CASE CLOSED … what really happened in the 2001 anthrax attacks?

* GAO: Who Wrote “YOUR DAYS ARE LIMITED! BANG” on the blackboard at the seminar in Kabul on anthrax and other weapons. Whose fingerprints were found on the board?

Posted by DXer on June 16, 2014

Screen shot 2014-06-16 at 9.24.04 AM

25 Responses to “* GAO: Who Wrote “YOUR DAYS ARE LIMITED! BANG” on the blackboard at the seminar in Kabul on anthrax and other weapons. Whose fingerprints were found on the board?”

  1. DXer said

    Yesterday, authorities were warning of an imminent attack in Kabul.

  2. DXer said

    A $2.7 billion blimp floated away from Aberdeen Proving Ground today. It was tethered by a cable an inch thick. It is not clear how it got loose.

    Glad it didn’t have any missing anthrax on it. Zawahiri contemplated using a balloon. Then the anthrax would be dispersed upon being shot down.

    2 fighter jets track JLENS blimp that has broken free of its tether in MarylandFox News
    Military blimp adrift after flying off baseCBS News

    Military blimp goes AWOL for a joy ride up the East Coast
    USA TODAY – ‎58 minutes ago‎

    “WASHINGTON – The Pentagon would like its blimp back. If found, please send to Aberdeen Proving Grounds in Maryland. That’s where it went AWOL on Wednesday, snapping a more than one-inch thick cable and hitting the skies on a joy ride over the farm …”

  3. DXer said

    Al Qaeda’s discussion of the plan to disperse anthrax with a balloon is what prompted the suggestion by the young assistant of having duct tape — it’s not actually a recommended Red Cross item, though New York State lists it. He certainly found an innovative use.

  4. DXer said

    Comment: The FBI and Homeland Security needs to respond to the theft of this hot air balloon just as they would to the theft of a cropduster. The trailer and Chevrolet Suburban needs to be immediately found.

    Balloon stolen at Albuquerque Balloon Fest
    Oct. 5, 2014 3:33 PM EDT

    ALBUQUERQUE, N.M. (AP) — A California woman wasn’t able to honor her late husband at the Albuquerque International Balloon Fiesta after a thief made off with the balloon her daughter planned to pilot.

    Police say Lucinda Wallace’s hot air balloon was taken sometime early Saturday morning from the Nativo Hotel. The suspect also took a trailer holding the balloon and a Chevrolet Suburban with a California license plate that reads “baluner.”

    Wallace says daughter Marilyn was going to fly it in memory of her father. Rick Wallace died more than two months ago of cancer.

    The balloon is blue with a rainbow design and a U.S. flag on the side.

    Meanwhile, the family flew back to their Santa Monica, California, home to get another balloon and drive back to the Fiesta.


    FBI Zeroes In on Potential Terrorists
    Operation Tripwire standardizes field offices’ handling of clues to locate ‘sleeper cells.’
    December 13, 2003| Greg Krikorian | Times Staff Writer

    The FBI has launched a new counterterrorism operation designed to locate and disrupt “sleeper cells” of foreign terrorists before they can launch another major attack in the U.S., officials say.

    Called Operation Tripwire, the program began quietly this summer and provides each of the bureau’s 56 field offices with a standardized way to identify travel, financial transactions, equipment purchases and other factors that could be precursors to terrorism.

    “We have taken the tragedy of 9/11, learned lessons from it and developed a strategic plan to prevent another incident like that,” said one FBI official in Washington.

    • DXer said

      FBI director warns of Khorasan attack
      The Hill (blog)‎ – 5 hours ago

      “The head of the FBI said in an interview broadcast late Sunday that the U.S. is preparing for an imminent terrorist attack…”

      Even if the theft of the balloon is a stupid prank by someone up before 5 a.m., it never hurts for the FBI and other authorities to strut their stuff and demonstrate the capability of its detection efforts.

      The trailer is extremely distinctive looking, just by its readily observed shape.

      And the balloon, of course, is distinctive looking — and not just anyone can fly a balloon.

      The license plate “baluner” also is very distinctive.

      Does California have the same database of license plates being constantly scanned by passing sheriff cars in this area?

      On the side of the balloon there is a large American flag over a rainbow.

      Baluner might even be more clever as a license plate than we might have guessed.

      Balun – Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary‎
      a radio device for converting from a balanced to an unbalanced line and usually used at high radio frequencies. Origin of BALUN. balanced + unbalanced.

  5. DXer said

    9/11 Commission Chairman and Vice Chairman say the “28 pages” [of the Graham-led “Joint Inquiry” should be released.

    Relatedly, Lee Hamilton is embarrassed that all the documents relating to the 911 Commission’s work were not public — all of them. He even was surprised and disappointed that there were redactions.

    The entire purpose of the 911 Commission, the former 911 Commission Co-Chairman says, was supposed to be transparency.

    Lee Hamilton is embarrassed to be associated with the work product.

    Co-Chairman Tom Kean also thinks the 28 pages of the “Joint Inquiry” should be disclosed.

