CASE CLOSED … what really happened in the 2001 anthrax attacks?

* Al-Qaeda Anthrax Lab Director Arrested In Malaysia and charged for Al-Qaeda Link

Posted by DXer on May 27, 2013

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11 Responses to “* Al-Qaeda Anthrax Lab Director Arrested In Malaysia and charged for Al-Qaeda Link”

  1. DXer said

    Prosecution says will prove Sosma detainee tried to recruit jihadists for Syria

    ‘I have never heard of this group,’ father tells terrorist trial BY KHAIRAH N. KARIM – 14 APRIL 2015
    Read More :

    Father says Malaysian terror suspect in Lebanon claimed of torture

    Anthrax, Al Qaeda and Ayman Zawahiri: The Infiltration of US Biodefense

  2. DXer said

    The CIA’s declassified report from June 2005 explains that Sufaat’s previous cooperation led to the capture of his two assistants.

    “Detainee Reporting Pivotal for the War Against Al-Qaida,” June 3, 2005 stated:

    “After being confronted with KSM’s information, Sufaat eventually admitted his principal role in the anthrax program and provided information on his at-large assistants. Ultimately, the information from Sufaat and KSM (redacted) led to the capture of Sufaat’s two assistants in the anthrax program.”

  3. DXer said

    Pakistan: Security Agencies Looking for Suspected Malaysian Al-Qa’ida Operative
    Report by MANSOOR KHAN: “Qaeda suspect present in country: Report”
    The Nation
    Saturday, February 28, 2009

    KARACHI – The secret service agencies who are looking for a suspected Malaysian national Al-Qaeda (Al-Qa’ida) operative believe that he has arrived in Pakistan, The Nation learnt here on Thursday (26 February).

    According to the report, one of the masterminds of the 9 /11 and expert of Anthrax, namely Yazid Bin Sufaat who is believed to have close links with Osama Bin Laden and professionally a microbiologist has reached Pakistan.

    A letter written by an intelligence agency revealed to this scribe that Yazid Bin Sufaat, an operative of Al-Qaeda had vanished since his release from the custody of Malaysian authorities.

    In the letter written by a joint director of a secret agency asserted that Sufaat, who was born on January 20, 1964 at Johor, Malaysia, bears a passport number A-10472263 and Malaysian ID card number 640120-015529, has disappeared after serving a seven-year detention in Malaysia.

    It is believed that Sufaat could be in Pakistan, therefore it has also been asserted, “The individual is a concrete and significant security threat and has been at the watch-list of western countries.” It was also pointed out that the said suspect has links with various terrorist groups, head a group name “Jemaah Islamiyah” and has been masterminding the Al-Qaeda’s Anthrax programme.

    It has also been asserted that he may also try to conduct a terror attack in Pakistan.

    In the letter, authorities have sought information about Sufaat’s whereabouts and directed to freeze his financial assets. The letter stated that it was requested that any information of Yazid including his previous visits to Pakistan must be shared with SRHQ-IB for necessary action. The said agency has dispatched the said letter to the Home Secretary Sindh Arif Ahmed Khan and Inspector General Sindh Police Salahuddin Baber Khattack.

    (Description of Source: Islamabad The Nation in English — Conservative daily, part of the Nawa-i-Waqt publishing group. Circulation around 20,000.)

  4. DXer said

    Yazid Sufaat led the al-Qaida anthrax program. As a start, GAO should request the following: TD-314/49283-05, TD- 314/19304-03, TD-314/60789-04

    S E C R E T / / NOFORN / / 20331125

    APO AE 09360

    JTF-GTMO-CDR 25 November 2008

    MEMORANDUM FOR Commander, United States Southern Command, 3511 NW 9lst Avenue,
    Miami, FL 33172

    SUBJECT: Recommendation for Continued Detention Under DoD Control (CD) for
    Guantanamo Detainee, ISN US9YM-000569DP (S)

    JTF-GTMO Detainee Assessment

    1. (S) Personal Information:
    JDIMS/NDRC Reference Name: Zohair Mohammed Said

    During this time, detainee traveled to Malaysia (MY) with Walid Muhammad Salih Bin Attash, aka (Khallad),
    ISN US9YM-010014DP (YM-10014).14 The purpose of the trip to Malaysia was to
    accompany YM-10014 to the hospital for his fitting for a prosthetic leg. Approximately the
    10th or 20th day of Ramadan 1999, detainee and YM-10014 left Kabul for Kandahar, then
    traveled to Kuala Lumpur, MY.15 Detainee and YM-10014 resided at a hospital for 10 to 14
    days while YM-10014 was fitted for the prosthetic leg. Detainee and YM-10014 left the
    hospital and were driven to the home of Yazid Sufaat.16 The next day, 11 September 2001
    hijacker Nawaf al-Hazmi arrived at the home. The next evening, the three of them went to a
    restaurant where they met another 11 September 2001 hijacker, Khalid al-Mihdhar. A few
    days later, al-Hazmi and al-Mihdhar returned to Saudi Arabia.

    Analyst Note: Yazid Sufaat was one of al-Qaida’s anthrax researchers in Afghanistan who also had ties to the
    11 September 2001 attacks. Sufaat is a Jemmah Islamiyah (JI) member and an associate of JI leader Riduan Bin
    Isomuddin, aka (Hambali), ISN US9ID-010019DP. Sufaat was arrested in Malaysia for providing accommodations
    for two of the 11 September 2001 hijackers during a 2000 meeting in Kuala Lumpur. Sufaat also gave a letter of
    reference and $35,000 US to convicted terrorist Zaccarias Moussoui. IIR 6 034 0620 03, IIR 6 895 0138 02,
    AMEMBASSY Kuala Lumpur 00182 30-Jan-2002, SECSTATE 163246 27-Aug-2002, TD-314/49283-05, IIR 6
    034 0143 04, TD-314/49025-04, Analyst Note: The JI is an NIPF Priority 2 CT Target, defined as issues,
    opportunities, or threats that rise to, or are expected to rise to, the level of interest of the Combatant Commanders or
    DNI EXCOM Principals, not already identified as Priority 1. This includes terrorist groups that have demonstrated
    both intention and capability to attack US persons or interests.

