CASE CLOSED … what really happened in the 2001 anthrax attacks?

* GAO: What genetic strain was the anthrax reportedly sent to Prime Minister Gilani? Did guinea pigs die when exposed to it so as to rule out possibility of a false positive? Was there a Silicon Signature?

Posted by DXer on February 2, 2012



37 Responses to “* GAO: What genetic strain was the anthrax reportedly sent to Prime Minister Gilani? Did guinea pigs die when exposed to it so as to rule out possibility of a false positive? Was there a Silicon Signature?”

  1. DXer said

    This report by an outside group, BWPP, discusses BL-3’s in Pakistan. But what about PCSIR? When Prime Minister Gilani reportedly was sent powdered anthrax, it was sent to PCSIR for confirmation that it was anthrax. PCSIR was/is the employer of Al Qaeda infiltrating scientist Rauf Ahmad. He killed animals with virulent anthrax, according to a presentation at the 2000 conference sponsored by Porton Down, chaired by the British scientist working for the FBI in the Amerithrax investigation. Where was it done if not in a BL-3 at PCSIR?

    I beta tested the BWPP forum in 2003 or so for its head. I sent the group’s head the report by the Al Qaeda scientist about killing mice in 2000 last week.

    Click to access BWM%202014%20WEB.pdf


    Most recently, a BSL-3 was inaugurated at the National Institute of Health (NIH) in January 2014 for the handling of high-risk microorganisms.37 The construction of a tuberculosis (TB) BSL-3 facility began at the Hayatabad Medical Complex in Hayatabad, Peshawar in September 2013 as part of the German development bank KfW funded ‘TB Control Programme in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa’ project.38 The remaining BSL-3 facilities are privately run and housed at the Aga Khan University Hospital and the Indus Hospital, Karachi. At the Indus Hospital, the BSL-3 lab has been operational since 2009 and has received external quality assurance by the WHO Supra-National Reference Laboratory (SNRL) network. The National Veterinary Laboratory, Islamabad acts as the reference laboratory for endemic animal Foot and Mouth Disease in Pakistan. The Al Razi Healthcare in Lahore has had an operational BSL-3 Tuberculosis testing laboratory since September 2012.39

    In addition, according a US diplomatic cable leaked through Wikileaks, the construction of a BSL-3 facility had been planned at the Pakistan Agricultural Research Centre (PARC), Islamabad and PARC representatives had requested US assistance in the design and operation of the facility. The cable states:
    “PARC houses a full range of viral and bacterial pathogens, including dangerous agents such as anthrax, FMD (foot and mouth disease), brucellosis and highly pathogenic avian influenza. Virtually no biosecurity measures were observed during March and June 2007 visits to PARC …

    About the BioWeapons Monitor
    The BioWeapons Monitor is an initiative of the BioWeapons Prevention Project (BWPP) — a global network of civil society actors dedicated to the permanent elimination of biological weapons and of the possibility of their re-emergence — to help monitor compliance with the international norm prohibiting biological weapons, laid down chiefly in the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC). Particularly, it aims to increase the transparency of activities relevant to the BWC, and thereby complement the current treaty regime. Preventing states and non-state actors from acquiring and using biological weapons is an urgent need. The BioWeapons Monitor seeks to provide factual information that will enhance discussions on strengthening the effectiveness and improving implementation of the BWC and other national and international measures relating to the prohibition of biological weapons. Its objective is to benefit the international community as a whole.
    The BioWeapons Monitor seeks to complement and work with governments in their activities to effectively implement the BWC and to fulfil their obligations to permanently eliminate biological weapons and prevent their re-emergence.

  2. DXer said

    Rapid Identification of Bacillus anthracis Spores in Suspicious Powder Samples by Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)
    • Marius Dybwada,b,
    • Anton L. van der Laakenc,
    • Janet Martha Blatnyb and
    • Armand Paauwc

    +Author Affiliations

    • Norwegian Defence Research Establishment FFI, Kjeller, Norwaya
    • Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Biotechnology, Trondheim, Norwayb
    • TNO, Department of Earth, Environmental and Life Sciences, Rijswijk, The Netherlandsc


    Rapid and reliable identification of Bacillus anthracis spores in suspicious powders is important to mitigate the safety risks and economic burdens associated with such incidents. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a rapid and reliable laboratory-based matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis method for identifying B. anthracis spores in suspicious powder samples. A reference library containing 22 different Bacillus sp. strains or hoax materials was constructed and coupled with a novel classification algorithm and standardized processing protocol for various powder samples. The method’s limit of B. anthracis detection was determined to be 2.5 × 106 spores, equivalent to a 55-μg sample size of the crudest B. anthracis-containing powder discovered during the 2001 Amerithrax incidents. The end-to-end analysis method was able to successfully discriminate among samples containing B. anthracis spores, closely related Bacillus sp. spores, and commonly encountered hoax materials. No false-positive or -negative classifications of B. anthracis spores were observed, even when the analysis method was challenged with a wide range of other bacterial agents. The robustness of the method was demonstrated by analyzing samples (i) at an external facility using a different MALDI-TOF MS instrument, (ii) using an untrained operator, and (iii) using mixtures of Bacillus sp. spores and hoax materials. Taken together, the observed performance of the analysis method developed demonstrates its potential applicability as a rapid, specific, sensitive, robust, and cost-effective laboratory-based analysis tool for resolving incidents involving suspicious powders in less than 30 min.

    • DXer said

      I may have missed this February 2012 article “Anthrax Sent to Pakistan’s PM Begs Question of Whether FBI Investigated Presumed Anthrax Sent to US Pak Embassy in 2001” by Jim White. The detail about the receiving courier flipping his car while delivering the sample is such a dramatic detail that I think I would have remembered it if I had read it.

      Anthrax Sent to Pakistan’s PM Begs Question of Whether FBI Investigated Presumed Anthrax Sent to US Pak Embassy in 2001
      Posted on February 2, 2012 by Jim White

      Yesterday’s revelation by Pakistan that a package containing anthrax had been sent to Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani has both shocked Gilani’s security staff and provoked memories that anthrax was sent to multiple targets in Pakistan in late 2001 while the US was enduring its own deadly anthrax attacks. Thinking on these issues raises the question of why the FBI had in its possession a sample of presumed anthrax sent to the US embassy in Pakistan in late 2001 but we have not seen a comparison of its DNA to the DNA of the anthrax used in the US attacks of 2001.

      Although initial reports suggested that the parcel was received at the Prime Minister’s residence about 20 days ago, the consensus now is that the package was received last October. Multiple reports are claiming the package was sent by a “female professor” in Jamshoro, just north of Karachi. So far, only the New York Times has provided a portion of the suspect’s name. I have found a faculty listing for a female associate professor whose name includes the portion printed in the Times, but since her field of work as listed does not overlap at all with the biological and microbiological skills that would be needed to produce anthrax, I will not repeat the name, since there is a distinct possibility her name was chosen randomly.

      One of the more detailed reports comes from The News:

      The Secretariat sources told The News that Deputy Secretary Abdul Hafiz, in his written complaint said: “The Secretariat received a registered envelop (Registered No 209) from Sindh University, Campus Colony, Jamshoroo, in the name of Prime Minister of Pakistan Yusuf Raza Gilani through the Post Office in the inner CR Section of this Secretariat on October 18, 2011, at 3:20pm. There was also a plastic envelop inside the outer paper envelop, containing some type of powder or chemical. On receipt of the envelop, the security officer of the Secretariat sent the envelop, along with the material, to Dr Shaukat Pervaiz, PCSIR, Islamabad, for its examination and submission of report.

      We also learn from the Daily Times that the anthrax may have been weaponized:

      A senior police official, on the condition of anonymity, told Daily Times that the packet was received by a security official at the main gate of the secretariat. The security official found that the packet was filled with a suspicious powder and sent it to the PCSIR laboratories for test. “The PCSIR report confirmed that the packet was filled with anthrax, which could also contain silica or other sophisticated additives to make it float more easily in the air,” the police official maintained.

      Given that the anthrax was real and possibly even weaponized accounts for the fear shown by Gilani’s security staff:

      The security staff members of Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani on Wednesday went into a state of shock over the revelation that a parcel received at their boss’s official residence in October last year carried deadly anthrax.

      It would appear that the anthrax was meant as a warning, considering that it was sealed inside plastic within the paper envelope in which it was mailed. Recall that in the US anthrax attacks, many spores escaped the paper envelopes during shipment, contaminating the mailbox from which they were sent and even killing postal service employees who came into contact with spores that escaped the envelopes. No information has been released concerning any message included in the package along with the anthrax, but considering that care was taken to prevent spore leakage in shipment, inclusion of some sort of warning that anthrax was enclosed seems likely and would fit with the concern shown by the security staff.

      The timing for this shipment is very interesting. The story from The News says that the package was received on October 18. The initial column written by Mansoor Ijaz that started the Memogate controversy in which the military/ISI and civilian government were set against one another first appeared in the Financial Times on October 10 (that column is behind a paywall but reproduced by GeoTV here).

      The parallel between anthrax being sent to Gilani early in the Memogate controversy and the anthrax sent to Tom Daschle and Pat Leahy while they were holding out against passage of the PATRIOT Act in the US is striking. But that is not the only parallel between anthrax events in Pakistan and the US. In its article on yesterday’s revelation, the New York Times noted:

      In November 2001, suspicious letters containing anthrax spores were sent to three private businesses, including the country’s largest Urdu-language daily, Jang, in the southern port city of Karachi. No motive was ever determined.

      But the list of targets noted by the Times is not complete. Fresh off hosting the Firedoglake Book Salon for Nada Prouty’s book “Uncompromised” Marcy has provided me with excerpts from Prouty’s book. First, from the Book Salon post itself is the quick bio of Prouty:

      The book describes how she escaped the Lebanese civil war by enrolling in college in the US. To gain the ability to work her way through school, she entered into a “Green Card marriage.” A number of years, several accounting degrees, and a “real” marriage later, she joined the FBI as one of its rare recruits with native Arab fluency and the sangfroid acquired from surviving a civil war. While at the FBI—and, later, at the CIA—she investigated a range of al Qaeda and Hezbollah attacks, including the Cole bombing and 9/11.

      Yet none of her efforts in the war on terror put her, an Arab-American (though not a Muslim), beyond the suspicions of Detroit-based FBI agents investigating her Lebanese-American brother-in-law. When they failed to make a tax evasion investigation against him into a terrorism charge, they turned to trumping up a case against Prouty, ultimately using her “Green Card marriage”—which she had disclosed to the FBI—to get her to plea to a charge of unauthorized computer access and immigration fraud, which DOJ then spun publicly as a terrorism charge.

      This book is Prouty’s attempt to tell what really happened—partly in hopes to regain her American citizenship.

      The book describes one assignment Prouty was given: she was to courier a package from Pakistan to the US, using commercial flights. The package was believed to be anthrax that had been sent to the US embassy in Pakistan. The timing for this event is intentionally nebulous to prevent disclosing classified information, but is clearly in late 2001, fitting well with the November, 2001 dates for the other anthrax packages in Pakistan reported in the New York Times. From the book:

      The task was not complicated, but it had a potential for being fatal. As a diplomatic courier, I was to transport the white powder on a commercial airline flight from Pakistan to the United States, with a plane change in Europe. The powder, I was told, might be anthrax. It would be “secured” inside a medical box placed in a bright-orange diplomatic pouch. In the post-September 11 environment, where all packages were searched, the diplomatic pouch would provide high assurance that its contents would not be disturbed.


      The new courier seemed hesitant and appeared anxious to transport the package to its next location, a relatively short distance compared to its journey from Paksitan. Perhaps agitated by the contents of the package and in a rush to deliver the pouch to the next team, the receiving courier got into a spectacular accident and flipped his car. He was unconscious when the police arrived on the scene, and officers very nearly opened the pouch before realizing they were in possession of something they had to be cautious with. They called in the FBI and the unconscious courier was transported to a local hospital. The pouch then disappeared into the maze of evidence and international accusations swirling about everywhere in those weeks immediately after the AQ attack on our homeland.


      The powder in the pouch, touted to me as “suspected anthrax” had first been discovered in a letter addressed to the US embassy in Islamabad. The letter had been opened by a secretary, and a white powder had fallen on her hands and on her desk. She was immediately sent to a local hospital for treatment.

      Remarkably, despite Prouty documenting that this presumed anthrax sample was given to the FBI, I can find no discussion of it in the volumes of information released by the FBI in its Amerithrax investigation. It is possible that the powder sent to the embassy was not really anthrax, but considering that other targets in Pakistan were sent real anthrax around the same time, it seems more likely the powder was real. The only foreign samples discussed in the Amerithrax investigation appear in the National Academy of Sciences report, where we learn of analysis in 2004 a number of environmental samples “from an undisclosed site outside the continental United States” that was searched “because of information about efforts by Al Qaeda to develop an ‘anthrax program’”. Why has the FBI not discussed analysis of DNA from the anthrax sent to the US embassy in Pakistan? Has that DNA been compared to the anthrax in the US attacks?

      And while we are asking such questions, will the FBI request a sample of the spores sent to Gilani in order to analyze their DNA? Does the FBI fear a result that would tell them Bruce Ivins sent the package to Gilani from the grave?

      – See more at:

      • DXer said


        You described disappointment about two missions you did.

        1) When you were asked to bring suspected anthrax to the US at the same time that the Bush Administration was using the anthrax attacks to drum up war against IRaq.

        2) When you realized your mission in Iraq was not going to be finding WMDs.

        Can you say more about what it took to realize the fault in these missions? Were your colleagues experiencing the same frustration?

        Nada Prouty January 28th, 2012 at 2:16 pm

        In response to emptywheel

        After 9/11 I wanted to do anything to bring the bad guys to face justice, so I thought (at the time) that conducting these missions was the correct decision/way. Looking back now, I believe that I had made a mistake in transporting suspected Anthrax on a commercial [j]et. The fault in this mission is putting politics ahead of common sense. No one should jeopardize the safety of our citizens for political reasons.

        emptywheel January 28th, 2012 at 2:50 pm

        In response to Nada Prouty
        When did you first realize FBI was botching the anthrax investigation?

        Nada Prouty January 28th, 2012 at 2:53 pm

        In response to emptywheel
        I was not directly involved in the investigation, but when an agent (who was involved) told me that “we were going to put so much pressure on Hatfill so he could admit his role” I became very skeptical.