    The converse of the fact that most intelligence is open source is that the USG’s intel and “connecting the dots” is not up to snuff. (Former Governor Kean estimates 60-70% is open source.)

    Once the As Sahab documents were seized and were available for fingerprinting, how is it that Adnan El-Shukrijumah was not identified in 2002? He had previously been arrested in an incident where he bit his younger sister while babysitting. And so I’m guessing that his fingerprints were in the system. They knew that Adnan was associated with Atta and the Brooklyn WTC 1993 plotters who were supporters of Blind Sheik Abdel-Rahman. They knew from a federal undercover’s tape recording that the power station plotter Mandhai thought he would join that plot. They knew Adnan had previously been trained in Afghanistan. Then Adnan disappeared. After 9/11, according to Adnan’s parents, FBI Agents went to the house 6-7 times looking for him. Wouldn’t the FBI naturally have suspected that he was in Afghanistan with KSM? Weren’t fingerprints examined toward that end? What was learned from the FBI’s fingerprint analysis — to include those from the anthrax training seminar in Kabul?

    GAO should obtain all FBI documents relating to the identification of Jaffar Al-Tayyar in 2002 — to include the fingerprints taken from the documents in the media operation led by KSM and Al-Hawsawi in Kandahar, which is where Shukrijumah and Padilla were based.

    Padilla was arrested in June 2002 after he arrived in the US. Adham Hassoun from the mosque in the Franklin Park neighborhood then was arrested. Although Padilla did not cooperate, why wasn’t Shukrijumah identified in 2002? Why did it take KSM’s interrogation in March 2003 to identify Adnan El-Shukrijumah as the oft-discussed “next Atta” Jaffar Al-Tayyar?

    The fact that some Gitmo interrogators were uncertain of Jaffar Al-Tayyar’s identity is not the measure of what the FBI Tampa office knew — is it?

    Is this an example of compartmentalization of information (due to CYA concerns) resulting in a failure in counterintelligence analysis?

  6. DXer said

    The skies are crowded today with news of drones. FAA will let Hollywood filmmakers operate drones on movie sets. Abroad, drone delivery of parcels will be allowed to an island in Germany. The FAA is working on regulations.…0.0…1ac.1.qLSSMXT7r3I

    I can’t imagine driverless cars on our roads or skies delivering packages. I expect that one CEO’s soaring optimism will be shot down by the FAA under forthcoming regulations. But I don’t envy FAA the difficult choices and judgment calls it has to make.

    Before FAA announces its upcoming rules for amateur hobbyists, I have a month-long photography exhibit coming up called DRONE PHOTOGRAPHY. I expect it will consist of 30 aerial nature photos taken on a private island. I haven’t taken the pictures yet because my wife insists I replace the living room lamp I broke on the maiden flight that first day.

    Presently, I abide by the requirement that it flies under 300 feet etc.

  7. DXer said

    It cracks me up that rather than investigate the documentary evidence on Zawahiri’s computer, author Graeme MacQueen thinks it more probative to investigate and contemplate the origin of “unthinkable” discourse among commentators. (pp. 179-186) He’s been influenced by Sarasin and Boyle all right — and they definitely were not about solving the “whodunnit” of the Fall 2001 anthrax mailings. I wouldn’t expect Hamas lawyer Boyle to be. But the effectiveness of an advocate is always going to be constrained by the documentary support. It is going to be constrained by what the evidence supports. That is why you find people not addressing it.

    Why doesn’t he address the documents being studied at the anthrax seminars in Afghanistan?

    Or doesn’t he instead look to the documents from his computer and look what Dr. Ayman and Atef, Al Qaeda’s military commander, were contemplating? What THEY were talking about.
    from DXer … email from Ayman al-Zawahiri to Muhammed Atef … April 15, 1999
    Posted by Lew Weinstein on March 8, 2010

    DXer: documents in the possession of Ayman Zawahiri and his associates illustrate the dangers of scientific openness
    Posted by Lew Weinstein on May 17, 2009

    see also

    In today’s installment of a continuing series, Al Qaeda anthrax lab technician Yazid Sufaat defends his decision to go to Afghanistan to work on his “anthrax project” for Al Qaeda
    Posted by Lew Weinstein on March 20, 2012

    In February 2002, NEWSWEEK described Al Qaeda anthrax lab director Yazid Sufaat’s role in the 911 attacks that killed 3000 civilians.
    Posted by Lew Weinstein on May 29, 2013

  8. DXer said

    Graeme McQueen in his highly political book, The 2001 Anthrax Deception, at page 81, writes:

    “The letters were an embarrassment. It was as if someone had tried to frame Native Americans for the crime by inserting a note in the letters announcing, “White man in heap big trouble.”

    Graeme didn’t read about anthrax mailings until 2010. He appears — even to this day — to never have researched the information available about Al Qaeda’s anthrax program.

    So it is his analysis that is an embarrassment. He apparently not aware that the same sort of phrasing was used by the anthrax program in Afghanistan: “YOUR DAYS ARE LIMITED! BANG!”

    If Graeme’s fancies himself skilled at textual analysis, he should have done the research to obtain the texts.