    JDIMS/NDRC Reference Name: Mohammed Ahmad Rabbani

    Click to access us9pk-001461dp.source.prod_affiliate.91.pdf

    (S//NF) Detainee has provided logistical support to al-Qaida’s anthrax program.
    ○ KU-10024 reported Abu Harith al-Masri contacted him (KU-10024), indicating lead anthrax researcher for al-Qaida, Yazid Sufaat, and Muhammad Atif needed help with moving a roomful of crates purchased in Pakistan to Kandahar. KU-10024 offered the services of PK-1461 and PK-1460 to move the crates. KU-10024 claims he was later told by Sufaat about the anthrax program.40 [ TD-314/19304-03 ]

    “When detainee queried Yazid about the dangers of his research, Yazid indicated there was little to worry about since he (Yazid), Bakr, and al-Hud all had anthrax vaccines. As al-Qaeda was leaving Afghanistan, Yazid planned to reinstitute the anthrax program in Pakistan.”

  5. DXer said

    Did Yazid Sufaat go to Pakistan after he was released in 2008? If so, did he meet anthrax letters suspect Adnan El-Shukrijumah?

    Pakistan: Security Agencies Looking for Suspected Malaysian Al-Qa’ida Operative
    Report by MANSOOR KHAN: “Qaeda suspect present in country: Report”
    The Nation
    Saturday, February 28, 2009

    KARACHI – The secret service agencies who are looking for a suspected Malaysian national Al-Qaeda (Al-Qa’ida) operative believe that he has arrived in Pakistan, The Nation learnt here on Thursday (26 February).

    According to the report, one of the masterminds of the 9 /11 and expert of Anthrax, namely Yazid Bin Sufaat who is believed to have close links with Osama Bin Laden and professionally a microbiologist has reached Pakistan.

    A letter written by an intelligence agency revealed to this scribe that Yazid Bin Sufaat, an operative of Al-Qaeda had vanished since his release from the custody of Malaysian authorities.

    In the letter written by a joint director of a secret agency asserted that Sufaat, who was born on January 20, 1964 at Johor, Malaysia, bears a passport number A-10472263 and Malaysian ID card number 640120-015529, has disappeared after serving a seven-year detention in Malaysia.

    It is believed that Sufaat could be in Pakistan, therefore it has also been asserted, “The individual is a concrete and significant security threat and has been at the watch-list of western countries.” It was also pointed out that the said suspect has links with various terrorist groups, head a group name “Jemaah Islamiyah” and has been masterminding the Al-Qaeda’s Anthrax programme.

    It has also been asserted that he may also try to conduct a terror attack in Pakistan.

    In the letter, authorities have sought information about Sufaat’s whereabouts and directed to freeze his financial assets. The letter stated that it was requested that any information of Yazid including his previous visits to Pakistan must be shared with SRHQ-IB for necessary action. The said agency has dispatched the said letter to the Home Secretary Sindh Arif Ahmed Khan and Inspector General Sindh Police Salahuddin Baber Khattack.

    (Description of Source: Islamabad The Nation in English — Conservative daily, part of the Nawa-i-Waqt publishing group. Circulation around 20,000.)

  6. DXer said

    Yazid Sufaat’s filmed interviews about Osama Bin Laden and Yazid work with anthrax can be found here. Yazid tells me he can work magic.

    • DXer said

      Here is some background from Newsweek/Daily Beast

      A Germ Warfare Guru Goes Free
      Dec 16, 2008 7:00 PM EST

      Why did Malaysia release Al Qaeda’s bioweapons expert?

      A U.S.-trained Al Qaeda microbiologist has been released from jail by the Malaysian government, prompting alarm among American counterterrorism officials.

      “This individual is considered dangerous,” said one official, referring to the recent decision to free Yazid Sufaat, a notorious Qaeda operative who once oversaw the group’s germ-warfare efforts. The official declined to be identified talking about sensitive information.

      Safaat had been in Malaysian custody since December 2001, when he was arrested because of his alleged involvement with Jemaah Islamiah, a radical South Asian terror group closely linked with Al Qaeda. But two weeks ago, Malaysia’s interior minister, Datuk Seri Syed Hamid Albar, announced that Sufaat and five other detained Islamic militants were being freed because “they are no longer a threat and will no longer pose a threat to public order.” Albar added that Sufaat “has been rehabilitated and can return to society.”

      Malaysia privately informed the Bush administration that its legal authority to detain Sufaat had expired but promised Washington that he would be kept under close observation, the U.S. official indicated. But counterterror officials here expressed doubt that Sufaat has abandoned his radical Qaeda views or his desire to attack the United States with biological weapons. They also point out that Sufaat played an assisting role in planning the 9/11 attacks. He hosted two of the hijackers along with two other veteran Al Qaeda operatives at a terror “summit” in Kuala Lumpur in January 2000.

      The timing of Sufaat’s release was especially awkward for U.S. officials. The Qaeda scientist was freed on Dec. 4—the day after a congressionally mandated commission on weapons of mass destruction released a public report warning of the risk of a biological weapons attack in the next five years.

      “There’s a troubling irony that this happened the day after our report,” said Bob Graham, the former Florida senator and chairman of the Senate Intelligence Committee, who served as co-chairman of the bioweapons panel. (In an interview with NEWSWEEK the day the report was released, Graham said he was particularly concerned about “the degree of risk associated with a biological weapon … The ubiquitous nature of pathogens and the increasing lethality of both natural and synthetic pathogens led our commission to conclude it’s more likely that an attack will come biologically rather than nuclear.”)

      The son of a rubber tapper, Sufaat studied at Malaysia’s prestigious Royal Military College and won a scholarship to California State University in Sacramento, where he earned a degree in biological sciences in 1987. Upon returning to Malaysia, he founded a profitable laboratory analysis company. Sometime in the early 1990s—reportedly at the insistence of his wife—he became increasingly devout. He began spending time with militant Islamic teachers and soon became a devoted and committed follower of Jemaah Islamiah and its radical leader, Hambali (he’s known by just the one name).

      According to the U.S. government’s 9/11 Commission report, in January 2000, two of the 9/11 hijackers, Khalid Almihdhar and Nawaf Alhazmi, visited Kuala Lumpur, the Malaysian capital, for what amounted to a planning meeting for the September 2001 attacks. At Hambali’s request, Sufaat made his apartment available for the meeting. One of the other participants was Walid bin-Attash, known as Khallad, a Qaeda operative who planned the bombing of the USS Cole in Yemen. He was later captured and charged as a 9/11 co-conspirator. Khallad told U.S. interrogators that, while staying at Sufaat’s apartment, he and Alhazmi talked “about the possibility of hijacking planes and crashing them or holding passengers as hostages.”