        PeasantParty January 28th, 2012 at 3:28 pm


        If you can, I’d like for you to speak about your feelings on the Anthrax investigation re: Ivins. …

        • DXer said

          Former FBI Agent FBI Prouty is critical of the FBI’s decision to have her transport suspected anthrax on a commercial flight. But even if only triple bagged, wouldn’t it be safe for transport? There are lots of dangerous substances and here it was being personally transported by an FBI Agent in a diplomatic pouch. What sort of expenditure of resources would be wasted if every powder abroad — and there were lots of them — required a military jet?

          In an unrelated story this past day , a young teen died, presumably of natural causes, shortly after take-off on a Delta flight from Seattle to Atlanta. The flight was diverted to Spokane. He was joining his father who was in the military and reassigned to Atlanta.

          Uncompromised: The Rise, Fall, and Redemption of an Arab American Patriot in … (2011)
          By Nada Prouty

  3. DXer said

    The New York Times reported that Professor Zulekha sent Prime Minister Gilani anthrax.

    Is she available for an interview?

    What strain was the anthrax?

    What was her motive?

    What was the disposition of the criminal case?

    Pakistan Says Prime Minister Was Mailed Anthrax Spores


    Published: February 1, 2012

    ISLAMABAD, Pakistan — Pakistan’s prime minister, Yousaf Raza Gilani, received a postal package containing anthrax spores four months ago, his spokesman said Wednesday, adding a new dimension to the security threats faced by the country’s political and military leadership.

    The package was intercepted by the prime minister’s security staff in October, according to the spokesman, Akram Shaheedi. The Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, a government laboratory, established that the suspicious white powder it contained was anthrax spores, he said. A criminal case was filed on Tuesday, according to an Islamabad police officer, The Associated Press reported.

    Government officials gave contradictory accounts of the identity of the sender, and they offered little sense of motive. While Islamist militants have repeatedly targeted senior government officials in suicide and bomb attacks, an assassination attempt using biological weapons would be an anomaly.

    Mr. Shaheedi said that law enforcement authorities had identified the sender as an associate professor at Jamshoro University in the southern province of Sindh. But he could not say whether the professor, a Ms. Zulekha, had been arrested or detained.

    A senior police officer in charge of presidential security, Hakim Khan, gave a different account. He denied any knowledge of the suspect Mr. Shaheedi named, but he confirmed that a police team had been sent to Jamshoro to investigate. The packet had been sent from a small post office on the Jamshoro University campus, he said.

    Mr. Khan said the case had been registered under a provision of Pakistan’s penal code that deals with the act of sending poison with the intention of causing harm.

    In November 2001, suspicious letters containing anthrax spores were sent to three private businesses, including the country’s largest Urdu-language daily, Jang, in the southern port city of Karachi. No motive was ever determined.

    • DXer said

      Pakistani Officials Send Mixed Signals on Identity of Anthrax Mailer

      Feb. 2, 2012

      Pakistani officials have issued conflicting statements on the identity of the individual who mailed anthrax spores to Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani in October, the New York Times reported on Wednesday (see GSN, Feb. 1).

      Government spokesman Akram Shaheedi said security officials have singled out a Jamshoro University associate professor, identified only as Ms. Zulekha, as the culprit. He was not able to answer whether she had been taken into custody.

      Hakim Khan, a high-ranking law enforcement officer who heads presidential protection, however, rejected the assertion that Zulekha had been identified as the culprit; he did verify that investigators had been dispatched to Jamshoro to probe the matter. The anthrax package was mailed from a university postal site om tje Sindh province city, Khan said.

      Gilani was never exposed to the deadly bacteria as the packet containing the spores was headed off by his protective team. The package was sent to the Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, which tested the contents and verified the substance was anthrax.

      Though assassination plots against government personnel are not unusual in Pakistan, the country does not have a history of attempted targeted killings using anthrax or other weaponized pathogens. A leading newspaper and two other Pakistani companies received anthrax spores in November 2001, but the reason for the mailings remains unknown (Salman Masood, New York Times, Feb. 1).

      The lethality of the spores is not yet known, along with how the mailer would have been able to acquire the material, Agence France-Presse reported.

      Anthrax occurs naturally in animals and is particularly common in regions of Asia, the Middle East and Africa, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

      “After the laboratory test confirmed that the parcel contained anthrax, we registered a case against unknown people” on Tuesday, Khan said.

      Authorities provided no reason on why a criminal case was opened months after the incident. Gilani’s office first intercepted the package — comprised of an envelope containing a smaller envelope that held the anthrax powder — on Oct. 18, according to the police report.

      Authorities declined reporter requests to view the laboratory results conforming the authenticity of the anthrax (Sajjad Tarakzai, Agence France-Presse/Google News, Feb. 1).

      • DXer said

        What does former Prime Minister Gilani say?

        Questions Surround Pakistani Prime Minister’s Anthrax Mail Attack

      • DXer said

        What did this black powder later sent to embassies later prove to be?

        Threats sent to embassies in Pakistan: police

        Agence France-Presse – Wednesday, May 16, 2012

        Several Western embassies in Islamabad received letters on Wednesday containing suspicious powder and threats to poison supplies for NATO soldiers in Afghanistan, officials said.

        Islamabad police chief Bani Amin told AFP the embassies had received small packets containing black powder, which had been sent for laboratory analysis.

        The letters said the powder was a sample of “poison” that would be hidden in NATO supplies if Pakistan lifts a nearly six-month blockade on convoys carrying supplies for troops fighting the Taliban in neighbouring Afghanistan.

        Senior Pakistani security officials told AFP that the French embassy and the Australian and British High Commissions had received suspicious packages for certain, and other diplomatic missions may also have been targeted.

        “Embassies have received one sachet each. The problem is that it is in a meagre quantity and difficult even to test. It seems somebody has committed some mischief. We are sending it to a laboratory,” Amin told AFP.

        He said the substance looked like kohl, a powdered black cosmetic commonly used in South Asia.

        A diplomat at one of the embassies said the accompanying handwritten letter was in broken English and threatened to avenge militants killed in Afghanistan by poisoning food supplies in the convoys.

        “We received a letter containing greyish powder in a sealed plastic sachet, which we didn’t open,” the diplomat told AFP, speaking on condition of anonymity.

        There was no risk of anyone being contaminated as the powder did not get out of the sealed bag, the diplomat said, adding that it had been sent to police for analysis.

        A spokesman for the British High Commission said: “There was an incident at the High Commission which has now be resolved. Nobody was harmed.”

        Pakistan closed its borders to NATO convoys supplying the war effort in Afghanistan in November after a US air strike inadvertently killed 24 Pakistani soldiers at a border post.

        But talks with the US have been under way for weeks to lift the blockade and on Wednesday Pakistan said it had ordered officials to finalise an agreement as quickly as possible.

        A date for the reopening has not been announced but Islamabad has signalled President Asif Ali Zardari will attend key talks on Afghanistan in Chicago on May 20-21 after a last-minute invitation from NATO.

        Reopening the supply lines is likely to trigger an angry backlash from opposition, right-wing and religious parties keen to exploit rampant anti-American sentiment in an election year.

        In February it emerged that an envelope containing anthrax had been sent to the office of Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani in October.

  4. DXer said

    “Set our brothers free. Bastards”:
    Continuing Practice of Sending Poisonous Letters as Threats

    Sending poisonous letter bombs is also fairly understood as consistent with Al Qaeda’s modus operandi in that the Al Qaeda operations manual, a version on CD-ROM, had a chapter on “Poisonous Letter.” As with the insertion of biologicals into food, the key is mass panic, not mass casualty.

    The Belgian Prime Minister and the US, British and Saudi Arabian embassies have been sent letters containing hydrazine and an arsenic derivative used in nerve gas in May 2003. Some argue that islamists would never merely send lethal substances through the mail (though the risk of significant casualty is low) to send a message or warning. One of the ingredients is hard to obtain, suggesting one Health Ministry spokesman to remark that “We’re not dealing with a small-time joker.” A trial of 23 suspected al-Qaeda members was in its third week. “Set our brothers free. Bastards.” Couldn’t be a threat by islamists because they only go for mass casualties — not threats. Right? One of the defendants in that trial allegedly sought hydrazine for use in producing a bomb. A 45- year old Iraqi man was arrested.

    A similar modus operandi was followed in New Zealand with cyanide in early 2002 and early 2003 by a sender purporting to be islamist.

    A December 2004 report on terrorism in the European Union noted that in July 2004, eight letters arrived at several official locations in Brussels that contained an ochre-coloured chemical substance that caused itchy eyes and breathing problems. Tests indicated that the substance was adamsite (phenarsasine). Some of the letters included “a threat letter written in (very poor) English, demanding that two recently convicted Islamic extremists are released within that month.”

    Zawahiri feels that in the usual case, the best way to get a lot of people watching is to kill the maximum number of people. But he wouldn’t disagree with the comment by Brian Jenkins that “Terrorism is theater.” Just those 10 grams cost an estimated $6 billion and have been the subject of thousands of news stories and the focus of widespread bioterrorism preparations. They were fully adequate to do the job even within the constraints of small batch production.

    The anthrax sender may not have intended to harm anyone. Stevens’ death was reported late on October 5. Whether the mailer knew of the death might depend on whether the mailing was made Saturday, October 6 — or whether it was made as late as Tuesday, October 9, the day it was postmarked after a long holiday weekend.

    Al Qaeda’s shura or policy-making council is concerned with handling its efforts in such a way as to develop and maintain the Arab hatred of the US and Israel. That requires a delicate balance and choice of suitable targets and methods. For example, as explained by the spokesperson in mid-February, Abu al Bara’a Al-Qarshy, Al Qaeda will not use WMD in a muslim country, particularly the home of Mecca and Medina. Terrorism involves public relations. Zawahiri divines from his religious texts that it is moral to kill American civilians on the grounds that they stood silent as taxpayers while US-bought weapons were used on Palestinians. In 1998, in an interview that appeared in TIME Magazine, Bin Laden himself explained that it was Al Qaeda’s “religious duty” to obtain chemical and biological weapons, but it was up to them how to use them.

    As Dr. Jane A. Alexander of DARPA once explained at DARPA Tech, 1999:

    “Small scale attacks may be adequate to immobilize national will with panic unless reasonable defenses are available. Terrorists do not need the technological sophistication of a military offensive biological warfare program. A military offensive BW program strives for predictable effect so that military operations can be planned. Terrorists could actually benefit from the variation of the onset and outcome of the illnesses creating added panic in the public.”

    The Ann Arbor NanoBio researchers supplied virulent Ames by Dr. Ivins thanked Dr. Alexander for her support of the DARPA research they were doing involving the Ames strain supplied by USAMRIID’s Bruce Ivins.

    The Al Qaeda shura (policy-making council) may deem that Al Qaeda needs to choose the methods of attack carefully so that they are both are effective and calculated to gain the support of others. (Gassing the Kurds ultimately was a public relations debacle for Saddam once the world stopped looking the other way).

  5. DXer said

    Hallmark Greetings: Egyptian Islamists’ Earlier WTC Letter Bombs To Washington DC And New York City Newspapers And Symbolic Targets

    A memo seized in the 1995 arrest proposed flying an explosive laden plane into CIA headquarters. Anyone reading the Washington Post in the mid-1990s read about the plan to fly a plane into CIA headquarters over their morning coffee. The earlier plot to fly an airliner into the Eiffel tower by some Algerians connected to Bin Laden was also notable. Condi Rice professes not to have imagined the threat even though it was publicly known and even a threat at the G-8 conference.It’s important that as a country we learn from our mistakes and not pay short shrift to the evidence on the issue of modus operandi relating to Zawahiri’s planned use of anthrax.

    This was not the first time the Egyptian islamists sent letter bombs to newspaper offices in connection with an attack on the World Trade Center. NPR set the scene. It was January 2, 1997, at 9:15 a.m. at the National Press Building in Washington, D.C. The employee of the Saudi-owned newspaper Al Hayat began to open a letter. It was a Christmas card — the kind that plays a musical tune. It was white envelope, five and a half inches by six and a half inches, with a computer-generated address label attached. It had foreign postage and a post mark — a postmark appearing to be from Alexandria, Egypt. It looked suspiciously bulky, so he set it down and called the police. Minutes later they found a similar envelope. These were the first two of four letter bombs that would arrive at Al Hayat during the day. A fifth letter bomb addressed to the paper was intercepted at a nearby post office. They all looked the same. Two similar letter bombs addressed to the “parole officer” (a position that does not exist) arrived at the federal penitentiary at Leavenworth. It seemed evident how some Grinch had spent the holidays in Egypt.

    Egyptian Saif Adel (Makawwi), thought to be in Iran, was involved in military planning. Adel was a colonel in the Egyptian Army’s Special Forces before joining Al Qaeda. He helped plan the 1998 attacks on the US embassies in Africa. He was also a planner in the attack on the USS Cole and has served as the liaison officer between Hezbollah and Al Qaeda. Adel assisted Atef, who had overall responsibility for Al Qaeda’s operations.
    According to Cairo Attorney Al-Zayyat, Makkawi had many times claimed responsibility for operations that were carried out inside Egypt but when the perpetrators were arrested, it would be al-Zawahiri’s name whose name they shouted loyalty to from the docks. After the letter al-Hayat letter bombs were sent in January 1997, Saif Adel (Makawwi) gave a statement denying responsibility on behalf of the Vanguards of Conquest.

    On January 7, 1997 Saif Adel purporting to be speaking for the Egyptian Vanguards of Islamic Conquest said: “Those are messages of admonishment. There is no flirtation between us and the Americans in order for us to send them such alarming messages in such a manner.” Adel said that the Vanguards of Conquest “are heavyweight and would not embark on such childish actions.” US press and political commentaries had hinted at the Vanguards of Conquest organization’s involvement in these attempts. In his statement to Al-Hayat, perhaps referring to the Egyptian Islamic Group, Adel added “I am surprised that we in particular, and not other parties, should be accused of such an operation.”

    He got admonished by the unnamed but official spokesman for the Vanguards organization. This other spokesman chastised him as not being authorized to speak for the organization (or even being a member). “We welcome any Muslim who wants to join us, and if Makkawi wants to [join us], he will be welcomed to the Vanguards march, but through the organizational channels. But if words are not coupled with actions, we tell him: Fear God, and you can use a different name other than the Vanguards to speak on its behalf.” The spokesman denounced Makkawi’s authority to speak for the group, referring to the January 5th statement it had made denying responsibility. The spokesperson for the Vanguards of Conquest apparently was Post Office employee Sattar’s friend, Al-Sirri, based in London.

