acid from an amide bond, consistent with a lipopeptide. A quadrupole time-of-flight instrument with a nanospray source was used to sequence the hydrolyzed forms of the three biomarkers. The cyclic lipopeptides were found to have amino acid sequences identical with those in fengycins and plipastatins, antimicrobial compounds with phospholipase inhibitor activity, previously identified in related species of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
      Received: 10 July 2001; Accepted: 19 November 2001

    • DXer said

      Research published in October 2003 reported on mass spec study was done on spore mixtures — such as subtiiis and b. anthracis (Ames).
      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14710845

      1. Warscheid B, Jackson K, Sutton C, Fenselau C: MALDI analysis of Bacilli in spore mixtures by applying a quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer. Anal Chem; 2003 Oct 15;75(20):5608-17

      • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
      • [Title] MALDI analysis of Bacilli in spore mixtures by applying a quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer.
      • A novel ion trap time-of-flight hybrid mass spectrometer (qIT-TOF MS) has been applied for peptide sequencing in proteolytic digests generated from spore mixtures of Bacilli.
      • The method of on-probe solubilization and in situ proteolytic digestion of small, acid-soluble spore proteins has been recently developed in our laboratory, and microorganism identification in less than 20 min was accomplished.
      • In this study, tryptic peptides were generated in situ from complex spore mixtures of B. subtilis 168, B. globigii, B. thuringiensis subs.
      • Kurstaki, and B. cereus T, respectively.
      • MALDI analysis of bacterial peptides generated was performed with an average mass resolving power of 6200 and a mass accuracy of up to 10 ppm using a trap-TOF tandem configuration.
      • Precursor ions of interest were usually selected and stored in the quadrupole ion trap with their complete isotope distribution by choosing a window of +/- 2 Da.
      • Sequence-specific information on isolated protonated peptides was gained via tandem MS experiments with an average mass resolving power of 4450 for product ion analysis, and protein and bacterial sources were identified by database searching.
      • [MeSH-major] Bacillus / isolation & purification. Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization / methods. Spores, Bacterial / isolation & purification
      • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Bacillus cereus / chemistry. Bacillus cereus / isolation & purification. Bacillus subtilis / chemistry. Bacillus subtilis / isolation & purification. Bacillus thuringiensis / chemistry. Bacillus thuringiensis / isolation & purification. Bacterial Proteins / chemistry. Bacterial Proteins / metabolism. Databases, Protein. Molecular Sequence Data. Molecular Weight. Peptide Fragments / analysis. Trifluoroacetic Acid / chemistry. Trypsin / chemistry. Trypsin / metabolism

      2. Anal Chem. 2003 Oct 15;75(20):5618-27.
      Characterization of Bacillus spore species and their mixtures using postsource decay with a curved-field reflectron.
      Warscheid B1, Fenselau C.
      Author information

      Abstract
      A strategy is proposed for the rapid identification of Bacillus spores, which relies on the selective release of a family of proteins, referred to as small, acid-soluble spore proteins (SASPs). In this work, SASPs were selectively solubilized from Bacillus spores on the MALDI sample plate by using 10% TFA. Proteolytic digests of SASPs generated in situ from spores of B. subtilis 168, B. globigii, B. thuringiensis subs. Kurstaki HD-1, B. cereus T, and the nonpathogenic strain B. anthracis Sterne were prepared in 5-25 min by using trypsin immobilized on Agarose beads and subsequently analyzed by MALDI-TOFMS using a curved-field reflectron.

  20. DXer said

    “Melvin” / “Vidocq”,

    Hi! I know who you are and know all of your evidence, in all of its detail. At its nub, it had a kernel of some great visual documentary evidence.

    Proving your case — and, as you know, I’ve always supported running down all theories — IMO would hinge on the identity of the Maryland company your candidate once worked at.

    If you bother to identify the Maryland companies that were JHU-APL contractors — that were entitled to receive the Dugway 1997 spores as the contractor required — I believe you would find your candidate’s former employer was not one of those companies. If you asked Bradley Garrett, you would find he agrees with me.

    The name of your candidate’s former employer in Maryland is public record. I recommend BEENVERIFIED’s wonderful free trial. They have a great product.

    I have submitted a FOIA for the JHU-APL annual reports to USAMRIID from 1999, 2000 and 2001. If experience is any guide, you will spend time on your theory and making obscure posts (while coming up with new screen names you’ve used over the years), rather than submitting a request for documents identifying the JHU-APL contractors.