      Later in 2000, Sufaat hosted a visit to Kuala Lumpur by another figure linked to the 9/11 hijackers: Zacharias Moussaoui, the wayward and eccentric would-be terrorist from France who the US government claimed was going to be a 9/11 hijacker. Captured 9/11 participants subsequently said Moussaoui was considered too erratic by Al-Qaeda’s leaders to participate in the plot.

      The 9/11 Commission report also details Sufaat’s efforts to make weapons for Al Qaeda. The terror group’s leaders sought Hambali’s help in finding a scientist to “take over” Al Qaeda’s biological-weapons program. Hambali introduced Sufaat to Osama bin Laden’s deputy, Ayman al-Zawahiri. In 2001, the report says, Sufaat spent “several months attempting to cultivate anthrax for Al Qaeda in a laboratory” he helped set up near the Kandahar airport in Afghanistan.

      The Malaysians’s release of Sufaat points up the difficulties the outgoing Bush administration and incoming Obama team face in pressing foreign governments—friendly and not so friendly—to keep Islamic militants off the streets, or at least under close surveillance.

  7. DXer said

    Yazid’s wife Chomel should have their daughter Soraya delete those tweets that might be misunderstood such as “Full of hatred” and “The war is far from over” out of contest. If Soraya is going to engage in PR, then it is important that it continue to be calculated to be in Yazid’s interest. And she has been doing a great job in emphasizing what a great dad he is. Anyone who has had contact with him can see how gracious and witty he can be. That’s a rare quality under such trying circumstances. That’s the PR Yazid needs right now from her.

    As for the merits of the charge, her comment “We dont even know a group like that existed.” should be made only if her husband’s defense counsel approves — otherwise statements on the merits can be used to guide cross-examination.

    When Yazid made the comment about “double jeopardy” — even though he is a lay person, that was well-calculated. It made the press article and got people thinking.

    Moreover, when Hida Nadirah says “The charges hints of mala fide” such comments need to be taken seriously given Yazid’s defense team so brilliantly caused the earlier charges to be dismissed.

    KSM, the 911 plotter, with whom Yazid reportedly lived for 6 days at his home in Kandahar where the anthrax lab was located, has told authorities that Sufaat met with Adnan El-Shukrijumah about the mailing of the anthrax letters in the Summer of 2001. Yazid explained to KSM that he and his assistants had been vaccinated and so there was no risk arising from their work that summer with virulent anthrax.

    My guess — and it is only a guess — is that Malaysian authorities want Yazid to tell the truth about the historical matters dating to the summer and Fall of 2001. He has already served his time for his work on the anthrax project. Truth on those merits — I’m guessing — would go a long way toward resolving or mitigating current concerns. (KSM, Al-Hawsawi, Al-Balucchi, Ramzi Bin-AlShibh, Moussaoui have already described Yazid’s role and so he loses his credibility when he denies what is already known).

    Malaysia may be feeling like it bears responsibility for not getting to the truth back in the Spring of 2002 when Yazid chose not to cooperate. FBI Director Mueller may be feeling awkward that he did not succeed in arranging Yazid’s extradition back in March 2002 when he travelled to Kuala Lumpur.

    To be successful, a defendant needs to be perceived as a truth-teller. If events in 2012 are problematic, one can at least tell the truth about matters in 2001 for which he has already served a long prison sentence. (That is the subject on which the issue of double jeopardy can be argued to apply).

    From Twitter:

    Soraya Yazid ‏@sorayaanur4h
    Full of hatred. Full of vengeance.

    • Soraya Yazid ‏@sorayaanur20h
    We dont even know a group like that existed. I google it and do you knw where is the headquarters? Its in hmmm Iraq.. Funny oh funny

    • Soraya Yazid ‏@sorayaanur20h
    Bapak was charged at Ampang Court today. This time they accused Bapak of being a member of a terrorist group: Al Tanzim Al Qaeda Malaysia

    Hida Nadirah ‏@HidaNadirah23h
    Yazid & Hilmi was charged wif Sect 130KA of da Penal Code, will be tried under #SOSMA. The charges hints of mala fide @FadiahNadwa
    Retweeted by Soraya Yazid

    Soraya Yazid ‏@sorayaanur27 May
    The war is far from over.

    Soraya Yazid ‏@sorayaanur26 May
    @tashny they handcuff my older sister. They tried to handcuff me and my younger sis too!!

    • Soraya Yazid ‏@sorayaanur26 May
    @tashny they handcuffed my sis for whatever reason. My sis is very tiny, dnt knw how the handcuff terlucut dari tangan
    View conversation

    • Soraya Yazid ‏@sorayaanur26 May
    Who are they to arrest my sister without reason?? Ini negara, mereka punya kah? Jangan la marah kalau rakyat bangkit!!

    • Soraya Yazid ‏@sorayaanur26 May
    What would you do if your sister is handcuffed suddenly? What would you do? Infront of yr own eyes.

    • Soraya Yazid ‏@sorayaanur26 May
    Only with Allah’s help that handcuff boleh terlucut dari tangan kak fatin. Entah mcm mana subhanAllah

    • Soraya Yazid ‏@sorayaanur26 May
    We have no speck of fear, no speck of fear towards them. Why in the world they want to arrest my older sister?? For what reason?

    • Fadiah Nadwa Fikri ‏@FadiahNadwa26 May
    Police are arresting Yazid & Helmi who wr freed by the High Court from #SOSMA charges last week.They refused to inform grounds of arrest.
    Retweeted by Soraya Yazid

    • Fadiah Nadwa Fikri ‏@FadiahNadwa26 May
    Yazid & Helmi are being brought to Bkt Aman.Arrested under #SOSMA /s130K(a) of Penal Code @SUARAMtweets
    Retweeted by Soraya Yazid

    Soraya Yazid ‏@sorayaanur26 May

  8. DXer said

    I discussed Yazid Sufaat and Adnan El-Shukrijumah in this 2005 article in Sierra Times titled “Angry Ayman’s Anthrax: Inside the Hearts of Green Birds.”