  9. DXer said

    GAO, what did the testing done on the bottle of anthrax spore concentrate harvested July 2001 show the strain to be? Whose fingerprints were on the label — to include the adhesive on the underside?

    By Kathy Gannon
    Associated Press Writer

    KABUL, Afghanistan (AP) – At an Agriculture Ministry laboratory outside Kabul, scientists worked with anthrax. If Osama bin Laden’s al-Qaida network wanted to get its hands on the deadly substance, this laboratory, now badly damaged by U.S. bombing, could have been a source.
    The now-defeated Taliban regime has long denied being involved in chemical or biological weapons research, but it seems to have taken an interest in the work being done at the lab, according to scientists there, and it was repeatedly hit by U.S. bombers.

    The lab, in a two-story mountainside building, was frequently visited by a Taliban official during the past five years, according to scientists interviewed there Tuesday.

    They did not say whether Mullah Qari Abdullah showed a specific interest in anthrax, and the scientists insisted their work was aimed purely at developing animal vaccines.

    “The Taliban officer in charge, Mullah Qari Abdullah, would come here regularly,” said Dr. Mohammed Ali, speaking in the lab amid shards of glass from bomb-shattered bottles.

    He declined to elaborate, and when his colleagues began to speak, he snapped at them in Farsi, the language used in Iran and parts of Afghanistan, saying: “Listen to me! Listen to me!”

    Ali and his colleague, Dr. Abdul Wakil, did not say whether any of their research was transferred to al-Qaida or used in weapons experiments. But they acknowledged that the lab’s activities meant the Taliban had access to anthrax.


    The scientists, longtime workers at the lab, showed a large container which they said held concentrated anthrax spores.

    • DXer said

      From Gary Jones in Kabul

      Mirror (UK)

      A deadly Taliban anthrax factory was found in Kabul by The Mirror yesterday.

      The two-storey lab was used to create vaccines from highly dangerous wild bacteria. Its discovery fuels fears that Osama bin Laden’s al-Qaeda terror group is behind the US anthrax alert.

      A source who worked at the plant said: “There’s no doubt the Taliban were planning chemical or biological warfare against the West. I believe anthrax may have been first on their list.”

      The factory, which was bombed by US B-52s, was headed by anti-West mullah Qari Abdullah. He and about half of his staff vanished seven months ago. They are now believed to be in the US and Europe.

      On a tour of the plant The Mirror saw an incubator to develop the bacteria, hundreds of test tubes ready for samples and the word “anthrax” scribbled on a container.

      Yesterday in Washington the FBI were urgently investigating a suspected anthrax letter sent to Democrat Senator Patrick Leahy. Four people have died from the bug.

      The factory, discovered by The Mirror yesterday, was officially set up for the production of vaccines for cattle using wild anthrax bacteria. But we learned that the Taliban became extremely proficient in using the bug.

      It is now feared that rogue Talibans linked to Osama bin Laden’s al-Qaeda terror group could have developed anthrax spores into the form being used to terrify the US where four people have died from the bacteria.

      Dr Abdul Quader Raoufi, 58, current vaccines chief at the Afghan factory, told us: “We’d rather have been running the labs on our own.

      “But the mullahs were in charge of everything and we couldn’t stop them learning about our activities. There was always a danger information could get into the wrong hands.”

      A source who worked at the factory added: “There’s no doubt the Taliban were planning chemical or biological warfare against the West.

      “I believe anthrax might have been first on their list.”

      We were alerted to the factory – the Institute of Veterinary Vaccine Production – by a highly-placed source in the Northern Alliance.

      After being directed there by an official of the Ministry of Agriculture we were ushered through locked gates for a guided tour by Dr Raoufi. During US air strikes, 13 B-52 bombs landed all around the premises at Badram Bagh, outside Kabul, although none scored a direct hit.

      It is not clear if the fighters deliberately targeted the lab. All the equipment needed to make vaccines was hidden away the day before the bombardment began.


      Three sheep were infected to study the results. Their carcasses were buried 30ft in desert land on the Shomali Plains away from possible contamination of water supplies.

      Our source, who refused to be identified, said: “This was very dangerous work, though we knew what we were doing.

      “We developed the technology of how to keep anthrax bacteria and how to develop it for use in vaccines.


      It is not clear if the fighters deliberately targeted the lab. All the equipment needed to make vaccines was hidden away the day before the bombardment began.


      Our source said: “The Taliban were very keen to take control of the laboratory.

      “They moved the staff and all equipment down to the capital without warning. They wanted the laboratory there very badly.”


      Dr Raoufi revealed that the vaccine institute, set up with help from the Red Cross and one of Afghanistan’s most modern buildings, once had 45 staff.

      But more than half left, many saying they meant to work abroad.

      Dr Raoufi said: “I don’t know what happened to these people.

      “I’m told most went to work in America and Europe. They knew their skills were in demand elsewhere in the world.” Referring to the disappearance of Mullah Abdullah, he added: “I’ve no idea what happened to him. He wasn’t well liked. We didn’t have a lot to do with him.