    The FBI would not speculate as to who sent the letters or why. But this was your classic “duck that walks like a duck” situation. As NPR reported at the time, “analysts say that letter bombs are rarely sent in batches, and when they are it’s generally prompted by politics, not personal animus.” Al Hayat was a well respected and moderate newspaper. It was friendly to moderate Arab countries such as Saudi Arabia and Egypt. That, without more, was accurately discerned by observers at the time as sufficient to make the newspaper outlet a target of the militant islamists. The newspaper, its editor explained, does not avoid criticizing militant islamists. The Al Hayat Editor-in-Chief explained: “We’ve been opposed to all extremists in the Arab world, especially the fundamentalists.” Mohammed Salameh, a central defendant in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, was sent to Leavenworth in 1994. The other three Egyptian extremists convicted in the bombing were sent to prisons in California, Indiana and Colorado. Like the blind sheik Abdel-Rahman, Salameh had complained of his conditions and asked to be avenged. The Blind Sheik was particularly irked that the prison officials did not cut his fingernails.

    Abdel-Rahman was convicted in 1995 of seditious conspiracy, bombing conspiracy, soliciting an attack on an U.S. military installation, and soliciting the murder of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. His followers were indicted for plotting to bomb bridges, tunnels and landmarks in New York for which Rahman allegedly had given his blessings. The mailing of deadly letters in connection with an earlier attack on the World Trade Center was not merely the modus operandi of militant islamists, it was the group’s signature. It’s their calling card. Khaled Abu el-Dahab, a naturalized American, from Silicon Valley, in a confession detailed in an Egyptian defense ministry document dated October 28, 1998, explained that he was trained to make booby-trapped letters to send to important people, as well as asked to enroll in American aviation schools to learn how to fly gliders and helicopters. He was a friend of Ali Mohammed, the former special forces officer in the Egyptian army and former US Army Sergeant. The modus operandi of these militant supporters of the blind sheik was known to be planes and booby-trapped letters.

    The Al Hayat reporters and editor were not expressing an opinion — though the owner did lay out various possibilities (e.g., Iraq, Iran etc.). The owner of the paper had commanded Saudi forces during the Persian Gulf War, when Bin Laden was so upset about American troops on the Arabian peninsula. Moreover, al Hayat had recently opened up a Bureau in Jerusalem, giving it a dateline of Jerusalem rather than al Quds, which some thought blasphemous. But none of the possibilities would plausibly explain why the letter bomb was sent to Leavensworth where three of the WTC 1993 defendants were imprisoned, including Ramzi Yousef’s lieutenant who had asked that his mistreatment be avenged. (That was the criminal genius who returned to Ryder to reclaim his deposit after blowing up the truck at WTC). Egyptian security officials argued that the letters were sent from outside of Egypt, the stamps were not available in Egypt, and that the postmark was not Alexandria as reported. Whatever the place of mailing, the sender likely was someone who was upset that KSM’s and Ramzi Yousef’s associates had been imprisoned, to include, most notably, the blind sheik. Whoever is responsible for the anthrax mailings, it is a very good bet that they are upset the blind sheik is detained. That should be at the center of any classified profile of the crime.

    On December 31, 1996 Mohammed Youssef was in Egypt — having gone to Egypt months before. The al Hayat letter bombs related to the detention and alleged mistreatment of the blind sheikh and the WTC bombers were sent 10 days earlier — on the Day of Measures. In 2006, he was named as co-defendant with Hassoun, Daher, Padilla and Jayyousi. Youssef was born in Alexandria. Kifah Jayyousi’s “Islam Report” over the years — distributed by Adham Hassoun in Florida and Kassem Daher in Canada — expressed outrage at detention/extradition due to terrorism law and also what he perceived as attacks on his religion by some newspapers. His headlines on the internet groups blazed “Just In! First Muslim Victim of New Terrorism Law!: US Agents Arrest Paralegal Of Sheikh Omar Abdel Rahman Without Charge Prepares To Hand Him To Egyptian Regime,” soc.religion.islam, dated April 27, 1996 and “Islam Report (Newspaper Attacks Our Religion! Act Now!,” soc.religion.islam, Apr. 16, 1996.

    After the Al Hayat letter bombs to newspapers in DC and NYC and people in symbolic positions, in January 1997, both the Blind Sheikh and his paralegal, Sattar, were quoted in separate articles in Al Hayat (in Arabic) denying that they or their supporters were responsible. The Blind Sheikh commented that al Hayat was fair and balanced in its coverage and his supporters would have no reason to “hit” them.

    The same sort of counterintuitive theory was raised in connection with the earlier letter bombing of newspapers to DC and New York City and people in symbolic positions. Sattar noted that the bombs were mailed on December 20, one day before the brief in support of the blind sheik on appeal. He questioned whether someone (like the FBI) was trying to undermine the appeal’s prospects. This time, Mr. Sattar did not need any help making the argument with respect to the anthrax letters. Numerous people with political or other agendas rushed to do it for him. In accusing Dr. Ivins on the occasion of his death, the FBI embraced the same sort of theory — that is, when it was not grasping at other untenable theories relating to college sororities, incorrectly perceived anti-abortion views, or imagined financial motive.

    In September 2006, in a Sahab Media production called “Knowledge is for acting,” there is a clip in which Al Quds editor Atwan refers to his visit with Bin Laden in 1996 (see also his 2006 book The Secret History of al Qaeda). He says that Bin Laden was planning to attack America “and America prisons in particular.” That was an apparent reference to the Al Hayat letter bombs sent to newspapers and prisons in January 1997. There were recurrent references to Abdel-Rahman in the tape.

  6. DXer said

    Anthrax Mailed to Pakistan’s Prime Minister: Linked to US 2001?

  7. DXer said

    Yazid Sufaat, the former anthrax lab technician in Afghanistan, responded that he doesn’t know when I asked him:

    “The press reported that Prime [Minister] Gilani was mailed anthrax by a crazy female professor. But then the report, to borrow the phrase in the Pakistan news article, was “hushed up”. Do you think it really was anthrax? Or do you think the scientific lab in Pakistan just mistakenly reported a false positive?”

  8. DXer said

    Yazid Sufaat, what do you make of this press report about anthrax allegedly sent to Prime Minister Gilani?

  9. DXer said

    Investigation into anthrax letter case halted

    ISLAMABAD – The Prime Minister Secretariat is using delaying tactics in handing over parcel containing anthrax, which was sent to the PM by a woman from Jamshoro University Sindh, to police for investigations. A source in police informed Pakistan Today that despite repeated requests, the PM Secretariat was not handing the said parcel to police for starting investigations.

    He said that the anthrax-filled letter was posted by a female associate professor of Jamshoro University . Police said that it was learnt that the professor’s real brother is Deputy Inspector General of Police (DIG) Sindh and he was allegedly playing a role for settling the matter.

    The police on Thursday had approached the Prime Minister’s Secretariat requesting the PM’s security staff to give them the parcel containing anthrax for starting investigations into the matter, however, till today the staff at PM secretariat have not handed over the parcel to the police. The police sources revealed that perhaps the said professor got anthrax powder from University’s laboratory. It is relevant to note here that the Secretariat Police on January 31, 2011 had registered an FIR against an unidentified accused, who apparently in an assassination attempt had sent a parcel containing ‘anthrax’ to the PM’s Secretariat for PM Syed Yousaf Raza Gilani. The envelope was sent from the Sindh University Campus Colony, Jamshoro, and was received at the PM’s Secretariat on December 18, 2011.

    Later, PM Secretariat Administration Deputy Secretary Abdul Hafeez lodged an application with the Secretariat Police for registration of an FIR. It is relevant to note here that FIA was also given the task to probe into the matter but no development has surfaced so far. Police said, without getting the said parcel they could not start proper investigation into the case. In 2001, several people died and were infected in United State of America after receiving anthrax filled letters. Letters containing anthrax spores were mailed to several news media offices and two Democratic US Senators.

    • DXer said

      Anthrax case hushed up?

      Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani. – File Photo

      ISLAMABAD: Police have been denied access to evidence to investigate arrival of a packet containing anthrax at Prime Minister Secretariat and directed to keep away from the case, Dawn has learnt.

      But after handing over the evidence, including the powder, to the Federal Investigation Agency (FIA), the Prime Minister Secretariat directed the agency to hush up the case, sources said.

      They said the sender of the powder was identified as an associate professor of Sindh University, Jamshoro, who was also the sister of a serving senior police officer of Sindh.

      She allegedly sent anthrax to Prime Minster Yousuf Raza Gilani on October 18 from the colony of the university. The registered (No 209) parcel also carried stamp of the associate professor.

      The secretariat has already conducted an investigation into the issue during which it was revealed that the teacher had got the anthrax from a laboratory of the university and sent it to the prime minister without any lethal motive. “The associate professor has some psychological problems,” the sources added.

      Though the PM Secretariat had approached the police and investigation agencies but now efforts are in progress to hush up the matter, the sources said.

      They said the senior police officer was close to some leaders of the ruling political party, who convinced the secretariat not to take any legal action against the sender.

      A senior FIA officer, when contacted, categorically denied that the agency was investigating the matter or had got the evidence. However, he added, the agency’s Sindh office might be working on it.

      A senior officer of the capital police said they had been asked to keep away from the investigation. The police registered the case on the complaint of the PM Secretariat but it has been kept away from the legal process necessary to investigate the case,
      he added.

      The secretariat had also sent the sample of the powder to the Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research in Lahore, which confirmed the powder as anthrax.

      The prime minister’s spokesman Akram Shaheedi could not be contacted for comments as his cellphone was switched off.

  10. DXer said

    The authors of this NIH study are excellent interview prospects on the issues of methodology presented.

    East Mediterr Health J. 2004 Jan-Mar;10(1-2):19-26.
    Pakistan’s experience of a bioterrorism-related anthrax scare.
    Ahmad K, Dil AS, Kazi BM, Us-Saba N, Ansari J, Nomani K.

    Public Health Laboratories Division, National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan.


    From November 2001 to March 2002, the National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan, received 230 samples from 194 different sources for analysis for anthrax spores. These samples were taken from letters/packages suspected of containing anthrax and from individuals exposed to them. When cultured on sheep blood agar, 141 samples yielded growth suggestive of Bacillus species. On the basis of growth characteristics, absence of beta-haemolysis, absent or doubtful motility and morphological characters of the isolates on Gram stain, 62 isolates were considered suspicious and were inoculated into guinea-pigs. Inoculated animals remained healthy well beyond the required observation period of 5 days. All the samples were therefore reported as negative for B. anthracis. Systems for handling and analysing suspected anthrax-contaminated materials are discussed.

  11. DXer said

    Are Pakistan authorities really so uninformed so as to not know that it would behoove the agency to identify the methodology used in testing? Moreover, don’t they appreciate that they should have provided it to NIH for double-checking?

    Pakistani Lab Could Take Another Look at Anthrax Package
    Feb. 6, 2012
    Pakistani authorities want another examination of a package mailed to the nation’s prime minister that initial laboratory analysis said contained anthrax. That finding appears in doubt, the Islamabad Dateline newspaper reported on Friday (see GSN, Feb. 2).

    A parcel purportedly containing anthrax spores was earlier reported to have been sent to Pakistani Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani’s residence in October. The package was intercepted before reaching Gilani, and no one who came into contact with the mailing became sick.

    “It is beyond comprehension,” an unidentified high-ranking police officer said. “Six to seven persons at the PM House handled the parcel but were not affected. Anthrax is a dangerous biological weapon. We will contact the laboratory officials to re-examine the parcel.”

    The Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Laboratory analyzed the parcel. Council Chairman Shaukat Pervaiz said the package had been submitted by an unidentified intelligence branch and then sent to a Lahore facility for scientific analysis.

    “The laboratory tests have proven presence of anthrax spores in the parcel and it has been handed over to the agency with results,” Pervaiz said.

    No one was sickened because the package remained tightly closed, he said.

    “We are ready to re-examine the parcel if the police or another agency so wants,” Pervaiz said, insisting that the “result will remain the same.”

    Though an initial investigation into the sender pointed to a post office at the Jamshoro branch of the University of Sindh, that lead has ground to a halt.

    “The probe into tracing the culprits behind the parcel has apparently reached a dead end but still efforts are under way to avoid recurrence of such incidents in [the] future,” the police official said.

    Previous reports said a female associate professor working at the university was a prime suspect. However, that is “mere speculation,” the official said. “There is no concrete evidence to link the parcel with the professor.”

    The anonymous official did share that an investigation had been opened into why the parcel was not properly examined at the Pakistan Post and how it managed to pass by security checks prior to arriving at Gilani’s home.

    News of the purported anthrax package only came to light last week when an official criminal report was filed in court (Aamir Saeed, Islamabad Dateline, Feb. 3).

    Islamabad law enforcement officials on Thursday filed a request to gain physical custody of the parcel from Gilani’s security team, Pakistan Today reported (Pakistan Today, Feb. 3).

    • DXer said

      A journalist in Pakistan should interview this man to gain his insights on the mailing in Pakistan and the anthrax mailings in Fall 2001.

      Pakistani-born man suspected of link with anthrax attacks: blogFrom the Newspaper | International | By Our Correspondent

      May 10, 2011

      NEW YORK, May 9: A leaked US document suggests that the owner of several drugstores in New York City could be an Al Qaeda agent with knowledge of anthrax, `Mother Jones` a prominent online blog reported on Monday.

      The anthrax drug is believed to be lethal as it causes instant death if one breathes or touches it. In the aftermath of 9/11 attacks many cases of anthrax were discovered but none was fatal as suspected.

      The document was apparently released by Wikileaks which has made public hundreds of documents with information on suspected extremists held at the US detention centre at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.

      According to `Mother Jones` blog, a 2008 US document says the name of the Pakistani-born entrepreneur was cited in a paper discovered at a Qaeda location in his home nation, seemingly connected to an allusion to a vaccine for anthrax, which is considered a potential bioterror agent. A calendar retrieved from one possible militant contained unspecified information connecting the businessman to biological weapons activities.