    Posted 07 March 2005 – 07:05 AM
    Angry Ayman’s Anthrax: Inside the Hearts of Green Birds
    Ross Getman

    In early June 2003, a Central Intelligence Agency (“CIA”) report publicly disclosed that the reason for Mohammed Atta’s and Zacarias Moussaoui’s inquiries into cropdusters was for the contemplated use in dispersing biological agents such as anthrax. An early September 2003 Newsweek article included a rumor by a Taliban source that at a meeting in April 2003 Bin Laden was planning an “unbelievable” biological attack, the plans for which had suffered a setback upon the arrest of Khalid Shaikh Mohammed (“KSM”). He had been captured the previous month in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. In November 2003, a report by a UN Panel of experts concluded that Al Qaeda is determined to use chemical and biological weapons and is restrained only by technical difficulties.
    In a statement issued June 16, 2004, the 9/11 Commission Staff concluded that “Al Qaeda had an ambitious biological weapons program and was making advances in its ability to produce anthrax prior to September 11. According to Director of Central Intelligence George Tenet, al Qaeda’s ability to conduct an anthrax attack is one of the most immediate threats the United States is likely to face.” On August 9, 2004, it was announced that in the Spring of 2001, a man named El-Shukrijumah, also known as Jafar the Pilot, who was part of a “second wave,” had been casing New York City helicopters. Photographs from a seized computer disc included the controls and the locks on the door between the passengers and pilot. In a bulletin, the FBI noted that the surveillance might relate to a plot to disperse a chemical or biological weapon.

    The CIA reportedly has been quietly building a case that the anthrax mailings were an international plot. This is old news. It’s just no longer bureaucratically impolite to openly contest the FBI’s (former) theory about a lone, American scientist. Many people have argued that a US-based Al Qaeda operative is behind the earlier Fall 2001 anthrax mailings in the US, and that the mailings served as a threat and warning. Princeton islamist scholar Bernard Lewis has explained that while islamists may disagree about whether killing innocents is sanctioned by the laws of jihad, extremists like Zawahiri agree that notice must be given before biochemical weapons are used. “The Prophet’s guidance,” says Michael Scheuer, an al-Qaeda analyst who recently retired from the CIA and once headed its Bin Laden unit, “was always, Before you attack someone, warn them very clearly…” The anthrax mailings followed the pattern of letters they sent in January 1997 to newspaper branches in Washington, D.C. and New York City, as well as symbolic targets. The letter bombs were sent in connection with the detention of the blind sheik Abdel Rahman and those responsible for the earlier World Trade Center bombing in 1993.

    Handwritten notes and files on a laptop seized upon the capture of KSM, Al Qaeda’s #3, included a feasible anthrax production plan using a spray dryer and addressed the recruitment of necessary expertise. What your morning paper did not tell you, however, was that the CIA seized a similar disc from Ayman Zawahiri’s right-hand, Ahmed Salama Mabruk, 5 years earlier. The computer disk was confiscated from him during his arrest by the CIA in Azerbaijan and handed over to the Egyptian authorities. Mabruk, at the time, was the head of Jihad’s military operations. There is a risk that observers underestimate the time that Al Qaeda has had to make progress in such recruitment and research and development.

    Some may still think that even in the final stages of the 9/11 plot, Zacarias Moussaoui was going to fly a 5th plane into the Capitol or White House. Others argue that he was to be part of a second wave of airliners directed to targets on the West Coast. There is an e-mail by Moussaoui, however, dated July 31, 2001 indicating that he sought to take a crop dusting course that was to last up to 6 months. In March 2003, Mohammed reportedly said that Moussaoui was not going to be part of 9/11 but was to be part of a “second wave.” Although Ramzi Binalshibh provided him $14,000 in July, accused September 11 conspirator Zacarias Moussaoui told his trial judge that he had an al Qaeda mission that would have come after the terrorist attacks. KSM explained that Moussaoui’s inquiries about crop dusters may have been related to the anthrax work being done by US-trained biochemist and Al Qaeda operative, Malaysian Yazid Sufaat. Zacarias Moussaoui, never the sharpest tool in the shed and thought by his superiors to be unreliable, has told the judge at his trial in a filing that he wants “anthrax for Jew sympathizer only.” Al Qaeda’s regional operative, Hambali, who was at a key January 2000 meeting and supervised Sufaat, has been captured. Hambali reportedly is cooperating to some degree. KSM and Hambali sent al-Hindi (al-Britani), along with Jafar the Pilot, to case NYC targets for a second wave. It was as part of that surveillance in early 2001 that Jafar the Pilot studied tourist helicopters in the NYC area. …

    If experience is any guide, nothing would stand in the way of Dr. Ayman Zawahiri’s decade-long quest to weaponize and use anthrax against US targets that was described by one confidante to an Egyptian newspaper reporter. The islamist had been released from Egyptian prison and had known Zawahiri well for many years. Emails from Zawahiri to Atef in the Spring of 1999 indicate that Ayman was a close student of the USAMRIID anthrax program. He believed that the koran instructed that a jihadist should use the weapons used by the crusader. “What we know is that he’s always said it was a religious obligation to have the same weapons as their enemies,” former CIA OBL unit counter terrorism chief Michael Scheuer has said. The Wall Street Journal reported that a computer used by Zawahiri contains a June 1999 memo that “said the program should seek cover and talent in educational institutions, which it said were ‘more beneficial to us and allow easy access to specialists, which will greatly benefit us in the first stage, God willing.’ ”

    Zawahiri was associated with a faction of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad known as the Vanguards of Conquest. Zawahiri and the Vanguards of Conquest were seeking to recreate Mohammed’s taking of mecca by a small band through violent attacks on Egyptian leaders. By 1998, Zawahiri had determined that the Egyptian Islamic Jihad should focus on its struggle against the United States and hold off on further attacks against the Egyptian regime.

    A key question is how they acquired the anthrax strain first isolated by the Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Lab in 1980. According to senior counter terrorism officials, both here and abroad, among the supporters of these militant islamists were people who blended into society and were available to act when another part of the network requested it.

    A few days before Christmas 2003, after a renewed audiotape threat by Zawahiri of attacks, to include in the US homeland, the threat level was raised to orange or “high.” After the alert condition had long since returned to yellow, Zawahiri in late February issued another audiotape. He urged the President that brigades and brigades would be coming under the banner of jihad carrying death and seeking paradise. Zawahiri said that the US should expect another 9/11 on US soil. According to some reports, Zawahiri is thought by intelligence to be somewhere near the border of Pakistan and Afghanistan. At one time, some thought he had been spotted in Iran. Wherever he is, authorities need to focus on the traceable connection between him and those he or Atef recruited.

    In October 2001, did the FBI profilers know of the draft message Khalid Mohammed had on the seized laptop (from 1995) that was signed “Khalid Sheik Bojinka”? The letter threatened to use biochemical weapons if the blind sheik was not released. (Khalid Mohammed’s involvement dates back to Bojinka, as does Hambali’s). Use of biochemical weapons as blackmail and threatened retaliation for such detentions was an alternative scenario in the Bojinka planning.