    • Vidocq said

      Hi, yourself.

      Although you should know who I am you have me confused with someone else. I am not Melvin and my so-called candidate was not employed by a Maryland company. As for screen names, I have used no more than you, sir.

      Hard evidence exists that points away from Bruce Ivins and Mohammed Atta.

      Brad Garrett, unfortunately, doesn’t know what he knows but I’m glad you brought him up. He needs to be brought up to date.

  21. DXer said

    In terms of one party that was involved in the JHU-APL testing was Tarek Hamouda’s NanoBio. He and NanoBio had been supplied virulent Ames by Bruce Ivins pursuant to DARPA research.

    http://www.amerithrax.wordpress.com

    Source:

    “Integrated Chemical and Biological Defense Research, Development and Acquisition Plan: Chemical & Biological Point Detection Contamination”
    http://www.google.com/url?url=http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA423302&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&sa=U&ei=bztRVMT4M5SLsQTG64D4DQ&ved=0CCAQFjAC&usg=AFQjCNGP4q3S-gXmv9x2qI4Z6lMIeSf3JQ

    Use of DF-100 in Response to the October 2001 Anthrax Incidents
    DF-1 00 was used to help remediate office buildings on both Capitol Hill and in New York City which were contaminated as a result of the anthrax incidents of late 2001. Immediately after the Hart Senate Office building became contaminated, DF-100 (supplied by Envirofoam Technologies, Inc.) was evaluated in government-sponsored tests against live, vaccine-strain anthrax spores at Johns Hopkins Advanced Physics Laboratory. Also included in the tests was bleach (as a control) and the NanoBio, Inc. Nanoemulsion formulation.

    The details of the research done at JHU-APL, as reported to USAMRIID, is recoverable with the help of the wonderful USMRMC FOIA person, Sandra.

    In terms of a FOIA’s requestor’s right to such documents, note the following support from the MOA:

    The Memorandum of Agreement Between the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory and the Diagnostics Systems Divsision of the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infections Diseases” refers to JHU/APL “subcontractors.”

    Under the agreement JHU-APL was obligated to keep USAMRIID “fully informed of progress on the joint development throughout the length of the agreement. A productive collaboration shall be fostered through communications to review data, exchange information pertinent to the studies and plan future experiments. Quarterly or as needed scientific and management reviews shall be conducted with all parties participating.”

    The Parties were required to “Disclose collaborations with outside groups on matters relating to the project.”

    The Parties were to “Develop a joint annual investigational plan for work to be completed at DSD-USAMRIID, APL and collaborating labs.”

    The Parties furthermore were to “Specifically acknowledge the contributions of all participating institutions in publications, reports and briefings resulting from the program.”

    The Parties finally were required to “File a joint annual report of results to DARPA including a list of subject inventions, publications and pertinent findings relevant to the development of the mass spectral approach to biodetection of threat pathogens.”

    http://mrmc.amedd.army.mil/content/foia_reading_room/Miscellaneous/Enclosure%201_Simulants%20Project%20Redacted_Redacted.pdf

    • DXer said

      In 1999, Joany Jackman explained that the broadband mass spectrometer can be used to measure contaminants, including encapsulation materials and other cofactors of weaponization. Encapsulation = siliconization = Silicon Signature in mailed anthrax.

      Source:

      Donlon, Mildred and Joany Jackman. “DARPA Integrated Chemical and Biological Detection System.” Johns Hopkins APL Technical Digest, September 1999, v. 20, no. 3, p. 320-325.
      http://techdigest.jhuapl.edu/td/td2003/donlon.pdf

      For the particulate threat, a trigger will initiate an aerosol sampler to sort, concentrate, and collect material onto a movable tape sample substrate. The sample is moved into the vacuum chamber of the mass spec- trometer for analysis. The application of pulsed light from a laser onto the target creates sample ions.

      As pointed out, chemical building blocks making up bacteria and viruses can be measured by mass spectrometry. In addition, the broadband mass spectrometer can be used to measure contaminants (spent media, encap- sulation materials, and other cofactors of weaponization) that are present in weaponized biological mate- rials.

      The bio in that article explained:

      “Since 1997, Dr. Jackman has been an IPA with the Special Pathogens Branch of the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. She is involved with the testing of biosensors and their component parts against live biological threat agents as part of the DARPA Biosensor Program.”