      The man`s name was included in the document, but was not published by `Mother Jones` as he could not be reached directly to address the assertion included in the US document. The article notes that the validity of the claim linking the man to the terrorist network could not be determined.

      The suspect held at Guantanamo Bay said that the pharmacy owner was a long-time acquaintance and an operative for a Taliban-backing organisation active in Afghanistan and Pakistan.

      One document states that a person held since 2003 had a diary with details on how to reach a “possible Al Qaeda anthrax operative” who was said at the time to reside and own a number of pharmacies in New York.

      Internet information indicates that the man owns no fewer than four drugstores around New York City. A call to one location reached a man who said he was the brother of the owner who, he said, had returned to Pakistan, claims the website.

  12. DXer said

    Putting aside the question of false positives while we await more detailed and authoritative news, note that in 2001 in Sindh NIH had nominated Civil Hopsital Karachi and Liaquat Medical University in Jamshoro for testing materials.

    November 15, 2001

    KARACHI, Nov 14: Medical experts, pathologists and microbiologists, on Wednesday, agreed that anthrax fear has spread because of the US media campaign and there are very slim chances of the disease’ spread in

    Speaking at a public awareness seminar: “Know Anthrax: Don’t Panic,” organized by the Pakistan Society for Microbiology at the University of Karachi, the experts said that anthrax is preventable and curable.
    they said that only one or two patients in Pakistan have been found positive of the bacteria. Even in the US only two deaths have occurred due to anthrax, they added.
    The section chief of infectious diseases at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Dr M. Aslam Khan, said that the AKUH laboratory had received 15 samples of powders for anthrax tests, which included a sample from the office of an Urdu daily.

    He said he was not aware of the results of all the samples except the one received from the newspaper office, which, he said, was positive.
    Prof. Dr Shahana Kazmi of Karachi University’s Microbiology Department said only one type of anthrax — Gastrointestinal — is deadly, but is very rare in human beings. Three types of anthrax infection included
    cutaneous, inhalation and gastrointestinal, she added.

    “In humans, anthrax is fairly rare; the risk of infection is about one out of 100,000,” she said.

    Once the disease is established, the chances of survival of the patient become dim, she added. However, she said vaccines and antibiotics are easily available to cure the disease.

    Dr Kazmi said that the most common (about 95%) form of the disease in human is “cutaneous anthrax,” which is usually acquired via injured skin or mucous membranes.

    She said the spores of the B. anthracis can be produced and stored in a dry form and remain viable for decades and in some cases for over 100 years.

    She said there is no evidence of person-to-person transmission of anthrax and quarantine of the affected individual is also not recommended by the medical experts.

    Dr Essa Abdulla said the bacteria of anthrax could be found everywhere and the infected patients are found in Middle East, Africa, UK and USA.
    He pointed out that the bacteria can die within ten minutes in boiling water. He said that the potential agents for spread of the disease could be chemicals, radioactive metals and biological weapons.

    Dr Essa suggested to adopt precautionary measures, including proper handling of letters or packages. He said the anthrax spores could infect through skin, swallowing or inhalation, so any suspect package could be
    handled with care by not shaking, bumping or checking its contents. “Do not open, smell, touch or taste the material in the packet,” he said.He said besides the AKUH, the National Institute of Health, Islamabad, has
    received some samples for testing of the anthrax bacteria.

    In Sindh, he said, the NIH has nominated Civil Hospital Karachi and Liaquat Medical University, Jamshoro, for testing of any suspect materials.others who spoke on the occasion included Director Sindh Poultry Vaccine
    Centre, Dr Shafqat Fatima, ex-Director, Defence Scientific Organization, Syed Zia Mehdi Rizvi, and Dr Saleem Hafiz of the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation.—APP

  13. DXer said

    Today from Peshawar-

    KP officials on alert for anthrax mailings
    By Javed Aziz Khan

    PESHAWAR – Security forces have been directed to check all letters and packets sent to the governor and chief minister of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), media reported February 3.

    Staff at the Governor House and Chief Minister House are on the lookout for possible anthrax mailings, daily Mashriq reported. Authorities foiled an attempt in Islamabad one day earlier.

    Senior KP officials also have been directed not to accept gifts in the form of perfume and other liquids, since terrorists could tamper with them, the report said


    There has not been sufficient information disclosed about the mailing to the Prime Minister yet for there to be breathless reporting of additional mailings that talk about the foiling of “an attempt in Islamabad one day earlier.”

    I don’t know the science or nature of PCR testing or field testing, but the one thing we know for certain is that typically there will be hundreds — even thousands — of hoax letters for one actually containing anthrax.

    As for white powder scares absent definitive confirmation, the better course is to not even bother report them. (Reporting of hoaxes merely encourages them).

    The comment about not accepting gifts such as perfume is definitely warranted in light of specific planning along those lines using cyanide.

  14. DXer said

    ISLAMABAD: No anthrax in Pakistan: minister

    By Our Staff Reporter

    ISLAMABAD, Nov 12, 2001: No case of anthrax has tested positive in Pakistan, says Federal Minister for Health Abdul Malik Kasi.

    Speaking at a news conference here on Monday, Mr Kasi said the National Institute of Health (NIH) had tested about 100 samples and found not even a single “positive” case.

    The minister said the interior and health ministries had set up special cells to trace the source of the letters containing suspected anthrax spores. “Those who are sending letters filled with powder should behave as they are making dirty jokes,” he warned. “We have also asked the provincial governments to take anthrax incidents seriously”, he added.

    Mr Kasi said Pakistan was not ashamed of disclosing any positive anthrax case, if reported, like it did in the case of “Crimean Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF)” in Balochistan”.

    When his attention was drawn towards the results of Agha Khan Hospital, which had confirmed two positive cases, the minister said: “I respect the Agha Khan Hospital which is a very prestigious institution, but despite its report, not a single person has been found to be suffering with anthrax.” However, he conceded Agha Khan Hospital had violated the protocol by not sending the samples to the NIH. The minister asked the Agha Khan Hospital administration to send the samples to the NIH for further tests.

    Mr Kasi said he had asked the local pharmaceuticals as well as the multinationals to keep six months’ stocks of medicines, including “Ciproflaxacin” and six months stocks of raw materials for their production. He said it cost Rs10,000 per sample to conduct anthrax test and three to four days were required for this purpose.

    The minister said Pakistan’s health facilities were open for all Afghan refugees.

    The executive director, NIH, Athar Saeed Dil, and country managers of tuberculosis, malaria and extended programme of immunization (EPI) were also present on the occasion. They briefed the newsmen on contingency plans prepared to check and contain these diseases especially in view of the mass exodus of Afghan refugees in Pakistan.

    They said Pakistan had successfully completed another round of polio, measles and tetanus vaccinations especially among the refugees. The health delivery systems in 14 districts adjacent to different refugee camps were also being strengthened to check TB, they added.

    • DXer said

      Reports of Anthrax Emerge in Germany, Pakistan and India

      Filed at 6:09 p.m. ET

      In India, the health secretary of a western state said Friday that powder found in an envelope in a government office tested positive for anthrax and would be examined further.

      Meanwhile, in Germany, initial tests came back positive for anthrax on a letter and two packages. Later tests in Berlin found no evidence of the bacteria, officials said. The letter had a return address in Islamabad, Pakistan, and a German postmark dated Oct. 24.

      At the U.S. Embassy in Athens, Greece, traces of bacteria have been found in a mailbag, the State Department said Friday in Washington. Greek officials said a suspicious envelope sent to a U.S. Navy base was also being tested.

      In Pakistan, white powder in a letter received Oct. 23 by the Daily Jang newspaper tested positive for anthrax, said Dr. Mohammed Tasleem of Agha Khan University Hospital in Karachi.

      Most of the 120 employees at the U.S. Embassy in Lithuania are taking antibiotics — although none showed symptoms of anthrax — after a laboratory in the Baltic country confirmed Thursday that traces of anthrax were found in at least one mailbag at the embassy.

      (Emphasis mine)


      Perhaps Dr. Tasleem could provide an update on whether Agha Khan gave NIH a sample in 2001 and if it was determined to be a false positive.

      In a press conference, Health Minister Abdul Malik Kasi questioned the accuracy of the first test that found anthrax spores in the powder sent to Jang. A second test is planned that week at the more advanced National Institute of Health in Islamabad.Ari Fleischer said.

      Also in the event everything hasn’t turned out to be a false positive, maybe Nadine Prouty may be able to comment on whether her transport of the suspected anthrax in the diplomatic pouch may have led to cross-contamination.

      • DXer said

        What Was Found in Kabul

        Suspicion about Mahmood and others at UTN increased after the fall of the Taliban on November 13, 2001, and coalition forces and the media searched UTN offices in Kabul. The searches of these houses, located in the wealthiest suburb of Kabul, revealed records that the charity did help Afghanistan with educational material, road building, and flour mills. But the records found in these buildings also demonstrated that UTN was studying weapons of mass destruction (WMD).

        The first revelations about UTN’s WMD activities followed visits to its headquarters and subsidiary offices in Kabul. Members of the media appear to have been among the first to visit UTN’s headquarters in Kabul that also served as Mahmood’s residence while he was in Kabul.

        Interest in Anthrax. At these houses, there were documents and drawings that suggest someone was very interested in biological weapons, even in designing a crude system for delivering anthrax by balloon.

        Among the documents found by CNN and other media organizations was an unclassified 1997 U.S. draft environmental assessment titled, “Renovation of Facilities and Increased Anthrax Vaccine Production and Testing at the Michigan Biologic Products Institute” by the Joint Program Office for Biologic Defense under contract to SAIC in Frederick, Maryland. A reader had written several stars in the top left corner of the cover page, implying that he thought the report was significant. The report contains sections on anthrax, the disease, its threat, the vaccine, production issues, and immunization.

        This report is related to the production of anthrax vaccine at the Lansing, Michigan facility for the U.S. military. It is not a document on how to make anthrax spores. The reason why the document was at this house is unclear.

        One reason may be related to another document found at the house called, “The Biologic Warfare: An Imminent Danger,” of which hundreds of copies were found in the house. This four-page leaflet is a paranoid diatribe accusing the United States of planning to conduct a campaign of biological warfare against the international Muslim community, using anthrax. Part of the evidence cited in the document is the vaccination of U.S. troops against anthrax and the expansion of anthrax vaccination production under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Defense, purportedly in advance of anthrax attacks on the Ummah.

        Mahmood concluded in the fall of 2002 that Taliban soldiers fighting against the Northern Alliance had been exposed to chemical and biological weapons supplied by the United States, based on information from doctors at a Kandahar hospital.35 According to his information, U.S. and British experts were even training the Northern Alliance in the use of chemical and biological weapons.36 In this media report, he denied that Afghanistan had an anthrax factory, charging that “military sources” fabricated this story so that in the case of an anthrax attack on Afghanistan, “the impact could be attributed” to emissions from this factory. He called for NGOs to “come and help the Afghan nation against such an attack.”

        Strong suspicions remain that one of Mahmood’s responses to his “information” was to support the study of the offensive use of biological or chemical weapons. Evidence that the documents served more sinister purposes than defensive ones includes a series of illustrations scrawled over a white board mounted on plasterboard and running the length of the wall of a room in UTN’s headquarters in Kabul. The diagrams appear to show how high-altitude balloons could be used to spread anthrax spores or cyanide.37

        Other documents found in the house contained detailed information about anthrax. One document was the first page of a U.S. military web site aimed at informing veterans of the Persian Gulf War about illnesses they may have contracted. This site also contains information about the use of anthrax as a weapon.

        According to the Evening Standard, a computer disk held a picture showing former Defense Secretary William Cohen holding a small bag of sugar, which he said is roughly the amount of biological agent that could kill half the population of Washington, DC. On the floor was a small bag of white powder. This bag evidently did not contain anthrax or any other biological agents, however,

        Some of the anthrax-related papers had been copied many times. This fact and the organization of specific rooms imply that the house was used to give lectures.

        In addition, the house contained boxes of gas masks and many containers of chemicals. A second-floor workshop, where many of the documents were located, contained a disassembled rocket with solid propellant and a cylinder labeled “helium.”

        Link to Terrorist Groups. Ingrid Arnesen, a senior CNN producer who visited many UTN and al Qaeda houses in Afghanistan, found documents linking UTN to terrorist groups. At UTN offices, she found literature that established a link between UTN and Jaish al Muhammad, the Army of the Prophet Mohammad. This group was active in Kashmir and was outlawed in Pakistan in the spring of 2002. She also found inside the main UTN office a decal celebrating the bombing of the USS Cole.

        Baracat Trading. CNN personnel found a set of documents describing a wide-range of UTN’s activities in an office off the dreary lobby of Kabul’s Intercontinental Hotel. The office had been occupied by the Baracat Islami Investment General Trading and Contracting Co. Ltd. (BTC) and had been locked and abandoned before the fall of the Taliban. Intelligence sources told CNN that this office was a branch of the Barakat network, which the United States has suspected of laundering money for al Qaeda and as a result has frozen its assets.

        In this office, CNN found several drafts of a memorandum of understanding (MOU) between UTN and BTC to establish a close working relationship to promote relief, rehabilitation, and reconstruction of Afghanistan. The MOU was signed at Kabul on May 15, 2001 by Ghali Atia Alshamri, President of BTC, and Mahmood, President of UTN. They agreed to establish joint projects and share office space at their respective offices in Afghanistan and Pakistan. They also agreed to share all their financial, technical, and human resources in all disciplines such as commerce and industry, agriculture, banking and finance, health education, social welfare, communications, energy, minerals and mining, and research and development. According to the documents, BTC was working with Afghanistan’s Minister of Water and Power and UTN expected that cooperation with BTC would accelerate the completion of its goals.

        UTN’s Public Face

        Mahmood and Majeed organized UTN in June 2000 to provide relief for the people of Afghanistan and develop commercial projects relying on investment by Muslim countries. With offices in Kabul, Afghanistan and Lahore and Islamabad, Pakistan, UTN’s stated mission was to focus on development, educational reform, and ways to feed the impoverished Afghan population. UTN officials also said they were guiding the Taliban on science-related matters. Mohammad Sohail Farooqi was the director of the UTN office in Kabul.