    In May 2004, Patrick Hughes, Lieutenant General (Retired), Assistant Secretary for Information Analysis, Homeland Security Department testified before the 9/11 Commission. He explained that interrogations and other evidence revealed that Al Qaeda wanted to strike the US with a nonconventional weapon, most notably anthrax. The same week, the WTC head testified that while they had not received any briefing on the use of planes, they had taken steps to prepare for an attack using anthrax based on intelligence that had been received.

    Al Qaeda has had anthrax, the raw seed product in its unweaponized form, since at least 1997, when it was purchased by Bin Laden through the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (“Moro Front” or “MILF”). Zawahiri, Al Qaeda’s #2, is head of Al Qaeda’s biochemical program. The CIA has known of Zawahiri’s plans to use anthrax for a half decade. The confidante and right-hand man of Dr. Ayman Zawahiri admitted that Zawahiri succeeded in obtaining anthrax and intended to use it against US targets. Another senior Al Qaeda member (a shura or policy-making council member no less) was working for the Egyptian intelligence services and he confirmed the report in a sworn lengthy confession. Even Zawahiri’s attorney in 1999 said that Bin Laden and Zawahiri were likely to resort to the biological and chemical agents they possessed given the extradition pressure senior Al Qaeda leaders faced. A recently released islamist who had been a close associate of Zawahiri said that Zawahiri spent a decade and had made 15 separate attempts to recruit the necessary expertise to weaponize anthrax in Russia and the Middle East. The US Army recipe was not used, and obtaining the unprocessed Ames strain of anthrax used does not warrant the weight given it by some press accounts. There was lax control over the distribution of the Ames strain that was used, especially in light of the fact that transfers were not even required to be recorded prior to 1997. Significantly, the individual who isolated it nearly a quarter century ago (now retired), upon being contacted, does not even report that he necessarily sent the only copy of the strain to Ft. Detrick. Senator Patrick Leahy at a Congressional hearing in the Spring of 2002 noted that the FBI had collected the Ames strain from 20 sources. In Fall 2004, MSNBC, relying on an unnamed FBI spokesperson, reports that the FBI has narrowed the pool of labs known to have had Ames that was a match from 16 to 4 but cannot rule out that it was made overseas.

    Al Qaeda’s anthrax production plans on Khalid Mohammed’s computer did not evidence knowledge of advanced techniques in the most efficient biological weapons. At least according to the public comments by bioweaponeer experts William Patrick and Kenneth Alibek, under the optimal method, there is no electrostatic charge. In the case of the anthrax used in the mailings, there was an electrostatic charge. Although there was a dominance of single spores and a trillion spore concentration, there were clumps as large as 40 – 100 microns. (Spores must be no bigger than 5 microns to be inhalable.) Many point to the trillion spore concentration as extraordinary. It is far simpler, however, to achieve a trillion spore concentration in the production of a few grams than in industrial processing typical of a state sponsored lab. The “trillion spore” issue was at the heart of a lot of mistaken theories of the matter concluding that state sponsorship was necessarily indicated. The reported finding at Dugway undermines the argument of both the “bomb Iraq” crowd and the liberals focused on Dr. Steve Hatfill who object to US biodefense research because they view it as being useful for offensive purposes.

    USDA employee Johnelle Bryant first told us, in sensational detail, of Atta’s inquiries about purchasing and retrofitting a cropduster. Khalid Mohammed then told interrogators that Zacarias Moussaoui’s inquiries about crop dusting may have related to Yazid Sufaat’s anthrax manufacturing plans. Although the details of the documents on Mohammed’s computer may (or may not) point to possible difficulties in aerial dispersal, they are fully consistent with the product used in the anthrax mailings. Al Qaeda had both the means and opportunity.

    US-trained Malaysian biochemist Yazid Sufaat met with 9/11 plotters and two hijackers in January 2000. Sufaat was a member of Al Qaeda and a member of Jemaah Islamiah (“JI”). JI has ties with the Moro Front. Sufaat used his company called Green Laboratory Medicine to buy items useful to Al Qaeda. (Green symbolizes “Islam” and Prophet Mohammed’s holy war). Zacarias Moussaoui, who had a crop dusting manual when he was arrested, stayed at Sufaat’s condominium in 2000 when he was trying to arrange for flight lessons in Malaysia. Yazid Sufaat provided Moussaoui with a letter indicating that he was a marketing representative for Infocus Technologies and allegedly provided him $35,000. The crop dusters were to be part of a “second wave.”

    After 9/11, Yazid Sufaat traveled to Afghanistan and Pakistan to work for the Taliban Medical Brigade and to continue his work with anthrax. As described in US News, a former reporter from the Kabul Times actually may have met Sufaat, without realizing it, while traveling near Kabul in October 2001, perceiving him as Filipino. The fellow was carrying papers from Zawahiri and bragging about his ability to manipulate anthrax. Sufaat was arrested in December 2001 upon his return to Malaysia. Newsweek reported that a “second wave” involving biological attacks had been thwarted upon the arrest of Al Qaeda members who had been intended to provide logistical support.

    Various doctors, both foreign and American, are associated with Al Qaeda leaders or operatives, to include the doctors Abdul Qadoos Khan, a bacteriologist from Rawalpindi and Aafia Siddiqui, PhD, from Karachi. Microbiologist Abdul Qadoos Khan was charged along with his son, Ahmed, for harboring the fugitives. As of March 28, 2003, he was in a hospital for a cardiac problem and had been granted “pre-arrest bail.” Yet all you read about at the time was the arrest of the son Ahmed Abdul Qadoos, who receives a stipend from the UN for being officially low-IQ due to lead poisoning.

    It was Khalid Mohammed who told authorities about Aafia Siddiqui, who has a PhD from Brandeis in neurology. The Pakistani press reported that she was nabbed in Karachi after being spotted at the airport in late March or early April 2003. If mistaken, how did those reports first come about? Understandably, Amerithrax is a confidential investigation. The Pakistan ISI and CIA rarely grant press interviews in connection with an ongoing manhunt. The CIA did not even allow the FBI access to KSM for 10 days after his arrest. As agent Van Harp, then head of the Amerithrax investigation said, the information coming from Khalid Mohammed is classified with the authorities releasing only certain limited information. While it’s not easy to separate fact from fiction, Attorney General Ashcroft and Director Mueller have publicly confirmed Aafia is still being sought. They would know.