      Additional Background:

      DARPA’S BIO-REVOLUTION,
      BY Jonathan Beard, p. 155-)

      http://www.darpa.mil/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=2581‎

      A clear and growing national security need is to protect U.S. military forces from biological warfare attacks and naturally emerging infectious diseases. In 1996, DARPA was authorized to conduct an independent program within the DoD to develop technologies to protect U.S. forces against biological attack. At that time, there was little government investment into this emerg- ing threat, and DARPA was called upon to serve its traditional role of anticipating and preventing surprise. As a result, DARPA initiated a broadly focused effort, spanning the spectrum of po- tential biological warfare defense research. Included in this ef- fort are methods to sense an attack, diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines to protect those potentially infected. Also included is consequence management, as well as decontamination of per- sonnel and critical infrastructure.

      In 2000, DARPA initiated research into the first potential gas- eous decontamination technology, chlorine dioxide, leading to the first proof that, under specific conditions, this gas would kill anthrax spores and sterilize the environment. When the anthrax letter attacks of September 2001 created an urgent need for an advanced building decontamination technology, the DARPA technology was selected by the Environmental Protection Agency as the decontamination tech- nology for the Hart Senate Office building, enabling complete build- ing sterilization and reoccupancy.

      (p. 156, “Overview of DARPA’s Biological Warfare Defense Programs”)

      http://www.jhuapl.edu/ott/NewsEvents/newsletter/spring2004/index.html

      Breathe More Easily Knowing APL’s System Is Decontaminating Our Buildings’ Air Supply
      by Joanne Cavanaugh-Simpson

      _____________________________________________________________
      By now, the scenario is hauntingly familiar.

      In October 2001, an envelope laced with white powder was found in the Brentwood mail processing center in Washington, D.C. Within a few weeks, two postal workers were dead from inhalation anthrax. The still-unsolved 2001 anthrax attacks would take the lives of five people nationwide and infect dozens of others. More than $125 million was spent to decontaminate the Brentwood facility alone.

      Earlier this year, ricin powder, a deadly toxin derived from the castor bean, was detected in the mail of U.S. Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist. Thankfully, no one died; the issue of how to make buildings safe from what was once a battlefield danger—biological weapons—has become a concern for federal health and safety monitors.

      The concept of “safe buildings” was barely on the radar screen of most people the day Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) researchers Dr. Richard Potember and Dr. Wayne Bryden began working on the problem. The project was supported by Independent Research and Development funding provided by APL’s Counterproliferation Business Area. The year was 1999, and the inventors, both from APL’s Research and Technology Development Center, were on a mission to find a way to neutralize toxic biological agents introduced into building ventilation systems.

      • DXer said

        In 1999, Joany Jackman explained that the broadband mass spectrometer can be used to measure contaminants, including encapsulation materials and other cofactors of weaponization. Encapsulation = siliconization = Silicon Signature in mailed anthrax.

        Source:

        Donlon, Mildred and Joany Jackman. “DARPA Integrated Chemical and Biological Detection System.” Johns Hopkins APL Technical Digest, September 1999, v. 20, no. 3, p. 320-325.
        http://techdigest.jhuapl.edu/td/td2003/donlon.pdf

        See also

        Hugh-Jones ME, Rosenberg BH, Jacobsen S (2012) Evidence for the Source of the 2001 Attack Anthrax. J Bioterr Biodef S3:008. doi:10.4172/2157-2526.S3-008
        http://omicsonline.org/evidence-for-the-source-of-the-2001-attack-anthrax-2157-2526.S3-008.pdf

        “From 1999 to 2001, annual DOD budget item justifications for the DARPA project on detectors (called “sensors”) listed a plan to be carried out in FY 2001 to “evaluate methods for removing micro- encapsulation of disguised pathogens and/or sensing through the micro-encapsulation51”. The budget item justification sheet dated February 200252 listed that plan under “FY2001 Accomplishments”, indicating that at least one microencapsulated pathogen was studied by DARPA in 2001.

        Also accomplished by DARPA in 2001 was the evaluation of “methods of cell stabilization for possible application to cell based sensors”. One such stabilization method is microencapsulation.

        Concomitantly, the Chemical/Biological Defense Program (CBDP)53, covering work at Dugway, undertook in 1999 to identify and evaluate emerging threat agents by various means, and continued work on this project through FY2001, during which year they assessed the gaps in the threat agent data and the needs for improved simulants. Also in 2001, plans were made to initiate a program of synthesis, toxicology screening and characterization of new threat materials, to include Fourth Generation Agents [which include those altered for better survival 54, e.g. by microencapsulation], and to initiate development of improved simulants for microencapsulated viruses and stabilized bacteria. Throughout this period the program provided controlled biosimulant aerosol challenges for Joint Service, DARPA, and DOE experimental equipment. Dugway tested DARPA’s detection equipment in 1999 55.”