        According to Mahmood, he and his colleagues developed a major plan of large-scale investment aimed at establishing industrial networks in Afghanistan.38 He said the Taliban regime had already agreed to many of its plans, including raising investments totaling about $100 million to build a dam and an oil refinery in Afghanistan. Their strategy envisioned huge projects to develop Afghanistan’s energy, communication, and transportation infrastructure and to process Afghanistan’s abundant natural resources for use in Pakistan. UTN’s plan also called for developing final products in Pakistan. In this way, Pakistan would also have benefited economically. Mahmood bragged in late October 2001 in an interview with the weekly Nida-i-Millat, one day before his arrest, that if the United States had not attacked, Afghanistan would have developed into a strong industrial country during the next ten years.39

  15. DXer said

    Aside from the PCSIR scientist Rauf Ahmad who was secretly working with Ayman Zawahiri and attending Porton Down conferences and the lab with thousands of pathogens in its BL-3 lab, does PCSIR have the expertise necessary to confirm anthrax? Instead of reporting the overly vague report by some politician’s spokesman, why hasn’t the media successfully pressed for the lab that PCSIR scientist Rauf Ahmad visited… reporting back to Dr. Ayman “I have achieved the targets.”

    Did Agha Kna Hospital give NIH a copy of the samples they had that tested positive? (At the last press conference I saw held by scientists at the hospital, they had not yet been turned over).

    Pakistan’s experience of a bioterrorism-related anthrax scare.
    Ahmad K, Dil AS, Kazi BM, Us-Saba N, Ansari J, Nomani K.
    SourcePublic Health Laboratories Division, National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan.

    From November 2001 to March 2002, the National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan, received 230 samples from 194 different sources for analysis for anthrax spores. These samples were taken from letters/packages suspected of containing anthrax and from individuals exposed to them. When cultured on sheep blood agar, 141 samples yielded growth suggestive of Bacillus species. On the basis of growth characteristics, absence of beta-haemolysis, absent or doubtful motility and morphological characters of the isolates on Gram stain, 62 isolates were considered suspicious and were inoculated into guinea-pigs. Inoculated animals remained healthy well beyond the required observation period of 5 days. All the samples were therefore reported as negative for B. anthracis. Systems for handling and analysing suspected anthrax-contaminated materials are discussed.

  16. DXer said

    Were the reports of anthrax sent to Habib bank, Dell computer, and Jang newspapers represent false positives?

    What was the result of the testing in the United States when a sample was sent. Who did it?

    The Washington Post

    November 3, 2001 Saturday
    Final Edition

    A Positive Test for Anthrax Closes Pakistani Newspaper

    BYLINE: John Ward Anderson, Washington Post Foreign Service


    LENGTH: 937 words

    DATELINE: ISLAMABAD, Pakistan Nov. 2

    The Karachi newsroom of Pakistan’s largest daily newspaper was closed after white powder received in an envelope by a reporter last week tested positive for anthrax spores. It was the third confirmed case of the anthrax bacterium being sent to a business in Karachi in the last two weeks.

    About 80 employees who work in the news sections of the Urdu-language Daily Jang were barred from the first-floor news areas as six men in full-body protective suits tested for anthrax and disinfected areas that might be infected. About 70 employees who could have been exposed to bacteria have been ordered to take antibiotics for two months to prevent them from contracting anthrax, officials at the paper said.

    “Up until now, everyone is okay,” said S.M. Shahid, chief medical officer for the Jang newspaper group. “No one has any signs or symptoms of skin or inhalation anthrax.” He said that the newsroom probably would not be reopened until Sunday.

    Jang’s chief editor, Mahmood Sham, said that the envelope containing the anthrax spores was received by a male reporter on Oct. 23 after being hand-delivered to the newspaper’s front counter. He said the reporter, whom he declined to identify, has not been involved in Jang’s coverage of events surrounding the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks in the United States or the subsequent U.S. military campaign in Afghanistan.

    Sham said the anthrax spores were found in an envelope that was supposed to contain a press release from “a social welfare organization.” He said Karachi police are investigating whether the organization had any connection with sending the anthrax spores, or if its envelope was simply used by others to give the delivery an air of legitimacy.

    There was no accompanying note claiming responsibility or explaining why the anthrax spores were being sent, he said.

    It was unclear whether Jang’s anthrax incident was connected to any of the anthrax attacks in the United States that began in early October, when a photo editor at a tabloid newspaper company in Boca Raton, Fla., contracted the disease. Since then, there have been 17 confirmed cases of anthrax in the United States, U.S. health officials say, and four people, including the Boca Raton editor, have died from the disease.

    There also have been anthrax scares around the globe, Most have been hoaxes and others are awaiting test results.

    In Vilnius, Lithuania, more than 40 U.S. Embassy employees are taking antibiotics as a precaution after testing this week confirmed that at least one of the embassy’s diplomatic mail pouches had been contaminated with anthrax, correspondent Susan B. Glasser reported from Moscow.

    In the first confirmed case of anthrax spores spreading to Europe from the United States, the contamination at the embassy came in one of five diplomatic pouches sent to Vilnius between Oct. 11 and 24, according to an embassy spokesman. “It appears that this is part of the contamination of the State Department mail system,” said the spokesman, Michael Boyle. “We have no reason to think that Lithuania is a target.”

    The three confirmed anthrax cases in Pakistan, a vital ally for the United States in its war against terrorism, seem to make it the most favored target outside the United States. In addition to the Daily Jang case, senior executives at Habib Bank and at a company that distributes Dell computer products also received anthrax contaminated materials in international mail delivered around Oct. 19, according to The News, an English-language newspaper. Shahid, the Jang chain’s doctor, said the laboratory at Aga Khan University Hospital confirmed that the powder delivered to the newspaper’s Karachi office contained anthrax spores but that the hospital did not have sufficient facilities to determine its type or origin. He said samples would be sent to the United States for comparison to determine if they could have come from the same source as spores found there.

    Daily Jang, which has a circulation of about 1 million, has regional editions in most of Pakistan’s major cities. Its offices in Quetta and Rawalpindi, which employ 200 and 350 people, respectively, also received envelopes containing white powder that is being tested, Sham, the editor, said.

    • DXer said

      Here is a piece by a Jang writer in USA Today that was published on November 8, 2001. What is Jang reporting in February 2012 about the 2001 story?


      November 8, 2001, Thursday, FINAL EDITION

      Pakistan wants fair treatment

      BYLINE: Nayyar Zaidi

      * Help against bioterrorism. Anthrax envelopes have reached the mailroom of my own newspaper in Pakistan. Pakistan lacks the most basic health infrastructure. If the United States anticipates anthrax and smallpox attacks in the immediate future, what has it done to protect the 140 million people who are now on the front lines of the U.S. battle against terrorism?

      • DXer said

        I wrote the PCSIR Chairman to ask him if NIH (Pakistan) had confirmed PCSIR’s testing and got no response. If the Pakistan Prime Minister’s office did not have confirmation from later testing, it was pretty irresponsible to report the PCSIR report without noting the nature of the testing done. Did his office merely want to distract from his imminent indictment on contempt charges for not writing to Swiss authorities about the corruption proceedings involving a former top official? If there were false positives at PCSIR, moreover, even after they had the letter for so long, it is inexcuable from a scientific standpoint. This was not a degraded sample or an amount insufficient for full-blown testing. But let’s back up. There needs to be proper and detailed reporting on the 2001 positives in initial testing at Habib international bank, Dell Computer, and Jang. The initial tests need to be explained and then the results of subsequent testing need to be disclosed — with the nature of the testing described.

        November 6, 2001 Tuesday

        Letter to U.S. Consulate tests positive for anthrax


        LENGTH: 298 words

        DATELINE: ISLAMABAD, Pakistan

        A suspicious letter sent to the U.S. Consulate in the Pakistani city of Lahore has tested positive in initial tests for anthrax and is being sent to the United States for further examination.
        Confirming the results, a spokesman for the U.S. Embassy in Islamabad told CNN there had been “several false positives” from tests conducted at Pakistani labs on other letters.

        He added that a letter sent earlier to the Islamabad Embassy containing white powder had tested negative for anthrax spores.

        The Lahore letter was addressed to the U.S. Consul, but had no return address.

        The local postmark on the envelope was smudged, making it difficult to read.

        The mailroom clerk who opened it was wearing a mask and gloves, and is not believed to have been exposed to the suspected spores.

        On Sunday, the executive director of Pakistan’s National Institute for Health, Dr. Athar Saeed Dil, said there had been no confirmed incidents of anthrax in Pakistan, including environmental samples and testing of individuals.

        Suspicious powder

        However, he added that testing was not yet complete.

        Dil said suspicious powder from a letter received by Pakistan’s largest newspaper in Karachi, the Daily Jang, October 23 had not been received yet at the institute.

        After being shown a copy of the test results done by a laboratory at Aga Khan Hospital, Dil said it was a preliminary test that could indicate anthrax spores, but noted further testing is required.

        Dil also said that a second letter had the same preliminary results that could indicate the presence of anthrax spores.

        He did not disclose where the letter was received but said the National Institute for Health would be conducting its own tests for final results.

    • DXer said

      Daily News (New York)

      September 24, 2001, Monday

      BRACING FOR MORE ATTACKS Chemical agents seen as next move


      WASHINGTON – Scrambling to anticipate terrorists’ possible next move, the feds banned U.S. crop dusters from the skies for 16 hours yesterday and reportedly warned Japan and other allies to guard against vicious attacks on their soil. Even as President Bush urged the nation to go on with life, officials told Japan that a possible next wave of attacks could be even “more cruel and shocking” than the World Trade Center attack, according to Jiji, a Japanese news service.

      Jiji quoted Japanese government sources as saying more terrorist attacks are “likely to take place by the end of next week at the latest.”

      The report said terrorists may be preparing to use small planes to spray populated areas with smallpox or anthrax.

      The White House refused to comment on the report.

      But FBI spokeswoman Jule Miller said, “In an abundance of caution, the FBI has taken a number of steps in reaction to every bit of information and threats received during the course of this investigation.”

      The Japanese report seemed to gain credence when hours after it was made public, the Federal Aviation Administration banned crop dusting in the 48 contiguous states from 8:05 a.m. yesterday until 12:05 a.m. today.

      FAA spokesman Scott Brenner said “the intelligence community came to us and encouraged us to shut down the crop dusters.”

      It was the second time that agricultural pilots – approximately 3,500 around the nation – have been grounded since the Sept. 11 attacks.

      “They said it was a national security issue,” said James Callan, executive director of the National Agricultural Aviation Association, of yesterday’s order.

      “I made some calls, and the indication was that there still is no specific threat, but the FBI apparently ordered this and they just want to make sure that everyone in the [agricultural] aviation industry is keeping their eyes and ears open,” he said.

      The feds apparently have reason to be concerned.

      An Algerian now being held as a material witness in the attack on America had a crop dusting manual on him when he was busted on immigration violations last month, before the attack.

      Zacarias Moussaoui, was arrested after a flight training school in Minnesota tipped off the FBI that he wanted to pay cash to learn how to steer a 747 – but didn’t want to learn how to take off or land the giant airliner, Time magazine reports in this week’s edition. Small planes, too? And CNN reported yesterday that suspected suicide hijacking mastermind Mohamed Atta may have visited a small-plane outlet in Belle Glade, Fla., that deals with crop dusters about a month before the twin towers attack.

      Mechanic James Lester told the cable network he believes that Atta, one of the suspected hijackers who slammed a plane into the World Trade Center’s north tower, visited the airstrip twice, along with other “Arab-looking” men.

      “They wanted to know [the] capacity of the airplane, how much would the airplane hold, how much fuel and how to crank it,” he said.

      Government officials tried to downplay some of the fears yesterday – while urging vigilance.

      “They’re just being very careful,” said Sen. Chuck Schumer (D-N.Y.). “Do they have specific information that someone’s going to use a crop duster? Not that I’m aware of. But you can’t be too careful.”

      Crop dusters could be used to spray exotic chemical or biological agents on heavily populated areas – or simply to contaminate a city’s water supply.

      But Sen. Hillary Clinton (D-N.Y.) told reporters Friday that she does not think the New York water supply – which is under increased guard – is at risk.

      “I don’t know of any credible, specific threat,” she said.

      PERSON: GEORGE W BUSH (58%);


      COUNTRY: UNITED STATES (95%); JAPAN (94%); PAKISTAN (91%);

      STATE: MINNESOTA, USA (79%);




      LOAD-DATE: September 24, 2001


      GRAPHIC: REUTERS NO SMALL PROBLEM Pakistani children at a pro-Taliban rally in Karachi point toy guns yesterday at an effigy representing the United States. Such groups have been protesting in Karachi since Friday against the Pakistani government’s support for the United States.

      Copyright 2001 Daily News, L.P.

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    • DXer said

      The Evening Standard (London)

      November 2, 2001

      Three confirmed cases as bio-terrorism dramatically escalates

      BYLINE: Keith Dovkants;Nigel Rosser

      THREE cases of anthrax have been confirmed in Pakistan and one in India as bio-terrorism attacks spread from America.

      In Pakistan, the country’s largest selling newspaper and two Karachi-based companies – a bank and a computer firm – with international links received post containing anthrax spores.

      An executive at the bank is being treated after contracting the disease and editorial staff at Jang, an Urdu language daily, are being given antibiotics after a reporter opened a letter disguised as a press release. So far the reporter has not developed symptoms but white powder in the letter was analysed at the city’s Aga Khan University Hospital and tested positive for anthrax. The computer firm targeted was believed to have American links.

      The cases in Pakistan come after four people died in a series of anthrax attacks in the US which have spread fear throughout the country and paralysed postal services.

      Karachi District Coordination Officer Shafiqur Rehman Paracha has called in police and the federal antiterrorism squad has been alerted. The targeting of Jang, which has defended the pro-American position of President Pervez Musharraf, reinforces suspicion that the anthrax attacks are the work of terrorists rather than a lone misfit.

      Osama bin Laden’s al Qaeda network is known to have been working to acquire chemical and biological weapons and the latest attacks indicate a terror campaign more widespread than was originally suspected.

      Jang receives more than 1,000 items of mail a day and the attack forced the management to close down the editorial floor for 24 hours. The office returned to full use today after it was scrubbed with disinfectant. The newspaper’s editor said: “We received a press release envelope which contained white powder … and it has tested positive for containing anthrax spores.” In the Indian attack powder found in an envelope at a state government office last week has tested positive for anthrax spores.