    Her mother Ismat last saw Aafia and her grandchildren before they left in a minicab at the end of March. Aafia was on her way with her children to visit and uncle and a friend in Islamabad. According to the Pakistan reports, Aafia Siddiqui was detained after being spotted at Karachi International airport (after she was followed to a relative’s house). (Karachi is in the south). The reports say she is suspected of having been a member of Al Qaeda’s “Chemical Wire Group.” The family’s lawyer advises me that Aafia did not have enough money to pay for airfare tickets for herself and the kids and called Ismat from the train station. That was the last Ismat heard from her. Aafia never reached the uncle’s house. Perhaps something got lost in the translation, but the phrase “Chemical Wire Group” has appeared in all the english Pakistan and India papers. The family’s attorney advises me that Aafia had no knowledge of chemicals (and that would not appear to be her training).

    There still is a very hot pursuit of the “Atta-level” Floridian, Adnan El Shukrijumah, who Siddiqui is thought to have known and been assisting. His nickname is “Jafar the Pilot.” A senior DOJ official reports that Adnan has experience as a commercial pilot. He is said by one FBI agent to be “very, very, very” dangerous. He allegedly was at one or more meetings in the Summer of 2001 in Pakistan at which KSM and Sufaat were present. He may have been seen in Hamilton, Canada — along with Egyptian al-Maati, who apparently also has received pilot training. The United States truly no longer has time for faulty analysis or politically-based preconceptions. In early June 2003, a CIA report concluded that the reason for Atta’s and Zacarias Moussaoui’s inquiries into cropdusters was in fact for the contemplated use in dispersing biological agents such as anthrax. It has long been known Osama Bin Laden was interested in using cropdusters to disperse biological agents (since the testimony of millennium bomber Ahmed Ressam).

    The hijacker Ahmed Alhaznawi appears to have contracted cutaneous anthrax in Afghanistan. It is reasonable to credit his statement that he got the lesion after bumping into a suitcase he was carrying at a camp in Afghanistan. The lesion is further evidence of Al Qaeda’s anthrax production program at Kandahar. The present evidence relating to Atta’s alleged travel to Prague does not warrant a conclusion that Al Qaeda obtained the Ames strain from Iraq. Iraq, however, remains a possible source of the Ames. Former Russian bioweaponeer Ken Alibek has said that a key Russian scientist assisted Iraq and that Russia had the Ames strain. (His conclusion may have been based on the fake mobile biolab plans foisted upon the US by the Chalabi associate “Curveball”, which Alibek divined to be identical to Russian mobile lab design). Zawahiri did travel to Baghdad in 1998 with an entourage to attend the birthday party of Saddam’s son. The papers found at headquarters of the Mukhabarat, Iraq’s secret police, show that an entourage from Al Qaeda group was sent to the Iraqi capital in March 1998 from Sudan. According to at least some reports, Bin Laden rejected the suggestion of a closer alliance — preferring to pursue his own concept of jihad. Two top Iraqi scientists, code named Charlie and Alpha, are helping the coalition to learn more about Iraqi’s anthrax program, according to Dr. David Kay, head of the Iraq survey group in charge of the hunt for WMD. He has said that the Iraqis made surprising innovations in the milling and drying processes needed to weaponize anthrax.

    The media coverage has been seriously confused on the issue of motive and the reason Senators Daschle and Leahy would have been targeted — tending to simplistically view them as “liberals.” Zawahiri likely targeted Senators Daschle and Leahy to receive anthrax letters, in addition to various media outlets, because of the appropriations made pursuant to the “Leahy Law” to military and security forces. That money has prevented the militant islamists from achieving their goals. Al Qaeda members and sympathizers feel that the FBI’s involvement in countries like Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Indonesia, and the Philippines interferes with the sovereignty of those countries.

    According to a post she made on the internet, Aafia Siddiqui expressed the same sentiment in connection with US appropriations sought in exchange for the extradition of WTC 1993 plotter Ramzi Yousef from Pakistan. Senator Leahy was Chairman of both the Judiciary Committee overseeing the FBI and Appropriations Subcommittee in charge of foreign aid to these countries. In late September 2001, it was announced that the President was seeking a blanket waiver that would lift all restrictions on aid to military and security units in connection with pursuing the militant islamists. This extradition and imprisonment of Al Qaeda leaders, along with US support for Israel and the Mubarak government in Egypt, remains foremost in the mind of Dr. Zawahiri. At the height of the development of his biological weapons program, his brother was extradited pursuant to a death sentence in the “Albanian returnees” case (now he faces retrial). It’s hard to keep up with the stories about billion dollar appropriations, debt forgiveness, and loan guarantees to countries like Egypt and Israel and now even Pakistan. Those appropriations pale in comparison to the many tens of billions in appropriations relating to the invasion of Iraq. Al Qaeda had a motive in mind.

    In his Fall 2001 book titled Knights under the Banner of the Prophet, Zawahiri argued that the secular press was telling “lies” about the militant islamists — to include the suggestion that the militant islamists were somehow the creation of the United States in connection with expelling the Russians from Afghanistan. Zawahiri argued instead that they have been active since the assassination of Anwar Sadat in Egypt because of the Camp David Accord and the resulting peace treaty between Egypt and Israel. The anthrax letters were sent on the date of the Camp David Accord and then the date Anwar Sadat was assassinated as if to underscore the point to anyone paying attention. Most of the “talking heads” on television, however, knew only that Daschle and Leahy were liberal democrats and did not know anything of Al Qaeda beyond what they read in the US newspapers. The FBI’s profile includes a US-based supporter of the militant islamists. Attorney General Ashcroft explained that an “either-or” approach is not useful. The media has tended to overlook the fact that when the FBI uses the word “domestic” the word includes a US-based, highly-educated supporter of the militant islamists.

    There is an emerging consensus that anthrax was contained in a letter to AMI, the publisher of the National Enquirer — in a goofy love letter to Jennifer Lopez enclosing a Star of David and proposing marriage. A report by the Center for Disease Control of interviews with AMI employees (as well as detailed interviews by author Leonard Cole) supports the conclusion that there were not one, but two, such mailings containing anthrax. (The letters were to different AMI publications — one to the National Enquirer and another to The Sun). (News assistant Bobby Bender recalls the letter containing the items to have been addressed to The Sun.)