      The production of vaccines at the Kabul factory was so successful that some samples were sent to Geneva where the Red Cross congratulated the Taliban on their work.


      Was the Bioport document found in the so-called “House of Anthrax” from a scientist at this anthrax vaccine lab, which was also located in Kabul? It would have been totally natural for the anthrax vaccine scientists to obtain it, as it would have given them guidance as to safe practices. For example, they took care to bury the animals they infected with anthrax far away from drinking water.

      Yazid Sufaat went to Afghanistan to work for the Taliban. But although he initially was at Omar Hospital in Kabul, the anthrax lab was then moved to Kandahar in May 2001, consisting of a roomful of crates that were moved by various people tasked by KSM at Atef’s request. Yazid Sufaat told his wife Chomel that he was going to work for a Taliban medical brigade outside of Kandahar. Commentators get confused about $4,000 later being appropriated by a different charity for expenditures Yazid Sufaat wanted to make (with the help of Dr. Batarfi) and with help with procurement by Saed Mohammed, a microbiology student in Karachi. But that was on top of the entire vaccine lab that had been moved — and the entire roomful of crates of equipment moved in May 2001.

    • DXer said

      Transportation of roomful of crates of biological equipment to lab in Kandahar in May 2001 (while Sufaat and his two assistants were working at lab at Omar Hospital in Kabul).

      Mohammed Ahmad Rabbani was one of two who Khalid Mohammed (KSM) used to help Atef and Sufaat moving a roomful of crates purchased in Pakistan to Kandahar for the Al Qaeda anthrax program. KSM’s assistance had been sought by Abu Harith al-Masri.
      Posted by Lew Weinstein on May 6, 2011

      Abdul Rabbani Abu Rahman was the other fellow who KSM tasked to move the crates with biological equipment for Al Qaeda’s anthrax program [in May 2001]
      Posted by Lew Weinstein on May 6, 2011

      see also

      Click to access 20110430elpepuint_3_Pes_PDF.pdf

  10. DXer said

    For comparison, here is Rauf Ahmad’s notes. I highly doubt he conducted the seminar. In 1999, he urged Zawahiri that only he and Dr. Ayman would know about his infiltration of Western B3 labs to acquire virulent anthrax. His motivation was money rather than ideology.

  11. DXer said

    GAO, perhaps FBI would give you the handwriting comparison of “Your days are limited. Bang.”

    While the printing looks similar to the printing on the Fall 2001 anthrax letters, the FBI’s handwriting expert found that Bruce Ivins probably did NOT write the letters.

    Then relatedly, the FBI could confirm for you whether / that Adnan El-Shukrijumah wrote the blackboard. For example, surely they tested it for fingerprints, no?

    Adnan El-Shukrijumah is most famously associated with the American Hiroshima. “Abu Dawood” said Adnan El-Shukrijumah was going to be behind the next attack and that all muslims should leave New York City and DC.

    And so him being the one giving this seminar would square with the nuclear background of the Paksitan government scientists, whose charity it was.

    Here is an NPR story that includes a video of a similar blackboard presentation by Shukrijumah — note Adnan’s knows chemical notation more than the average jihadist:

    David Armstrong, the president of Broward College, says Shukrijumah was a chemistry major at the school some 12 to 14 years ago and never graduated.


    Law enforcement officials worry about Shukrijumah in particular because he has been able to travel anywhere and slip in and out of countries like a ghost melting through a wall.


    Here is the video linked by NPR of Adnan giving a talk on jumping a battery. He has drawn a smiley face on the battery with the charge and a frown on the one without the charge.

    [video src="" /]

    Is he the one who gave the seminar?

    Isn’t the “Your days are limited. Bang” printed capital letters a match for the Fall 2001 anthrax letters?

    Which brings me to a separate question. Adnan was with Atta at the immigration office — did he fill out the form for Atta that looks so much like the mailed letters?

    GAO Should Obtain A Copy Of The FBI’s Handwriting Analysis Comparing The Letters To Atta’s

    Posted by Lew Weinstein on January 22, 2012

    • DXer said

      The NYT described some of the anthrax papers found in that house:

      “The report, prepared by Science Applications International Corporation, a private research firm, was not classified, said Zuraidah Hashim, a spokeswoman for the firm, in Frederick, Md. It was titled “Renovation of Facilities and Increased Anthrax Vaccine Production at the Michigan Biologic Products Institute.”

      “This report was not a how-to manual of any kind,” Ms. Hashim said. “It was not a report that gave instruction of how to produce anthrax or anthrax vaccine.” Instead, she called it “an evaluation report” on the institute’s vaccine program.”

      I can’t find this report unless it is one by the same title and is the draft environmental assessment. In world libraries, I find the title (by that name) that is the EA only in Lansing, Michigan.

      Whose fingerprints are on the document? Although not from the internet, was it in the nature of an original or a xerox copy?