      It was the first positive anthrax result in more than 200 cases of suspicious envelopes tested in India since the spores were discovered in mail in the United States.

      Five workers in the office of Deputy Chief Minister Chagan Bhujbal, the second highest ranking official in the state of Maharashtra, were being treated with antibiotics.

      The attacks follow a warning today that distributing antibiotics to large numbers of people could have serious drawbacks.

      A British Medical Journal article says bio-terrorists could ” triumph” unless drugs are used carefully and according to national guidelines.

      The warning comes as increasing numbers of Americans – gripped by fear over the seemingly inexorable spread of anthrax – are tak- ing antibiotics as a precautionary measure.

      The authors of today’s report say that the antimicrobial drug ciprofloxacin (“cipro”), although generally safe, is associated with tendon ruptures and neuropsychiatric disorders.


      “To induce antimicrobial resistance on a mass scale would be an even greater triumph

      for the terrorists.”

      American investigators are increasingly convinced that bio-terrorists, backed by highly trained scientists, have the capacity to launch attacks even more devastating than the ones that have already claimed four lives and spread fear and uncertainty throughout America.

      As two more postal offices – this time in the mid-West – were found with traces of anthrax on their equipment, there are fears the spread of the bacteria has now gone nationwide.

      Meanwhile, the Prince of Wales is planning to press ahead with an official visit to Lithuania, despite the discovery of anthrax at the US embassy in Vilnius – the first case in Europe.

      COMPANY: AL-QAEDA (82%);



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  17. DXer said

    Let’s consider a selected bibliography of press reporting from the US while we await news of any developments on the recent anthrax story.

    “Islamic Jihad ‘Confessions’ Described,” London Al-Sharq al-Awsat, (FBIS translation) March 3, 1999

    “Bin-Laden Men Reportedly Possess Biological Weapons,” Al-Sharaq al-Awsat, March 6, 1999 (FBIS/FTS 19990306000273)

    “Counterterrorism Analysts Take Note of New Threats From Egyptian Terrorist Group,” ERRI Daily Intelligence Report, April 20, 1999

    “US Said Interrogating Jihadist Over CBW,” Al-Hayat, April 21, 1999

    “Muslim Calls for Bio-Weapon Holy War,” Sunday Times, September 5, 1999

    “Cleric Urges Osama to Launch Biological War Against West,” Hindustan Times, September 6, 1999

    Undated typed correspondence from Pakistan (PCSIR) scientist Rauf Ahmad to Ayman Zawahiri (produced under FOIA)

    Undated handwritten correspondence from Pakistan (PCSIR) scientist Rauf Ahmad to Ayman Zawahiri (and associated notes) (produced under FOIA)

    “Bacterial envelope mailed to minister,” Medicine Hat News, February 1, 2001

    “Hoax highlights vulnerability to bioterrorism,” The Globe and Mail, February 2, 2001

    “Aftermath of Terror: `True Believer’ Prosecutor Brings Knowledge of bin Laden to Hunt,” Wall Street Journal, September 21, 2001

    “Bioterrorism: Next Threat?”, Time Magazine, September 24, 2001

    “Crop-Dusters Thought to Interest Suspects,” Washington Post, September 24, 2001, A1

    “WHO warns of biowarfare threat,” MSNBC, September 24, 2001

    “Waiver Would Allow Military Assistance to Once-Shunned Nations,” Washington Post, September 24, 2001

    “Cropdusters grounded in poison alert: Toxic threat Pesticide planes could be used to spray cities,” Guardian, September 24, 2001

    “Airborne biological weapon attacks are serious concern,” New Scientist, September 24, 2001

    “Bioterror Threat: Myth or Reality,” FoxNews, September 25, 2001

    “National Crop-Duster Ban Expected to Be Lifted,” Knight-Ridder/Tribune Business News, September 25, 2001

    “Two Muslim Charities Under Scrutiny: Saudi-Funded Groups Deny Ties to Terrorist Networks but Cite Vulnerability,”” Washington Post, September 29, 2001

    “Possibility of bio-terrorism,” National Public Radio, September 29, 2001

    “U.S. Response: Washington Authorities Prepare for Biochemical Attacks,” Global Security Newswire, October 1, 2001

    “Before Attack, U.S. Expected Different Hit: Chemical, Germ Agents Focus of Preparations,” Washington Post, October 2, 2001

    “New substance stops germs from spreading,” Detroit Free Press, October 2, 2001

    “Biology of terrorism,” Iowa State Daily, October 2, 2001

    “Labs work overtime to find anthrax source,” New Scientist, October 5, 2001

    “FBI Probes Man’s Acts In Stark; Librarian Recalls Him Researching Canton Water-System Maps, Parasitic Diseases,” Akron Beacon Journal, October 5, 2001

    “Terrorist Investigation Heads To Local Library,” Clickondetroit, October 5, 2001

    “No Threat to Canton, Mayor Says Egyptian Man Who Researched City Water System, Parasitic Diseases at Library ‘Just Had Conversations,” Akron Beacon Journal, October 6, 2001

    “Canada Orders Deportation of Man With Links to Bin Laden,” Xinhua General News Service, October 6, 2001

    “Bin Laden group ‘has bio-weapons,” BBC News, October 9, 2001

    “J.LoAnthrax Connection?” E! OnLine, October 9, 2001

    “Anthrax probe widens as second case discovered: FBI investigating terrorism possibility,” Baltimore Sun, October 9, 2001

    “British say Bin Laden Probably Has Acquired Bio, Chemical Agents; May Lack Means of Delivery,” Investor’s Business Daily, October 10, 2001

    “Analysing the US anthrax attacks,” Jane’s Security News, October 12, 2001

    “Cheney: Reasonable to assume anthrax cases linked to terrorists,” CNN, October 12, 2001

    “Brokaw’s aide tests positive,” St. Petersburg Times, October 13, 2001

    “Fear Hits Newsroom in a Cloud of Powder,” New York Times, October 14, 2001

    “Bioterror Is In The Air The U.S. has failed thus far to fully address the most insidious threat,” Fortune, October 15, 2001

    “On the trail of anthrax: A detective story,” USA Today, October 15, 2001

    “FBI: Hijacker anthrax link coincidental,” CNN, October 15, 2001

    “Anthrax Anxiety: the Truth Behind The Hype,” National Review, October 15, 2001

    “Shift, Officials Look Into Possibility Anthrax Cases Have bin Laden Ties,” New York Times, October 16, 2001

    “Anthrax: Children and Congress Exposed,” Global Security News, October 16, 2001

    “Biological weapons link to al-Qaida,” Guardian Unlimited, October 16, 2001

    “Gorbachev: Terrorist using anthrax,” CNN, October 16, 2001

    “ABC Producer’s Infant Contracts Anthrax of Skin,” Los Angeles Times, October 16, 2001

    “Biological weapons link to al-Qaida,” Guardian Unlimited, October 16, 2001

    “Anthrax suggests government expertise,” ABC News, October 16, 2001

    “Ken Alibek: Preparing for the range of bioterrorism possibilities,” CNN, October 17, 2001

    “Stamps, bar codes give clues to letters’ source,” Associated Press, October 18, 2001

    “Link Suspected in Anthrax and Hijackings,” New York Times, October 19, 2001

    “Anthrax: New Infections in New York and New Jersey,” Global Security Newswire, October 19, 2001

    Scott Ritter, “Don’t blame Saddam for this one,” Guardian, October 19, 2001

    “Experts doubt anthrax a domestic plot,” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, October 19, 2001

    “In anthrax probe, microbial clues,” Christian Science Monitor, October 19, 2001

    “Newsweek Poll: Bin Laden to Blame For Anthrax,” MSNBC, October 20, 2001

    “Police say letter to New York Post is anthrax-laced,” Baltimore Sun, October 21, 2001

    “Did bin Laden buy bioterror? 1999 testimony says he did,” San Francisco Chronicle, October 21, 2001

    “Experts seek clues in a bioterrorist’s penmanship,” USA Today, October 21, 2001

    “Bioterror expert says threat has escalated,” National Journal, October 22, 2001

    “Hamilton complex scrutinized by FBI after discovery of third anthrax letter,” Daily Princetonian, October 22, 2001

    “Anthrax: New Infection Case in Washington,” Global Security Newswire, October 22, 2001

    ” Anthrax: Two Washington Postal Workers Are Latest Victims, Global Security Newswire, October 23, 2001

    “Gephardt thinks anthrax, terror attack linked,” CNN, October 23, 2001

    “White House Mail Machine Has Anthrax,” Associated Press, October 23, 2001

    Press Release, “Press Update by Ari Fleischer ,” October 23, 2001

    “White House targeted in anthrax terror campaign,” Guardian, October 24, 2001

    “Bush Emphasizes, More Than Once, That He Doesn’t Have Anthrax,” New York Times, October 24, 2001

    “Anthrax Investigation: No Indication Anyone at White House Exposed to Anthrax; Are Antiobiotics Enough,” CNN, October 24, 2001

    “US closer to blaming anthrax on al-Qaida: ‘Operating suspicion’ that outbreak linked to September 11,” Guardian, October 24, 2001

    “Anthrax: Tainted Letter May Have Been In White House Mail,” Global Security Newswire, October 24, 2001

    “Anthrax: Investigators Release Copies of Anthrax Letters,” Global Security Network, October 24, 2001

    “Osama bought a batch for 10G,” New York Post, October 24, 2001

    “Hand-held Vacuum Finds Hidden Pathogens, Helps Thwart Food Poisoning and Bioterrorism,” TechLink, October 25, 2001

    “Anthrax: Advanced Spores Used in Incidents, Experts Say,” Global Security News, October 25, 2001

    “Al-Qa’ida bought anthrax spores, claims informer: Egyptian Connection,” The Independent, October 25, 2001

    “Suspected hijacker may have transported anthrax,” AFP, October 25, 2001

    “Contradicting Some U.S. Officials, 3 Scientists Call Anthrax Powder High-Grade,” New York Times, October 25, 2001

    “U.S. says Anthrax germ in mail is ‘Ames” strain,” Washington Post, October 26, 2001

    “Anthrax: More Details Given on Anthrax Spores,” Global Security News, October 26, 2001

    “Terrorist Manual Suggests Hijackers Did a Lot by the Book,” New York Times, October 28, 2001

    “Officials Expanding Search, Warn Against Drawing Conclusions on Source,” New York Times, October 28, 2001

    “Defector Tries to Undo Own Work,” New York Times, October 28, 2001

    “Bin Laden’s Biological Threat,” BBC, October 28, 2001

    “Silica grains detected in anthrax letter are tiny clues,” San Francisco Chronicle, October 30, 2001

    “Spore Samples Are Scarce,” New York Daily News, October 30, 2001

    “Anthrax: Investigators Determining Scope of “Cross-Contamination,” Global Security News, October 30, 2001

    “Secret desert project on anthrax,” Scripps Howard News Service, October 30, 2001

    “Domestic or foreign, anthrax terrorist wants to be associated with Sept. 11,” Associated Press, October 30, 2001

    “Nightmare That Came In Mail,” National Enquirer, October 31, 2001

    “Terrorism Through the Mail: Protecting Postal Workers and the Public,” Opening Statement by Gen. John S. Parker, Joint Hearings Before the Committee On Governmental Affairs and the Subcommittee on International Security, Proliferation and Federal Services, October 30 and 31, 2001 October 31, 2001

    Gary Matsumoto, “Additive Search Requires More Study,” ABC, November 1, 2001

    “BWC: U.S. Denies It Rejected French Proposal to U.N. Security Council,” Global Security News, November 2, 2001

    “Anthrax: Strain in New York Death Matches Others,” Global Security News, November 2, 2001

    “The Secret is Out,” New Scientist, November 3, 2001

    “Baffled F.B.I. Asks For Aid In Solving Riddle Of Anthrax,” New York Times, November 3, 2001

    “Anthrax is ‘second wave’ of terrorism: Bush’s radio address,” Reuters, November 4, 2001

    “Ames Strain,” New Yorker, November 5, 2001

    “The Hunt For The Anthrax Killers,” TIME, November 5, 2001

    “Has someone been sitting on the FBI?” BBC, Newsnight, November 6, 2001

    “FBI claims Bin Laden inquiry was frustrated: Officials told to ‘back off’ on Saudis before September 11,” Guardian, November 7, 2001

    “Anthrax: Small Finds in Investigation, But Larger Issues Go Unsolved,” Global Security News, November 5, 2001

    “CDC Update on Anthrax Investigations,”, November 7, 2001

    “Anthrax: Investigation Going Slowly, FBI Says,” Global Security News, November 7, 2001

    “Partnership of Hate: Ayman al-Zawahiri, The National, November 7, 2001

    “Postal inspectors investigate dying worker’s 911 call about a tainted letter,” (Associated Press), November 8, 2001

    “Statement of James R. Baker, Jr., MD Ruth Dow Doan Professor of Medicine and Director of Biologic Nanotechnology, Chief, Division of Allergy & Immunology, University of Michigan, “Anthrax Decontamination,” November 8, 2001 FDCH Congressional Testimony (House Science)

    “Experts See F.B.I. Missteps Hampering Anthrax Inquiry,” New York Times, November 9, 2001

    “Agency Looks Into Claim Doctor Had Skin Anthrax,” New York Times, November 10, 2001

    “Profile of a Killer,” Time Magazine, November 11, 2001

    “Al Qaeda Sites Point to Tests of Chemicals,” New York Times, November 11, 2001

    “Kathy Nguyen’s Mystery Link,” Washington Post, November 11, 2001

    “Bin Laden says he has bio-weapons but knew nothing of anthrax attacks,” Michigan Daily, November 12, 2001

    “See This Goop? It kills anthrax and the tiny biotech startup that invented it has been thrust into a national crisis that is upending its business,” CNN Money, November 12, 2001

    “Anthrax: Bin Laden Denies Involvement,” Global Security News, November 12, 2001

    “Bin Laden denies anthrax attacks,” Guardian, November 12, 2001

    “Doctor May Be Missing Anthrax Link,” ABC, November 12, 2001

    “The Mystery Deepens,” TIME, November 12, 2001

    “Bravado and blood in Taliban territory,” U.S. News & World Report, November 12, 2001

    “Threat Assessment: Possible Taliban CBW Sites Found,” Global Security News, November 12, 2001

    “An al Qaeda operative at Fort Bragg,” Raleigh News & Observer, November 14, 2001