    This tactic of letters is not merely the modus operandi of these militant islamists inspired by Zawahiri, it is their signature. The islamists sent letter bombs in January 1997 to newspaper offices in New York City and Washington, D.C.. They were sent in connection with the earlier bombing of the World Trade Center and the imprisonment of the blind sheik, Sheik Abdel Rahman. The former leader of the Egyptian Al-Gamaa al-Islamiya (“Islamic Group”), he was also a spiritual leader of Al Qaeda. The letter bombs were sent in connection with the treatment of the Egyptian islamists imprisoned for the earlier attack on the WTC and a related plot. The purpose of the letter bombs — which resulted in minimal casualty — was to send a message. (There initially was an outstanding $2 million reward — under the rewards for justice program, the reward now is up to $5 million.). There was no claim of responsibility. There was no explanation. Once one had been received, the next ten, mailed on two separate dates, were easily collected. Sound familiar? Two bombs were also sent to Leavenworth, where a key WTC 1993 defendant was imprisoned, addressed to “Parole Officer.” (The position does not exist).

    Abdel Rahman’s son was captured in Quetta, Pakistan in mid-February 2003. That arrest in turn led to the dramatic capture of Khalid Mohammed, Al Qaeda’s #3. Mohammed allegedly was hiding in the home of the Pakistani bacteriologist Dr. Abdul Qadoos Khan. Along with Zawahiri, Abdel Rahman and his two sons have had considerable influence over Bin Laden. He reportedly treated them like sons. Although while in jail in the early 1980s, Zawahiri caused considerable tension by challenging the blind sheik’s ability to lead a coalition of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad and the Egyptian Islamic Group, Zawahiri and OBL are Rahman’s friends. The imprisoned WTC 1993 plotter Yousef was KSM’s nephew. Thus, the leaders in charge of Al Qaeda’s anthrax production program had a close connection to those imprisoned in connection with the earlier bombing of the World Trade Center. According to the controversial “Feith memo,” which summarized purported intelligence showing an Iraqi/Al Qaeda connection, Osama Bin Laden had asked Iraqi intelligence for technical assistance in sending letter bombs a half year before the Al Hayat letters were sent.

    Just because Al Qaeda likes its truck bombs and the like to be effective does not mean they do not see the value in a deadly missive. As Brian Jenkins once said, “terrorism is theater.” A sender purporting to be islamist sent cyanide in both early 2002 and early 2003 in New Zealand and ingredients of nerve gas in Belgium in 2003. There’s even a chapter titled “Poisonous Letter” in the Al Qaeda manual.

    The “Federal Eagle” stamp used in the anthrax mailings was a blue-green. It was widely published among the militant islamists that martyrs go to paradise “in the hearts of green birds.” In the very interview in which they admitted 9/11, and described the codes used for the four targets for the planes, the masterminds admitted to the Jenny code, the code for representing the date 9/11, and used the symbolism of the “Green Birds.” Osama Bin Laden later invoked the symbolism in his video “The 19 Martyrs.” A FAQ on the Azzam Publications website explained that “In the Hearts of Green Birds” refers to what is inside.

    The mailer’s use of “Greendale School” as the return address for the letters to the Senators is also revealing. A May 2001 letter that Zawahiri sent to Egyptian Islamic Jihad members abroad establish that Zawahiri used “school” as a code word for the Egyptian militant islamists in his correspondence. Green symbolizes Islam and was the Prophet Mohammed’s color. By Greendale School, the anthrax perp was being cute, just as Yazid Sufaat was being cute in naming his lab Green Laboratory Medicine. “Dale” means “river valley.” Greendale likely refers to green river valley — i.e., Cairo’s Egyptian Islamic Jihad or the Islamic Group. The sender probably is announcing that he is of either Egyptian Islamic Jihad, Egyptian Islamic Group or Jihad-al Qaeda, which is actually the full name of the group after the merger of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad and al Qaeda. At the Darunta complex where jihadis trained, recruits would wear green uniforms, except for Friday when they were washed. In a Hadith the Messenger of Allah explains that the souls of the martyrs are in the hearts of green birds that fly wherever they please in the Paradise.

    As to opportunity, though seldom reported, there is a wealth of “open source” information about possible Al Qaeda or Egyptian Islamic Jihad or Egyptian Islamic Group in the United States and Canada. The public information mostly relates to those suspected sleepers who have been detained or who are at large and are being sought. Zawahiri’s mission in the United States in 1995 was to do spadework for terrorism, not fundraising for charitable causes. He traveled under an alias and was accompanied by a former US Army sergeant named Ali Mohammed. What mosques exactly did they visit and who did they meet?

    Whatever your political persuasion, the FBI and CIA deserve our support. We are, after all, in this together. First, the nature of such an investigation is that we lack sufficient information to second-guess (or even know) what the FBI is doing. Media reports are a poor approximation of reality because of the lack of good sources. Second, hindsight is 20/20. Third, with the “new age” Efrem Zimbalist, Jr. in charge of the investigation, it is not likely we could do better in striking the appropriate balance between due process and national security.

    • DXer said

      Zawahiri’s Plan To Obtain the Ames Anthrax Strain

      Ross E. Getman, Esq. – 4/15/2005

      Ayman Zawahiri had a scientist named Rauf attending conferences sponsored by Porton Down, UK’s biodefense facility, for the purpose of obtaining the Ames anthrax strain. The scientist’s handwritten notes reportiing on his efforts are available through the Freedom of Information Act. On November 1, 2001, not long after the anthrax mailings, an article ran in the Chicago Times called “Pakistan’s scientists under scrutiny.” With a dateline Islamabad, Pakistan, the story began: “The day after Pakistan handed over Yemeni microbiologist Jamil Qasim Saeed Mohammed to U.S. agents, authorities stepped up their search for other scientists and students who may have maintained links to Osama bin Laden’s Al Qaeda network, Pakistani intelligence sources said this week.”

      Jamil Qasim Saeed Mohammed was a Yemeni microbiology PhD student in his final year who had been flown out of the country on a private jet operated by the CIA in late October 2001. He had assisted Malaysian anthrax lab tech Yazid Sufaat in setting up a lab that was intended to manufacture anthrax.

      Jamil Qasim Saeed Mohammed was indicted along with Boston cab driver Hijazi and others in connection with the earlier Cole bombing.

      Al Qaeda anthrax lab technician Yazid Sufaat was arrested in December 2001 when he tried to sneak back into Malaysia.