      Renovation of facilities and increased anthrax vaccine production and testing at the Michigan Biologic Products Institute : draft environmental assessment
      by United States. Joint Program Office for Biological Defense.; BSA Environmental Services, Inc.;
      Book : National government publication
      Language: English
      Publisher: Falls Church, VA : Joint Program Office for Biological Defense, [1997]
      Database: WorldCat

      Library of Michigan
      Lansing, MI 48909 United States

    • DXer said

      In April 1999, Dr. Ayman emphasized to his boss, AQ military commander Atef, that as had previously discussed with Atef, that recruiting a specialist was the best way to proceed. Then Dr. Ayman wrote: “Simultaneously, we should conduct a search on our own.” (I am not sure what this means.)

      from DXer … email from Ayman al-Zawahiri to Muhammed Atef … April 15, 1999

      By September 1999, Dr. Ayman already had a scientist attending Porton Down conferences on Ames anthrax attended by USAMRIID scientists. Rauf Ahmad attended both the 1999 and 2000 conferences in the UK — if not also the 2001 conference held in the US.

      Did “Tariq” or some recruited specialist provide the Bioport document? Or is this just a reference in the book about bioweapons that Dr. Ayman was reading that he asked Atef to have someone pull?

      It seems that the fingerprints on the documents found at the House of Anthrax could be a treasure trove.

      GAO: Is Tariq, the suspected al Qaida anthrax operative residing in New York identified by Saifallah Paracha, the same “Tariq” as associated with a notation for the anthrax vaccine and the same as the businessman in the pharmaceutical industry? Or do these references refer to more than one Tariq.
      Posted by Lew Weinstein on May 31, 2013


      “The diary contained contact information for Najmut Tariq, a possible al-Qaida anthrax operative residing in New York. The name Tariq also appeared in a document recovered from an al_Qaida safe house in Pakistan along with a notation for the anthrax vaccine. Another al-Qaida associate identified Tariq as a businessman in the pharmaceutical industry. IIR 6 044 7209 03, IIR 6 044 7214 03, TRRS-04-10-0062.

      Anthrax, Ayman Zawahiri and Al Qaeda: The Infiltration of US Biodefense

    • DXer said

      In interrogation, KSM explained that Yazid Sufaat and his two assistants were vaccinated for their work with virulent anthrax. Those that don’t read the relevant classified interrogation reports might not realize that. But that’s still no excuse for spreading false information and claiming Sufaat was not working with virulent anthrax.

      “When detainee queried Yazid [in August] about the danger of his research, Yazid indicated there was little to worry about since he (Yazid) Bakr, and al-Hud all had anthrax vaccines. As al-Qaida was leaving Afghanistan, Yazid planned to reinstitute the anthrax program in Pakistan.”


      Click to access us9ku-010024dp.pdf

      See also
      Mohammed Ahmad Rabbani was one of two who Khalid Mohammed (KSM) used to help Atef and Sufaat moving a roomful of crates purchased in Pakistan to Kandahar [in June 2001] for the Al Qaeda anthrax program. KSM’s assistance had been sought by Abu Harith al-Masri.

      Posted by Lew Weinstein on May 6, 2011

      Prior to that, Sufaat and his assistant(s) had been working at Omar Hospital in Kabul.


      One of Yazid Sufaat’s assistants has been secretly detained in Israel (and before that Jordan) for years.

      Doesn’t the United States know the strain of the virulent anthrax used in one or more of the Al Qaeda labs, for which Sufaat and his assistants were vaccinated, based on interrogation of the individuals? Why didn’t the FBI simply provide the NAS with the answers to its question about the strain of the anthrax based on interrogation of Yazid Sufaat or his anthrax lab assistants? Will it answer the same questions for GAO?

      Posted by Lew Weinstein on April 27, 2011

    • DXer said

      The Defense Intelligence Agency provided me various documents in the possession Ayman Zawahiri and his associates, including a number relating to selective culture medium.

      But will the FBI provide GAO documents in Dr. Ayman’s possession that are classified and that were withheld by the DIA in their production?

      The Al-Qaida documents were discovered by U.S. forces in Afghanistan in Fall 2001. They are different than the documents taken from “The House of Anthrax” where the seminar was conducted.

      Selected Document References:

      Darlow, HM, and Pride, NB. (1969). Serological diagnosis of anthrax. Lancet

      Green, DM, and Jamieson, WM. (1958). Anthrax and bone-meal fertilizer. Lancet ii:153-

      Mangold, T, and Goldberg, J. (1999). Plague Wars: The Terrifying Reality of Biological
      Warfare. MacMillan, Great Britain.

      Morris, EJ. (1955). A selective medium for Bacillus anthracis. J. Gen. Microbiol.

      Pearce, TW, and Powell, EO. (1951). A selective medium for Bacillus anthracis. J. Gen.
      Microbiol. 5:387-390

      Semple, AB, and Hobday, TL. (1959). Control of anthrax: Suggestions based on survey
      of imported hides. Lancet ii (3 October): 507-508

      Stanley, JL, and Smith H (1961). Purification of factor I and recognition of a third factor
      of the anthrax toxin. J. Gen. Microbiol. 26:49-66.

      Thorne, CB, and Belton, FC. (1957). An agar-diffusion method for titrating Bacillus
      anthracis immunizing antigen and its application to a study of antigen production. J. Gen.
      Microbiol. 17:505-516.