    “Anthrax Attacks: Who’s Liable?,” Washington Post, November 14, 2001

    “Evidence suggests al Qaeda pursuit of biological, chemical weapons,” CNN, November 14, 2001

    “Anthrax: CDC Uncertain Over Anthrax Exposure Risks,” Global Security News, November 16, 2001

    “New Jersey Doctor Doesn’t Have Skin Anthrax,” New York Times, November 17, 2001

    “Anthrax Lair: The factory’s Taliban boss hated the West. He disappeared 7 months ago with half his staff,”, November 19, 2001

    “Profile of a Killer,” TIME, November 19, 2001

    “HHS chief: Anthrax terrorism likely domestic,” CNN, November 20, 2001

    “Afghanistan,” Global Security News, November 20, 2001

    “At an Anthrax Lab, the World Changed Quickly,” New York Times, November 21, 2001

    “Bin Laden’s Bay Area recruiter: Khalid Abu-al-Dahab signed up American Muslims to be terrorists,” San Francisco Chronicle, November 21, 2001

    “Scientists: Taliban took interest in lab that researches anthrax,” Associated Press, November 21, 2001

    “Bin Laden’s Allies; An Investigation in Egypt Illustrates Al Qaeda’s Web,” New York Times, November 21, 2001

    Kathy Gannon, “Taliban Showed Interest In Anthrax Research Lab. Scientists Say An Official Paid Frequent Visits,” Boston Globe, November 22, 2001

    “In the House of Anthrax,” Economist, November 22, 2001

    “Deadly anthrax strain leaves a muddy trail,” Washington Post, November 25, 2001

    “Imprisoned brothers,” soc.culture.pakistan.religion, November 25, 2001 (it’s

    “Hijackers’ interest in crop dusters puzzles investigators,” Dawn, November 25, 2001

    “”Sergeant Served U.S. Army and bin Laden, Showing Failings in FBI’s Terror Policing,” Wall Street Journal, November 26, 2001

    “The New Anthrax Letter: Why Senator Leahy,” TIME, November 26, 2001

    “Al-Qaeda: Taliban Sought Scientists Help,” Global Security News, November 26, 2001

    “Sketches of anthrax bomb found in Pakistani scientist’s office,”, November 28, 2001

    “2 Pakistanis Linked to Papers on Anthrax Weapons,” New York Times, November 28, 2001

    “Pakistan: Scientists Questioned About Anthrax Plans,” Global Security News, November 28, 2001

    Larry M. Bush, Barry H. Abrams, M.D., Anne Beall, B.S., M.T., and Caroline C. Johnson, M.D., “Index Case of Fatal Inhalational Anthrax Due to Bioterrorism in the United States,” New England Journal of Medicine, 345:1607-1610, November 29, 2001

    “Letters anthrax spores pose many obstacles to analysis,” Washington Post, November 29, 2001

    “A Solution For Anthrax Mystery; Study: Spores seep through paper,” Newsday, November 30, 2001

    “Ames Strain Of Anthrax Limited to Few Labs,” Washington Post, November 30, 2001

    “Germ Weapon Plans Found at a Scientist’s House in Kabul,” New York Times, December 1, 2001

    “Anthrax inquiry looks at U.S. labs,” New York Times, December 2, 2001

    “Bronx Letter May Hold Clues to Anthrax Death: Spores Also Found in Conn. Postal Facility,” Washington Post, December 3, 2001

    “Postal Center in Connecticut shows traces of anthrax,” New York Times, December 3, 2001

    “Terror Anthrax Resembles Type Made by U.S.,” New York Times, December 3, 2001

    “Anthrax I: Insider May Be Responsible, Experts Say,” Global Security Newswire, December 3, 2001

    “Electrostatic Charge Kept Anthrax Spores From Spreading More,” Wall Street Journal, December 3, 2001

    “A compilation of evidence, ” Federation of American Scientists Report (BHR) December 3, 2001

    “Anthrax II: Mail May be Cross-Contaminated,” Global Security Newswire, December 4, 2001

    “Anthrax I: Powder Produced Recently, Watchdog Says,” Global Security Newswire, December 4, 2001

    “Russia, Iraq and Other Potential Sources of Anthrax, Smallpox and Other Bioterrorist Weapons,” Hearings Before the Committee On International Relations, House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session, December 5, 2001.

    “Anthrax Investigators Open Letter Sent to Senator Leahy,” New York Times, December 6, 2001

    Word for Word/Jihad Lit: Beware of Hidden Enemies And Their Wolves and Foxes,” New York Times, December 9, 2001

    Press Release, “Terrorist Sleeper Cells: A U.S.-Based Al Qaeda ‘Sleeper Cell’ Was Poised to Launch a Post-Sept. 11 on a Major Washington Target; Would-Be Terrorists Went Underground or Fled U.S. Evidence Indicates Al Qaeda Had Russian Help Developing Anthrax; Al-Zawahir Believed Involved in Bin Laden’s Biological Weapons Program, ” Newsweek, December 9, 2001

    “Anthrax: U.S. Military May Have Ties to Incidents,” Global Security Newswire, December 10, 2001

    “Al Qaeda: Anthrax Found in Al-Qaeda Home,” Global Security Newswire, December 10, 2001

    “Compilation of Mailed Anthrax Evidence,” Federation of American Scientists, December 10, 2001

    “Anthrax Probe Ranges Far and Wide As Investigators Scour Tips, Trash for Leads,” Wall Street Journal, December 11, 2001

    “Anthrax: Tests Show Potency of Daschle Letter Spores,” Global Security News, December 11, 2001

    “FBI interviews Iowa State U. international students,” University Wire, December 11, 2001

    “Anthrax: U.S. Army Reconstructs Spores Used in Attacks,” Global Security Newswire, December 12, 2001

    “US biological attack imminent – Taliban,” AFP , December 12, 2001

    “Anthrax matches Army spores,” Baltimore Sun, December 12, 2001

    “Anthrax II: U.S. Army Can Account for All Spores,” Global Security Newswire, December 13, 2001

    “Anthrax I: Ridge Points to Domestic Terrorist in Mailings,” Global Security Newswire, December 13, 2001

    “Army confirms making anthrax in recent years,” Baltimore Sun, December 13, 2001

    “Anthrax: Investigators Question Expert,” Global Security Newswire, December 14, 2001

    “U.S. Recently Produced Anthrax in a Highly Lethal Powder Form,” New York Times, December 13, 2001

    “FBI queries expert who sees federal lab tie to anthrax cases,” New York Times, December 14, 2001

    Press Release, “Global Relief Foundation Reacts to Freeze Order,” December 14, 2001

    Philip Shenon, “F.B.I. Raids 2 of the Biggest Muslim Charities; Assets of One Are Seized,” New York Times, December 15, 2001

    “Army’s Anthrax Material Surprises Some Experts,” Washington Post, December 15, 2001

    “An Open Letter and Question for FBI Director, Robert Mueller, from Dr. Leonard G. Horowitz, Prepared for Broadcast on “Inside Out,” Hosted by Michael Levine on KRLA radio in Los Angeles,” December 17, 2001

    “Anthrax: Senate Spores Match Those From U.S. Army,” Global Security Newswire, December 17, 2001

    “The Kinko’s Connection,” TIME, December 17, 2001

    “Anthrax Sent to Senate Matches Army Strain,” CNN, December 18, 2001

    “Anthrax: Spores Came From Domestic Source, White House Says,” Global Security Newswire, December 18, 2001

    “Anthrax: Where the Investigation Stands,” TIME, December 19, 2001

    “UNM Anthrax May Be Twin To Strain in Attacks,” Albuquerque Journal, December 19, 2001

    “Former Scientist Was Questioned Soon After Sept. 11,” Global Security Newswire, December 21, 2001

    “Chronology of Outbreak and Investigation,” Global Security Newswire, December 21, 2001

    “Inventor of anthrax process says spores will not be `smoking gun’ to identify who mailed killer letters,” Abilene Reporter-News (AP), December 21, 2001

    “Anthrax Probe Story Is Baloney, FBI Says,” Columbus Dispatch, December 21, 2001

    “U.S. Inquiry Tried, but Failed, to Link Iraq to Anthrax Attack,” New York Times, December 22, 2001

    “Perpetrator, Motive Remain Elusive in Anthrax Case,” Washington Post, December 23, 2001

    T. Hamouda and J.R. Baker, Jr., “Antimicrobial mechanism of action of surfactant lipid preparations in enteric Gram-negative bacilli,”Journal of Applied Microbiology, Volume 89, Issue 3, Pages 397-403, Dec 25, 2001

    Mark Heinzl and Elena Cherney, “Canada’s Muslim Schools Try to Shelter Their Students From Western Influence,” Wall Street Journal, December 27, 2001

    “Scientists at Loss in Anthrax Probe,” Newsday, December 27, 2001

    “Computer in Kabul holds chilling memos,” Wall Street Journal, December 31, 2001

    • DXer said

      “Al-Qaeda: New Evidence of Chemical and Biological Weapons Pursuit,” Global Security Newswire, January 2, 2002

      “Profile of a Killer,” New York Times, January 4, 2002

      “Everyone has an anthrax theory,” Baltimore Sun, January 6, 2002

      Iowa State University, College of Veterinary Medicine,” Anthracis Bacillus, An update on the publicity regarding the “Ames strain” of the anthrax bacillus

      “Clear and present? Haddad case suspiciously secret,” Michigan Daily, January 9, 2002

      “Anthrax: Investigation Focuses on Domestic Source,” Global Security News, January 14, 2002

      “F.B.I. Tests Rutgers Photocopiers for Clues to the Anthrax Mailer,” New York Times, January 15, 2002

      “Anthrax Missing From Army Lab,” Hartford Courant, January 20, 2002

      “Army Lost Track of Anthrax Bacteria: Specimens at Ft. Detrick May Have Been Lost or Stolen,” Washington Post, January 21, 2002

      “FBI examined photocopiers on campus,” Princetonian, January 21, 2002

      “Anthrax: U.S. Military Facility Lost Samples, Report,” Global Security News, January 22, 2002

      “Anthrax: Hatch Rosenberg Analyzes Investigation Clues,” Global Security News, January 25, 2002

      “FBI says Central N.J. May Hold Key to Solving Anthrax Mystery,” Washington Post, January 23, 2002

      FBI Reward Poster, January 23, 2002

      “FBI, Postal Service Raise Anthrax Reward to $2.5 Million,” CNN transcript, January 23, 2002

      “One Anthrax Answer: Ames Strain Not From Iowa,” Washington Post, January 29, 2002

      “FBI Sends EMail to 40,000 Scientists Requesting Tips: Requesting Tips in Anthrax Probe,” Wall Street Journal, January 29, 2002

      “Geographic Gaffe Misguides Anthrax Inquiry,” New York Times, January 30, 2002

      “Tracing anthrax spores to a lab in Texas,” NPR, January 30, 2002

      “Ames anthrax famous, but strain from other state,” Iowa State Daily, February 1, 2002

      “FBI issues anthrax appeal,” BBC, February 5, 2002

      “Anthrax Mystery Turns Scholars Into Sleuths,” Hartford Courant, February 6, 2002

      “FBI’s New Approach in Search For Anthrax Mailer Focuses on Labs,” Wall Street Journal, February 7, 2002

      “Is a U.S. bioweapons scientist behind last fall’s anthrax attacks?”, February 8, 2002

      Anthrax: “Amerithrax” Investigation Too Broad, Experts Say,” Global Security News, February 8, 2002

      “Agency With Most Need Didn’t Get Anthrax Data,” Washington Post, February 10, 2002

      “Scientist’s Findings Could Aid Anthrax Inquiry,” New York Times, February 13, 2002

      “GMU Bioterrorism Center Unites Former Foes,” Washingon Post, February 14, 2002

      “Investigators explore new anthrax suspect,” Daily Princetonian, February 19, 2002

      “No One Asked Questions: Scientists Recount U.S. Biodefense Labs’ Security Lapses,” Washington Post, February 19, 2002

      “FBI scrutinizes biodefense labs in anthrax probe,” Baltimore Sun, February 22, 2002

      “FBI Not Close to Identifying Anthrax Probe Suspect,” Reuters, February 25, 2002

      “U.S. Says Short List of ‘Suspects’ Is Being Checked,” New York Times, February 26, 2002

      “FBI Still Lacks Identifiable Suspect in Anthrax Probe,” Washington Post, February 26, 2002

      “Anthrax: FBI Denies Report of Targeted Suspect,” Global Security News, February 26, 2002

      “Labs Are Sent Subpoenas for Samples of Anthrax,” New York Times, February 27, 2002

      “FBI demands anthrax lab samples,” BBC News, February 28, 2002

      “US bio-defence security lax,” BBC News, March 1, 2002

      “Science Could Help to Crack Anthrax Case,” Los Angeles Times, March 3, 2002

      “Anthrax: Watching the Detectives,” National Journal, March 4, 2002

      “Experience at Work in FBI Anthrax Case,” Washington Post, March 4, 2002

      “Anthrax story: Detrick cleared,” Frederick News Post, March 6, 2002

      “On the trail of the anthrax killer,” Toronto Globe And Mail, March 6, 2002

      “Anthrax Spread Reduced by Static Charges,” ESD Journal, March 8, 2002

      Robert A. Muller, “Cropduster Terrorism,” MIT Technology Review, March 11, 2002

      “U.S. Concludes Al Qaeda Lacked A Chemical Or Biological Stockpile,” New York Times, March 20, 2002

      “U.S. Says It Found Qaeda Lab Being Built to Produce Anthrax,” New York Times, March 23, 2002

      “Al Qaeda-Anthrax Link?,” CBS News, March 23, 2002

      “Report Linking Anthrax and Hijackers Is Investigated,” New York Times, March 23, 2002

      “US says al-Qaeda weapons lab found,” BBC News, March 22, 2002

      “Hijacker’s lesion deepens mystery,” Baltimore Sun, March 24, 2002

      “Ashcroft: US Still Primary Focus of Anthrax Investigation,” Voice of America, March 24, 2002

      “Anthrax, ricin detected in Afghan labs,” United Press International, March 25, 2002

      “United States Al-Qaeda Anthrax Laboratory,” Global Security News, March 25, 2002

      “Anthrax II: Officials Examine Sept. 11 Hijacker’s Connection to Disease,” Global Security News, March 25, 2002