      Then, in December 2002, Jang publication “The News” (in English), in reporting on a raid of a compound of doctors in Lahore, Pakistan let drop a remarkable sentence about the microbiologist who actually played a central role in seeking to obtain the Ames anthrax strain for Ayman Zawahiri. The article noted, as reported by the CIA’s Foreign Broadcasting Information Service, that “Well-placed sources pointed out the Manawan arrests were also part of the chain of events which started from the arrest of PCSIR’s Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research microbiologist of Dr. Abdur Rauf and interrogations of Dr. Amer Aziz.”

      In December 2003, a journal called “Science” pictured excerpts from handwritten letters by Dr. Rauf, without naming him, that had been obtained under the Freedom of Information Act. One of the handwritten letters was on the letterhead of the Society for Applied Microbiology (sfam). (Dr. A. Rauf was merely one of hundreds of members of the society, and was not an employee.) It turns out that the scientist had traveled from Pakistan once a year to the UK to attend conferences about anthrax and dangerous pathogens.

      The Sunday at the start of the Organisation of the Dangerous Pathogens meeting in September 2000 was gloomy. Planning had proved even more difficult than the International Conference on anthrax also held at the University of Plymouth, in September 1998. The overseas delegates included a sizable contingent from Russia. Many thorny issues regarding who could attend had needed to be addressed. Among the scientists in attendance was a Dr. A. Rauf. Les Ballie the head of the biodefense technologies group at Porton Down ran the scientific program. Many of the delegates took an evening cruise round Plymouth harbour – the cold kept most from staying out on the deck. Later attendees visited the National Marine Aquarium – with a reception in view of a large tankful of sharks. Addresses included presentations on plagues of antiquity, showing how dangerous infectious diseases had a profound that they changed the course of history. Titles include “Magna pestilencia – Black Breath, Black Rats, Black Death”, “From Flanders to Glanders,” as well as talks on influence, typhoid and cholera. The conference was co-sponsored by DERA, the UK Defence Evaluation and Research Agency.

      Les Ballie of Porton Down gave a presentation titled, “Bacillus anthracis: a bug with attitude! ” He argued that anthrax was a likely pathogen to be used by terrorists. As described at the time by Phil Hanna ofUniversity of Michigan Medical School on the sfam webpage, Ballie “presented a comprehensive overview of this model pathogen, describing its unique biology and specialised molecular mechanisms for pathogenesis and high virulence. He went on to describe modern approaches to exploit new bioinformatics for the development of potential medical counter measures to this deadly pathogen.”

      Despite the cold and the sharks, amidst all the camaraderie and bonhomie no one suspected that despite the best efforts, a predator was on board — on a coldly calculated mission to obtain a pathogenic anthrax strain.

      As described by Dr. Peter Turnbull’s Conference report on “the First European Dangerous Pathogens Conference” (held in Winchester, 27-29 September 1999) , the September 1999 conference had been less successful. The lecture theater only averaged about 75 at peak times by his head count. There had been a problem of defining “dangerous pathogen” and a “disappointing representation from important institutions in the world of hazard levels 3 and 4 organisms.” Papers included a summary of plague in Madagascar and another on the outbreak management of haemorrhagic fevers. Dr. Paul Keim of Northern Arizona University presented a paper on multilocus VNTR typing, for example, of Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis. There were more than the usual no-show presenters and fill-in speakers. In his report, Dr. Turnbull looked forward to a second, fully international conference in 2000 focused on the ever increasing problems surrounding hazard levels 3 and 4 organisms and aimed at international agreement on the related issues. Dr. Turnbull would later tell the Washington Post that he had given the Ames strain to a “very few” private researchers who he declined to name. (I assume Dr. Rauf was not one of those researchers, but Dr. Turnbull has not responded to my inquiry about Dr. Rauf to him.)

      The latest dates from the handwritten notes are reportedly July and September 1999. The only excerpts that have been published in the Science magazine article state:

      “(6) Unfortunately, I did not find the required culture of B. anthrax, i.e., pathogenic. The culture available in [REDACTED] is non-pathogenic. *”

      “(8) Therefore, keeping in view to above circumstances, a visit to [REDACTED] can be arranged for 10 days in the 1st week of [REDACTED]. (FN) This requires at least the air ticket expenses.”

      “For this visit, I should be informed as early as possible.

      Yours sincerely,

      “FN (9) The money with me is only for the purpose to buy strains or vaccines.”

      A pdf of these excerpts from the handwritten letter is available at 12 December 2003 Vol. 302 SCIENCE

      All 10 pages of the handwritten material are available through the Freedom of Information Act.

      In 1999, a different Porton Down scientist had reported to sfam members on a conference in Taos, New Mexico in August 1999 that included a talk Tim Read, (TIGR, Rockville, USA) and concerned the whole genome sequencing of the Bacillus anthracis Ames strain. The Ames strain may have been a mystery to many after the Fall 2001 maiilings, but not to motivated sfam members or Ayman Zawahiri. If Al Qaeda is responsible for the anthrax mailings, he would know that he was using the weapon of his enemies as counseled by the koran – because that is where he got the strain.

      The year before, the 3rd International Conference on Anthrax was held at the University of Plymouth on September 7 – 10, 1998 and was organized along six themes: The natural ecology and global incidence of anthrax, the detection, identification and classification of B anthracis, structure and function of both spore and vegetative components, the molecular biology of B anthracis, Pathogenesis – the toxins, and the possibility of vaccines. The Conference again was jointly organised by the Society for Applied Microbiology and DERA, CBD Porton Down. At the 1998 conference, Martin Hugh-Jones of LSU, Les Ballie and Peter Turnbull, then of Porton Down, A.M. Friedlander of Ft. Detrick, each coauthored multiple papers available for purchase online.

      Other papers were submitted by equally familiar names, such as Koehler, Hanna, and Mock.

      The Conference proceedings are available on Video. Did Dr. Rauf ever obtain virulent Ames? In any event, there would certainly be a major question of who weaponized it and who mailed it. Although Khalid Mohammed was allegedly arrested in the home of an elderly bacteriologist, Abdul Qadoos Khan — and KSM’s laptop with undated anthrax spraydrying production instructions on it was allegedly found in the home — I’ve never heard it suggested that Dr. Khan had the relevant skills to weaponize the product used in the second batch of mailings in the US. The family stridently denies even that KSM was arrested in the home.

      But imagine, if you will, Ayman in his armchair watching some Porton Down scientist lecture on anthrax. Compare the capability Ayman was showing on gathering intelligence on the Ames strain and the anthrax work at Porton Down and elsewhere to the US understanding of Ayman’s program to weaponize anthrax pre-9/11.

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