      Brachman, PS, Plotkin, SA, Bumford, FH, and Atchison, MM. (1960). An epidemic of
      inhalation anthrax: The first in the twentieth century. II. Epidemiology. Am. J. Hyg. 72:6-

      Clarke, R. (1968). We All Fall Down: The Prospects of Biological and Chemical
      Warfare. Penguin Books, London.

      Knisley, RF. (1966). Selective medium for Bacillus anthracis. J. Gen. Microbiol. 13:456.

      Miller, JK. Human anthrax in New York state. N.Z. Med. J. 61:2046-2053.

      Murphy, S, Hay, A, and Rose, S. (1986). No Fire, No Thunder: The Threat of Chemical
      and Biological Weapons. Pluto Press, London.

      Proceedings of the Conference on Airborne Infection. (1961). Bacteriol. Rev. 25:173-

      Roberts, B. (1993). Biological Weapons: Weapons of the Future. Significant Issues
      Series XV(1). Center for Strategic and International Studies. Washington, DC.

      Rothschild, JH. (1964). Tomorrow’s Weapons. McGraw-Hill, New York.

      Smith, H (1988). The development of studies on the determinants of bacterial
      pathogenicity. J. Comp. Pathol. 98:253-73.

      Walgate, R. (1990). Miracle of Menace? Biotechnology and the Third World. The Panas
      Institute, London.

      William, P, and Wallace, D. (1989). Unit 731: The Japanese Army’s Secret of Secrets.
      Hodder and Stoughton, London.

      World Health Organization (1970) Expert Committee on Plague, 4th Report. World
      Health Org. Tech. Rep. Ser. (no. 447).

    • DXer said

      David Relman is an excellent authority to cite — an even better one to interview, with his interview then uploaded as permitted under GAO rules.

      In Have We “Met the Enemy”?, Science 3 February 2012: Vol. 335 no. 6068 pp. 540-541, Dr. David Relman, who had been vice-chairman of the NAS Committee, explains:

      Posted on March 5, 2012

    • DXer said

      Instruction was also given on mailing poisonous letters. Commenters who did not think mailing anthrax-laden letters was part of the group’s “modus operandi” — or argued that a jihadist would not tape the edges of the letters — apparently had not read the documentary evidence or simply wanted to pretend it didn’t exist.

      The Encyclopedia of Jihad — seized from Abu Hamza — contained a chapter on poisonous letters: “Write a letter to the victim mentioning very exciting and very interesting news,” it reads. “Wipe the envelope from the inside with silicone sealant,” it goes on, “so it would not kill the mailman.”

      A new volume, number 11, was devoted solely to chem-bio. It was that volume 11 of the Encyclopedia Resistance that gave the instruction on poisonous letters and instructed that the inside of the envelope be covered with a silicone sealant to avoid killing the mailman. – Transcripts
      It turns out that the Al Qaeda terrorists already have a dreadful recipe book on … “Wipe the envelope from the inside with silicone sealant,” it goes on, …
      Target: Terrorism: Look at Al Qaeda’s Dreadful Recipe Book

      Aired November 15, 2001 – 09:42 ET


      PAULA ZAHN, CNN ANCHOR: Just this morning comes word that Taliban leader Mullah Mohamed Omar in an interview with the BBC said a plan is already under way to destroy America. It turns out that the Al Qaeda terrorists already have a dreadful recipe book on how to do just that.

      Chapter and verse now on this exclusive report from Mike Boettcher.


      MIKE BOETTCHER, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): The extent of Al-Qaeda’s operational knowledge was once contained in these, the never before seen 10-volume Encyclopedia of Afghan Resistance, which the intelligence service of an anti-terrorism coalition partner allowed CNN to videotape.

      In the foreword to each volume this: “To the beloved brother Osama bin Laden, who fought in Afghanistan with his should and his money, who still resists there and presses forward with the Jihad until now.” Inside platitudes give way to precise instruction in a variety of lethal techniques. “Killings from Close Range” the title of one, with a section on ambushes, complete with diagrams. Another volume is called “bomb and land mines.” The explosive volume contains directions on how to set detonators into blocks of TNT and plastic explosive.

      (on camera): Since the mid 1990s, the Encyclopedia of Jihad has been the guidebook for Al Qaeda operations.

      But now CNN has learned a new and even more frightening volume has been added to the collection. The recently publish 11th book in the collection, distributed on CD-ROMs to Al Qaeda cells, is a how-to manual on chemical and biological terrorism. CNN was permitted by an intelligence agency that intercepting the volume to inspect the entire almost 500-page document, and was given three chapters of the manual, in order to prove it’s existence.

      It is currently analyzed by Western intelligence agencies. It’s not known how many copies of the CD were produced. Precise, deadly formulas packed with new volume. All can be made from ingredients readily available to the public. For example, a chapter entitle “Purifying Manure” describes a clear-cut goal — quote — “To acquire pure forms of ammonium nitrate without any foreign substances in order to prepare RDX,” a powerful explosive compound.