      • DXer said

        My friends Barbara, Martin and Stuart astutely analyze the DARPA budget documents in their learned and influential article cited above, and they discuss Dugway. But being retiring types, there is no indication that they interviewed Amy Shih about the aerosol testing of the simulant of the DARPA-funded decontamination agent.

        My friend, Eric Nadler, might be the best source about walking the halls of Dugway. He and his colleagues shot some excellent footage for a documentary ANTHRAX WARS.

    • DXer said

      Part of Dr. Joany Jackman’s work with Bacillus anthracis spore infection involved infections of animals by testing their breath. The infection of the animals was done to result in a library of mass spectral patterns of immune system modulators.

      Diagnosis of pathogen infections using mass spectral analysis of immune system modulators in post-exposure biological samples.
      http://www.google.com/patents/WO2002075301A2#npl-citations

      This application claims the benefit of prior co-pending U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/265,797, filed on February 01, 2001, the entire contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference.

      The methods of the present invention for diagnosing pathogen infections are based on determining a library of mass spectral patterns of expression of immune system modulators (cytokines and chemokines) in biological samples taken from animals known to be infected with known pathogens at various times after exposure and infection. The patterns in the library are compared to mass spectral patterns of expression of immune system modulators in the same type of biological samples taken from animals that may have been exposed and infected by a pathogen in the library. A diagnosis of pathogen infection is made if there is a match between a pattern from the potentially infected animal and a pattern in the library.

      ***

      “There is a great need for a rapid and sensitive method for diagnosing pathogen infections, especially in the aftermath following a real or suspected attack on military or civilian personnel with biological weapons, or a natural epidemic that has a short window of opportunity for effective treatment.”

      ***

      The medical community, civilian and military, must determine the best or most effective use of human pharmaceutical resources and hospitals following a bio-warfare attack.

      ***
      Nearly all biological warfare attack scenarios involve aerosolization of pathogens to enable wide dissemination of materials. Because immune modulators are produced as part of the body’s localized response to infection, lung secretions are one of the first places that changes in immune modulator expression will be detected.

      ***

      The methods of the present invention for diagnosing pathogen infections are based on determining a library of mass spectral patterns of expression of immune system modulators in biological samples taken from animals known to be infected with known pathogens at various times after exposure and infection. The patterns in the library are compared to mass spectral patterns of expression of immune system modulators in the same type of biological samples taken from animals that may have been exposed and infected by a pathogen in the library.

      ***

      In one embodiment, the biologic sample is exhaled breath condensate from lungs collected on a filter that traps the nonvolatile components including immune system modulators and infection markers. The filter with the protein on it is then put into a gridless mass spectrometer, using either an ultraviolet or infra red laser for analysis. Lungs are one of the first organs exposed to high concentrates of aerosol pathogens. Nearly all biological warfare attack scenarios involve aerosolization of pathogens to enable wide dissemination of materials. Because immune modulators are produced as part of the body’s localized response to infection, lung secretions are one of the first places that changes in immune modulator expression will be detected. Bronchial lavage, tears, saliva and sputum may also be analyzed in a neat sample using the mass spectrometric methods described herein and in related applications.

      ***

      The results in Table 3 also show that with Bacillus anthracis spore infection, TNF alpha is not elevated at any of the times tested, even at six hours after infection. This is unexpected because TNF alpha is typically the first cytokine expressed after pathogen infection. This observation may also have diagnostic significance for diagnosing anthrax.
      It is anticipated that some biological weapons may release more than one pathogen at a time, for example bacteria and virus or more than one strain of bacteria. Therefore, the libraries of mass spectral patterns of immune modulator expression should contain profiles of biological samples taken from animals infected with various combinations of pathogens. The same pattern comparison analysis can be used to obtain a diagnosis.

    • DXer said

      3/31/2005 302 Ivins interview statement

      “Following this transaction, the log should have reflected a remaining balance of 988 milliliters of RMR 1029 (i.e., 994 ml – 6 ml = 988 ml). Instead, the log reflects that 888 milliliters were remaining after this transaction – a difference of 100 milliliters. This mathematical error suggests that 100 milliliters of RMR 1029 is unaccounted for. The discrepancy had been discussed with IVINS in two prior interviews, but IVINS was questioned further clarification concerning this entry.