      The poisonous letter is the title of one section … Write a letter to the victim mentioning very exciting and very interesting news,” it reads. “Wipe the envelope from the inside with silicone sealant,” it goes on, “so it would not kill the mailman.”

      Biological warfare sections of the new volume give exact formulas for the production of deadly toxins botulinum and ricin. But there was no evidence of instructions on how to make or distribute anthrax.


      BOETTCHER: Have they been utilizing the formulas, well, coalition sources tell CNN that within the past two years, at least six complete laboratories that could be used to make chemical or biological weapons have been purchased by Al Qaeda. Half of them sent from the United Arab Emirates, and the other half from the Ukraine, and the most recent three purchases were made earlier this year — Paula.

      ZAHN: Mike, how long the U.S. government been aware of the existence of these manuals?

      BOETTCHER: Well the Encyclopedia of Afghan Resistance, or sometimes it referred to as the Encyclopedia of Jihad, has been around for quite a few years, and it’s been held in the vaults of intelligence services. It’s a complete how-to manual, contains a lot of various things, as you saw there, also first aid. But as they have progressed in their knowledge, they have come out with specific new volumes, and this number 11 devoted solely to chem-bio.

    • DXer said

      Speaking of documentary evidence, the WSJ article dated December 21, 2001 explained that the height to width ratio was 1.41 to 1 — common for business correspondence in Europe but rare in the United States. Rather than substitute its assertions for the actual forensic report — and urge that the forensic analysis of the paper led nowhere — the FBI should disclose the forensic analysis of the paper. It appears that the forensic examination of the paper tended to be exculpatory of Dr. Bruce Ivins — with there being no indication he ever used such paper of that size or composition. Indeed, it appears to have led abroad. Whatever the details and findings about the forensics done on the paper, they should be disclosed. In the meantime, the height to width ratio of seized papers in Afghanistan can be assessed and reported. (I am unclear on how the quoted expert could determine the height to width ratio in the event the paper was just cut down).

    • DXer said


      In addition to fingerprints, two things from this location for which testing has been done include:

      (1) mass spec on the photocopy toner used in photocopying materials,


      (2) the powder found.

      It is highly disappointing that the owner of the house was allowed to begin cleaning before the troops arrived. In an ideal world, we want Special Forces to arrive before journalists.

      Kabul house of anthrax secrets

      Published: 22 November 2001

      On the face of it, the house is perfectly ordinary: set back from the road in a leafy Kabul suburb, it was the headquarters for a Pakistan-based aid organisation which did good works during the grim times of the Taliban. But inside the house, spread over the floor of an upstairs room, are documents giving detailed information about anthrax and United States army plans to vaccinate its troops. In a makeshift workshop are what appears to be a disassembled rocket, with bars of solid fuel propellent by a piece of casing and a cylinder labelled “helium”.

      Among the documents already rifled by looters searching for valuables after the Taliban fled is a tape box with Jihad – meaning holy war – written in front next to a picture of a machine gun. Scribbled on the spine are the words Osama bin Laden.

      Downstairs by the French windows are two giant boxes containing black gas masks. By the door are two test tubes, sitting next to what looks like a stripped-down anti-tank shell.

      Most tantalising of all, scrawled over a wall chart mounted on plasterboard and running the length of the room, are a series of illustrations which seem to show plans for an anthrax bomb. The diagrams, in black marker pen, are detailed and esoteric, with pictures of helium balloons rising on carefullymeasured trajectories of 10 kilometers, then apparently being shot down by a jet fighter. Scrawled in blue marker pen over the fighter, in block capitals, are the words: “Your days are limited – bang.”

      On a computer disc is a picture showing a former US defence secretary, William Cohen, holding a small bag of sugar “to show the amount of the biological weapon anthrax that could destroy half the population of Washington, DC.”

      On the floor is a small bag of white powder, tightly wrapped. Since 11 September, the US has been on high alert against possible chemical delivery systems, including crop-dusting planes and road petrol tankers. Now it may have to include balloons.

      Balloons seem to offer an attractive and relatively straightforward means for spreading anthrax to the average terrorist. A balloon is cheap and simple to use. It attracts less attention than an aeroplane and needs no engine.

      Best of all, it can take the disease spores up to the high altitudes where a combination of high winds and the long life of the microbes – they can survive for decades – would be a lethal combination.

      One explanation is that someone had hit on a cheap and easy way to distribute anthrax by using a balloon. Once up, the best way to get a wide spread would be to explode the balloon, hence the bits of rocket. The best way to explode it, for someone not wanting to carrying a radio control device around Washington or New York, would be to get the US air force to shoot it down for them.

      Some of the anthrax-related papers have been copied many times over. suggesting some sort of seminar may have taken place in this room.

      Some were apparently downloaded from the US Department of Defence, others are magazine cuttings of stories on anthrax. One reads: “Spores can be easily spread in the air by missiles, rockets, artillery, aerial bombs and sprayers.”

      Officially the aid group based here, Ummah Tameer-e-Nau (UTN) or Foundation For Construction, was in Afghanistan to develop everything from roads to schools to agriculture and the house is also full of cases of medicines and boxes of pills. It is also full of exercise books and clothes. Local people report that the Pakistani aid workers moved into the house some years before bringing their wives and children with them. “When the American bombing started, they moved the children out right away,” said one man. “The men stayed till the end. They left when the Taliban left.” The UTN has already gained the notice of Washington: its president is Bashiruddin Mehmood, one of Pakistan’s senior nuclear scientists.

      Last month he was arrested and interrogated by Pakistan over his links to the Taliban. Mr Mehmood said the links were for humanitarian reasons and he has since been released.

      Officially, the UTN funded a road scheme for Kandahar as well as farming projects, a bank and bakeries.

      But it may also have been involved in something far more dangerous. Since Taliban forces fled early last week, a string of houses occupied by Arab and Pakistani members of the Taliban or al Qaeda have been uncovered.

      They contain everything from information on nuclear weapons to how-to-do-it books about bombs and guns. But this is the first time any possible link with anthrax has been made. Newspapers in the house give some indication of the thinking of those who lived there. There are copies of hard-line Taliban English-language newspapers with one issue, from August 1999, carrying headlines such as “Jihad is the only way to a life of honour”.

      Also scattered on the floor of the house, who?s former owner is now busy cleaning it, are hundreds of printed leaflets entitled “The biological warfare – an imminent danger?”

      There is every possibility that this is all an elaborate hoax. These apparent signs of a plot to spread anthrax on a wide and deadly scale may have been left here in the knowledge that they would be discovered; they could be just a cynical attempt to exploit fears in the West.

      However, there is also the possibility that this is a genuine anthrax bomb factory. This is certainly what the plans appears to show, but this explanation must remain conjecture. The powder discovered has yet to be tested. This may prove the key to knowing how authentic this find is.

      The Evening Standard has alerted the Northern Alliance and US intelligence sources to the house and its contents.

    • DXer said

      A March/April 2003 Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, with cited sources, clarifies that the document about Bioport was the draft environmental assessment. WorldCat indicates that it is only available at the library in Lansing, Michigan. In light of the possibility that it is a photocopy of that copy, that copy could be checked to see if it includes the several handwritten stars on the top left corner of the cover page.

      Also, the photocopy and track marks on the hundreds of photocopies of the four-page flyer “The Biological Warfare: An Imminent Danger” could be tested.

      Of course, if the FBI never obtained the documents because the owner through them out before troops got there, that would be worth knowing also.

      The article states:

      “Among the documents found in Kabul was an unclassified 1997 U.S. draft environmental assessment titled �Renovation of Facilities and Increased Anthrax Vaccine Production and Testing at the Michigan Biologic Products Institute.� A reader had printed several stars in the top left corner of the cover page, probably implying that he thought the report was significant. The report contains sections on the disease, its threat, the vaccine, production issues, and immunization.

      Hundreds of copies of another document, �The Biologic Warfare: An Imminent Danger,� were found in the same house. This four-page diatribe accused the United States of planning to conduct biological warfare against the international Muslim community, using anthrax. The document cites as evidence the vaccination of U.S. troops and the expansion of U.S. vaccine production, purportedly in advance of attacking the Ummah.

      Other anthrax-related documents included a copy of the home page of a Web site that contained information about the use of anthrax as a weapon.

      Mahmood concluded in the fall of 2001 that Taliban soldiers fighting against the Northern Alliance had been exposed to chemical and biological weapons supplied by the United States, basing his claim on statements made by doctors at a Kandahar hospital.7 According to Mahmood, U.S. and British experts were training the Northern Alliance in the use of chemical and biological weapons. He denied that Afghanistan had an anthrax factory, charging that military sources had fabricated the story so that any anthrax attack in Afghanistan could be blamed on emissions from the factory. He called for non-governmental organizations to �come and help the Afghan nation against such an attack.

      Also found were a series of illustrations running the length of one room in UTN�s headquarters in Kabul that showed how high-altitude balloons could be used to spread anthrax spores or cyanide.8 There were boxes of gas masks and many containers of chemicals. A second-floor workshop, where many of the documents were located, contained a disassembled rocket with solid propellant and a cylinder labeled �helium.

      Links to terrorist groups. Ingrid Arnesen, a senior CNN producer who visited many UTN and Al Qaeda houses in Afghanistan, found documents linking UTN to Jaish e Muhammad, the Army of the Prophet Mohammad, a Pakistani militant group that had been outlawed in the spring of 2002. In the main UTN office she found a decal celebrating the bombing of the U.S.S. Cole.”

      • DXer said

        “Of course, if the FBI never obtained the documents because the owner [threw] them out before troops got there, that would be worth knowing also.”

        I believe the powder was in a baggie marked by a crescent with some number stamped — I don’t recall and would have to check the article. (It perhaps it is in the “House of Anthrax” article in the Economist about a failure in intelligence.

        In the event the owner’s housecleaning resulted in the destruction of the documents, leaving only some rubble and chemicals for the soldiers, perhaps journalists could provide a copy of whatever they took. For example, surely journalist took and kept one of the hundreds of flyers.

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