      IVINS said that he never noticed this mathematical error until it was brought to his attention by SSA _______. Moreover, IVINS stated that he never noticed any material missing from RMR 1029 flask, explaining that if 100 milliliters is actually missing from the RMR 1029 flask he does not know what happened to it. IVINS noted that the putative missing 100 millilters of 1029 “now gives me pause,” in light of the information conveyed to him today by the FBI concerning the genetic similarities between RMR 1029 and the anthrax used in the attacks.”

    • DXer said

      It’s as the FBI scientists were Shawn, Gus, Woody and Lassiter in “Last Night Gus” on the tv show “Psych” and threw it into the river instead of doing detective work to find out what happened to the three missing bullets from Lassiter’s gun.

      I once wrote:
      “As I recall Dr. Ivins 302 interview, which is online, it was sent on varying dates in mason jars. 7, I think. 6 were combined into the two 500 ml Ehrlenmeyer flasks (you have seen one pictured; one was used up a long time ago). The 7th shipment from Dugway, Dr. Ivins says, was not up to snuff and he set it aside for autoclaving. He did not have a specific recollection that it was autoclaved. Certainly, if there was not documentation, that is extremely notable and it should be a top governmental priority to try to track down the 7th mason jar sent from Dugway. It may not even have been purified by Renocal (after one or two attempts). And so the 7th shipment from Dugway, which was NOT put into the flask is of keen interest given that no traces of renocal were detected.”

      from DXer … why is there a 100 ml discrepancy in Dr. Ivins RMR-1029 records?
      Posted by Lew Weinstein on February 25, 2010

      https://caseclosedbylewweinstein.wordpress.com/2010/02/25/from-dxer-why-is-there-a-100-ml-discrepancey-in-dr-ivins-rmr-1029-records/comment-page-1/#comment-12254

      Perhaps the 7th mason jar sent from Dugway that was not put into 1029 and was not purified by renocal (and thus would have fit the mailed anthrax w/r/t meglumine and diatrozoate. Perhaps it was just diverted provided directly to Ezzell for the JHU-APL / DARPA research.

      Dr. Ezzell was working for the FBI in the Amerithrax investigation. He or his assistant Terry Abshire threw out Ivins’ sample which would have shown the missing Ames to have been the origin of the murder weapon, if not the murder weapon itself. See Amerithrax Investigation Summary.

      The FBI’s Ivins Theory theory was dead on arrival because of the massive conflict of interest.

      IMO, it was really, really wrong for the FBI scientists and prosecutors to not disclose the documents relating to the missing 98 vials. Which of the FBI scientists and prosecutors serving as spokespersons, advocates and book authors on the subject knew about this? Randall Murch? Vahid Majidi? Scott Decker? AUSA Rachel Lieber? AUSA Ken Kohl? Investigator Edward Montooth? Investigator Richard Lambert? Is that why Investigator Lambert wrote him memo to FBI Director Mueller saying that compartmentalization of the investigation might prevent solution of the investigation?

      “Absence of Meglumine and Diatrizoate” in Scientific Approaches Used To Investigate The Anthrax Letters (February 2010)
      Posted by Lew Weinstein on May 10, 2012

      https://caseclosedbylewweinstein.wordpress.com/2012/05/10/absence-of-meglumine-and-diatrizoate-in-scientific-approaches-used-to-investigate-the-anthrax-letters-february-2010/

      April 26, 2012 FBI Quantico Publication: The Detection of Meglumine and Diatrizoate In No Way Pointed To Bruce Ivins As The Perpetrator Or Involved At All; Meglumine and Diatrizoate were both detected in the USAMRIID RMR 1029 sample — but Meglumine and Diatrizoate were NOT detected in the 2001 letter spore evidence
      Posted by Lew Weinstein on May 9, 2012

      https://caseclosedbylewweinstein.wordpress.com/2012/05/09/april-2012-fbi-quantico-publication-the-detection-of-meglumine-and-diatrizoate-in-the-mailed-anthrax-in-no-way-pointed-to-bruce-ivins-as-the-perpetrator-or-involved-at-all-meglumine-and-diatrizo/

  22. DXer said

    This MOA was referenced in this Information Paper. It was provided to me in response to my request for the “Simulants” enclosure to the USAMRIID response to the subpoena in Amerithrax.

    USAMRIID today produced an “Information Paper” explaining production of gamma-irradiation sterilized dried Ames anthrax spores pre-9/11
    Posted by Lew Weinstein on July 26, 2014
    https://caseclosedbylewweinstein.wordpress.com/2014/07/26/usamriid-today-produced-an-information-paper-explaining-production-of-gamma-irradiation-sterilized-dried-ames-anthrax-spores-pre-911/

    In the 5 February 2002 Response to subpoena produced today, USRMIID notes dry simulants of anthrax were produced and stored in room 212 of building 1412 (which was where FBI’s scientist was located and not building 1425 where Ivins was located)
    Posted by Lew Weinstein on May 22, 2014
    https://caseclosedbylewweinstein.wordpress.com/2014/05/22/in-the-5-february-2002-response-to-subpoena-produced-today-usrmiid-notes-dry-simulants-of-anthrax-were-produced-and-stored-in-room-212-of-building-1412-which-was-where-fbis-scientist-was-located/

  23. DXer said

    Where is the contemporaneous documentary evidence confirming that the seventh batch from Dugway in late 1997 not put into RMR 1029 was in fact autoclaved?

    Posted by Lew Weinstein on April 6, 2011

    https://caseclosedbylewweinstein.wordpress.com/2011/04/06/where-is-the-contemporaneous-documentary-evidence-confirming-that-the-seventh-batch-from-dugway-in-late-1997-not-put-into-rmr-1029-was-in-fact-autoclaved/

  24. DXer said

    DRIED AEROSOL PROJECT

    Was the sample that Dr. Ivins says he was told was from Iraq — but wasn’t — actually from the dried aerosol project that had been launched at USAMRIID unbeknownst to Dr. Ivins? Who brought it to him? Where did it come from?
    Posted by Lew Weinstein on December 14, 2011

    https://caseclosedbylewweinstein.wordpress.com/2011/12/14/was-the-sample-that-dr-ivins-says-he-was-told-was-from-iraq-but-wasnt-actually-from-the-dried-aerosol-project-that-had-been-launched-at-usamriid-unbeknownst-to-dr-ivins-who-brought-it-to/

    The person working with particle sizer in hot suite in 1412 in order to characterize particulates used Ames provided by Ivins but does not know whether sample provided pursuant to the 2002 subpoena; the notebook was transferred. This notebook should be obtained under FOIA.

    Posted on January 1, 2012

    https://caseclosedbylewweinstein.wordpress.com/2012/01/01/the-person-working-with-particle-sizer-in-hot-suite-in-1412-in-order-to-characterize-particulates-used-ames-provided-by-ivins-but-does-not-know-whether-sample-provided-pursuant-to-the-2002-subpoena/

    Who did this dried aerosol study at USAMRIID?
    Posted by Lew Weinstein on November 27, 2011

    https://caseclosedbylewweinstein.wordpress.com/2011/11/27/who-did-this-dried-aerosol-study-at-usamriid/

    Who worked alone on the dried aerosol project in Building 1412 and what does he or she say about the research? Was virulent Ames ever made into a dried powder in Maryland or Virginia?
    Posted by Lew Weinstein on April 23, 2011

    https://caseclosedbylewweinstein.wordpress.com/2011/04/23/who-worked-alone-on-the-dried-aerosol-project-in-buildling-1412-and-what-does-he-or-she-say-about-the-research-was-virulent-ames-was-ever-made-into-a-dried-powder-in-maryland-or-virginia/

  25. DXer said

    This is an interview of a scientist who had been working on the DARPA research while at USAMRIID; did Joany Jackman leave the remaining Ames from Flask 1029 with Terry Abshire or John Ezzell when she left?

    Posted by Lew Weinstein on April 12, 2011

    https://caseclosedbylewweinstein.wordpress.com/2011/04/12/his-is-an-interview-of-a-scientist-who-had-been-working-on-the-darpa-research-while-at-usamriid-did-joany-jackman-leave-the-remaining-ames-from-flask-1029-with-terry-abshire-or-john-ezzell-when-she/

  26. DXer said

    Here is document uploaded today to the USAMRIID Electronic Reading Room under the category “Miscellaneous.”

    http://mrmc.amedd.army.mil/content/foia_reading_room/Miscellaneous/Enclosure%201_Simulants%20Project%20Redacted_Redacted.pdf

    Thanks again to USMRMC FOIA and Lew for their invaluable assistance.

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