      “CHAT: Ask the FBI: anthrax investigation,” USA, March 26, 2002

      “Spore Traces Found in Afghan Laboratory,” Myers Says,” Global Security News, March 26, 2002

      “Terrorists switch to ultra-lights,” Calgary-Herald, March 26, 2004

      “Al Qaeda is still a bioterrorism threat,” Wall Street Journal, March 26, 2002

      “Anthrax at al-Qaida sites; U.S. cautions that small amounts could be naturally occurring,” Hearst Newspapers, March 26, 2002

      “Anthrax II: Connecticut Woman Might Have Died From Junk Mail,” Global Security News, March 27, 2002

      “Mystery Death From Anthrax Is Analyzed,” New York Times, March 27, 2002

      “Anthrax terror remains a mystery,” CNN, March 27, 2002

      “Memo on Florida Case Roils Anthrax Probe: Experts Debate Theory Hijacker Was Exposed,” Washington Post, March 28, 2002

      “Anthrax: Experts Debate Possible New Sept. 11 Connection,” Global Security News, March 29, 2002

      “FBI Questions UK Scientists,” Daily Telegraph, (London) March 31, 2002

      “Lessons from the Anthrax Attacks,” FAS Website, April 2002 (pdf)

      “FBI giving polygraph tests in anthrax probe,” CNN, April 5, 2002

      “More Anthrax Tests Planned,” Hartford Courant, April 5, 2002

      “Secret New Analysis Suggests Anthrax Attacker May Be a Scientific Whiz,” MSNBC, April 7, 2002

      “Tracking the Anthrax Attacks,” TIME, April 8, 2002

      “Anthrax: Spores Are More Sophisticated Than Previously Thought, Analysis Says,” Global Security News, April 8, 2002

      “‘Thousands’ could be anthrax suspects,” USA Today, April 9, 2002

      “Anthrax: Thousands of Suspects Possible, Law Enforcement Says,” Global Security News, April 9, 2002

      “Anthrax: USAMRIID to Assist in “Amerithrax” Investigation,” Global Security News, April 10, 2002

      “Attorney among 4 accused of supporting terrorism,”, April 10, 2002

      “Many leads, many dead ends,” US News & World Report, April 15, 2002

      “Al Qaeda’s Anthrax: Osama bin Laden behind the mail attacks?” Technology Review, April 16, 2002

      “Powder Used in Anthrax Attacks ‘Was Not Routine’,” Washington Post, ApriI l 8, 2002

      “Anthrax: Handwriting Analysis Refines Investigation Profile,” Global Security News, April 18, 2002

      “Scientists Weigh In With Deductions on Anthrax Killer,” Los Angeles Times, April 21, 2002

      “Anthrax: USAMRIID Worker Exposed, Pentagon Says,” Global Security News, April 22, 2002

      “Transcripts Offer First Look At Secret Federal Hearings,” New York Times, April 22, 2002

      “Florida Discovered Intentional Attack, Ties to Mail, Report Says,” Global Security News, April 23, 2002

      “FBI ‘Amerithrax’ Investigation Focus Misguided, Commentator [David Tell] Says,” Global Security News, April 24, 2002

      “2nd Leak Of Anthrax Found at Army Lab,” Washington Post, April 24, 2002

      “Army questions scientist’s motives for anthrax search,” Frederick News-Post, April 26, 2002

      “Remember Anthrax?: Despite the evidence, the FBI won’t let go of its ‘lone American’ theory,” Weekly Standard, April 29, 2002

      “Coalition uncovers possible anthrax lab,” Air Force Magazine, May 2002

      “Peter Lance Interview”

      Intervew with Radical Attorney Lynne Stewart

      “Anthrax as a Biological Weapon,” Journal of the American Medical Association, May 1, 2002

      “Anthrax Sent Through Mail Gained Potency by the Letter,” New York Times, May 7, 2002

      “Postal Theory: Mail Sorter Acted as Mill For Anthrax,” New York Times, May 9, 2002

      “Gene research may help solve anthrax mystery,”, May 9, 2002

      :Scientists Find New Markers For Anthrax Isolates,” TIGR Press Release, May 9, 2002

      “Clues to Anthrax Attacks Found,” Washington Post, May 9, 2002

      “Senators Criticize FBI Chief For Not Acting on Warning: Mueller Says Plot Would Not Have Been Uncovered,” Washington Post, May 9, 2002

      “Global Relief Foundation tied to 1998 terrorist,” Michigan Daily, May 9, 2002

      Editorial, “Deepening Anthrax Mystery,” New York Times, May 11, 2002

      “Terror by Mail,” Washington Post, Editorial May 12, 2002

      Letter from John E. Collingwood, Assistant Dir., Office of Public and Congressional Affairs, F.B.I., to Editor of New York Times, May 11 Editorial May 18, 2002 “F.B.I.’s Anthrax Inquiry”

      “Anthrax Letters: More Disinformation?”, May 13, 2002

      “U.S. Intercepting Messages Hinting at a New Attack,” New York Times, May 19, 2002

      “The Men Who Knew Too Little,” Los Angeles Times, May 19, 2001

      United States Department of Justice,” Immigration and Naturalization Service’s Contacts With Two September 11 Terrorists,” May 20, 2002

      “FBI to polygraph workers in Md., Utah on anthrax,” Baltimore Sun, May 21, 2002

      “Does Al Qaeda Have Anthrax? Better Assume So,” National Journal, June 1, 2002

      “FBI Reform: Connect Anthrax Dots: Re’Lone wolf’ theory is evidence of the Bureau’s ineptitude,” Wall Street Journal, June 3, 2002

      “Sender Unknown,” New Republic, June 4, 2002

      “Anthrax: Look for International Terrorist Sources, Columnist [Rauch[ Says,” National Journal, June 4, 2002

      “Administration Sued in Anthrax Case,” Associated Press, June 7, 2002

      “White House Faces Disclosure Suit: Group Says Government Had Braced for Anthrax Attacks,” Washington Post, June 8, 2002, A11

      Congressman Mike Pence, “Request for Update on FBI Anthrax Investigation,” June 11, 2002

      “Why We Fight America’: Al-Qa’ida Spokesman Explains September 11 and Declares Intentions to Kill 4 Million Americans with Weapons of Mass Destruction,” Middle East Media Research Institute, Special Dispatch Series – No. 388 June 12, 2002 No. 388.

      “Scientists: FBI Questions Suggest Insider Grew Spores At Lab, Refined Them Elsewhere,” Hartford Courant, June 13, 2002

      “U-S. Based Charity Is Under Scrutiny,” New York Times, June 14, 2002

      “Pence wants the FBI to look at foreign links to anthrax letters,” Star Press, June 14, 2002

      “FBI Probes Leads on Anthrax Source,” Associated Press, June 14, 2002

      “Sept 11 as Right-Wing U.S. Plot; Conspiracy Theory Grips French,” New York Times, June 22, 2002

      “Anthrax in Mail Was Newly Made, Investigators Say,” New York Times, June 22, 2002

      “Anthrax Spores From Hill Said to Be Made Recently,” Washington Post, June 23, 2002

      “New Anthrax Attack Fear,” BBC, June 24, 2002

      “Anthrax: FBI Investigating About 30 Scientists, Searching Homes,” Global Security News, June 28, 2002

      Andrew Higgins, Alan Culli, “Saga of Dr. Zawahri Sheds Light On the Roots of al Qaeda Terror,” Wall Street Journal, July 2, 2002

      “Their Faraway Eyes; In LAX Case, As In Anthax, FBI Averts Its Gaze,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 14, 2002

      Rocco Parascandola, “Guilty Plea in Fraud Case But Feds Fear Pakistani’s Purpose for buying Food Mixer,” Newsday , July 15, 2002.

      “Solving the Anthrax Case—With No Mistakes,” Newsweek, July 15, 2002″Who Is Syed Athar Abbas?” Weekly Standard, July 17, 2002

      “Al Qaeda Weapons Worries,” CBS News, July 18, 2002

      Nicholas Kristof, “Case of the Missing Anthrax,” New York Times, July 19, 2002

      “White House Warns on Anthrax Tests,” Associated Press, July 19, 2002

      “Anthrax: The Noose Widens,” TIME, July 29, 2002

      “At anthrax base, ‘space suits’ and haze of suspicion,” Christian Science Monitor, July 25, 2002

      “Army aims to correct ‘sloppy methods’ after accidental release of anthrax spores,” Associated Press, July 27, 2002

      “Slowness in Tracking Down Anthrax Killer is Intolerable,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, July 28, 2002

      “Inquiry targets Muslim charities in the Palouse: WSU and U. of Idaho groups investigated,” Seattle Post-Intelligencer, August 2, 2002

      “Lab security may not prevent anthrax theft,” United Press International, August 3, 2002

      “Still No Arrests in Anthrax Probe, but ‘Progress’ Is Noted,” Washington Post, August 4, 2002

      “Hunt for the Anthrax Killer,” Newsweek, August 12, 2002 issue

      “Anthrax probe proceeding with increased vigor,” USA Today, August 8, 2002

      “Anthrax Investigators Test Mailbox in Princeton Area,” Wall Street Journal, August 12, 2002

      “Scientist Wants Leaks Investigated,” CBS, August 12, 2002

      “Scientist says he’s anthrax ‘fall guy’,” Baltimore Sun, August 12, 2002

      “The Hunt for the Anthrax Killer,” Newsweek, August 12, 200

      Scott Shane, “FBI defends anthrax inquiry: Bureau denies leaking Hatfill’s name to reporters, alerting them to searches,” Baltimore Sun, August 13, 2002

      “Leaks, focus on single suspect undercut anthrax probe,” Los Angeles Times, June 28, 2008

      “Martin Schram: When the only evidence is barking dogs,” Naples News (Scripps Howard), August 14, 2002″FBI and Anthrax: Another TWA 800 in the Making?” NewsMax, August 14, 2002

      “Attorney protests anthrax case leaks FBI agents investigate tainted mailbox in N.J.,” USA Today, August 15, 2002

      Phil Brennan, “FBI Ignored Letter in Anthrax Probe,” Newsmax, August 15, 2002

      “Lab Suggests Qaeda Planned to Build Arms, Officials Say,” New York Times, September 14, 2002

      “F.B.I. to question suspect in Malaysia,” New York Times, September 18, 2002

      Azzam Publications, “Statement from Regarding Closure of its Web-site,” E-mail statement issued on September 24, 2002

      Alibek Doubts FBI Claims on Hatfill,”, October 3, 2002

      “Former Army Scientist Forged Ph.D. Certificate,” Baltimore Sun, October 9, 2002

      “An Anthrax Widow May Sue U.S.,” Hartford Courant, October 9, 2002

      “Terrorist Link Looked at Ohio Water Supply, FBI Probing,” NewsMax, Oct. 9, 2001

      “Biowarriors,” Washington Post, October 10, 2002

      “U.S. Indicts Head Of Islamic Charity In Qaeda Financing,” New York Times, October 10, 2002

      “Armchair Sleuths Track Anthrax Politically Correct Profiling Without a Badge,” Wall Street Journal, October 14, 2002

      “Czechs retract terror link,” UPI, October 20, 2002

      “Prague Discounts an Iraqi Meeting,” New York Times, October 21, 2002

      “Deadly Delivery,” TIME, October 22, 2001

      “Al-Qaeda: Pakistani Held for Providing Biological, Chemical Weapons,” Global Security News, October 22, 2002

      “Surgeon Accused of Aiding Al Qaeda,” Gulf News, October 23, 2002

      “Six Weeks in Autumn,” Washington Post, October 27, 2002

      “FBI’s Theory On Anthrax Is Doubted,” Washington Post, October 27, 2002

      “Anthrax: Scientists Criticize FBI’s Theory on Lone Culprit in Attacks,” Global Security News, October 28, 2002

      “Anthrax: Experts Dog Bloodhound Usage in ‘Amerithrax’ Investigation,” Global Security News, October 29, 2002

      “FBI’s use of bloodhounds in anthrax probe disputed,” Baltimore Sun, October 29, 2002

      “FBI Working to Replicate Type of Anthrax Used in Last Year’s Deadly Mailings,” Washington Post, November 1, 2002

      “FBI Laments Lack of Anthrax Arrests,” Los Angeles Times, November 2, 2002

      “FBI Secretly Trying to Re-Create Anthrax From Mail Attacks,” Washington Post, November 2, 2002

      “Anthrax powder from attacks could have been made simply,” Baltimore Sun, November 3, 2002

      “Anthrax: FBI Attempts to Recreate Spores Used in Attacks,” Global Security News, November 4, 2002

      “Anthrax Under Microscope,” Washington Post, November 5, 2002

      “US suspects Al Qaeda creating bio weapons,” UPI, November 11, 2002

      “FBI science experiment could help anthrax investigation,” Global Security Newswire, November 11, 2002

      “Anthrax: Experts Praise New Investigative Tactic,” Global Security News, November 11, 2002

      “Study: Lowlevel anthrax exposure not as dangerous,” Miami Herald, November 12, 2002

      “Anthrax use questioned in Dugway investigation,” Tooele (Utah) Transcript Bulletin, November 14, 2002

      “Pakistan ordered to produce ‘anthrax’ surgeon,'” Times, November 15, 2002

      “Iraqis ‘infiltrated UK germ labs'”, BBC News, November 16, 2002

      “Senior Intelligence Officials ‘100 Percent Certain’ bin Laden had Succeeded in ‘Making and Experimenting’ with Small Amounts of Biological, Chemical Agents Before the U.S. Attack on Afghanistan,” November 17, 2002

      “Anthrax: a Political Whodunit,” ABC Australia Background Briefing, November 17, 2002 (and Part II)

      “Top Pakistani doctor released,” BBC News, November 19, 2002

      Ross E. Getman, “Al Qaeda, Anthrax and Ayman: means, opportunities, motive and modus operandi,”, November 20, 2002

      “Surgeon reveals he met ‘well’ bin Laden in Kabul,” Times Online, November 28, 2002

      “Islamic groups ‘slither’ into Egyptian society,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, December 1, 2002

      “U.S. policies causing Islamists rage, some say,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, December 1, 2002

      “Skilled Technician Behind Anthrax Attacks, New CDC Director Believes,” DefenseLINKnews, December 9, 2002

      “Office Activity Stirs Up WeeksOld Anthrax Spores,” Reuters, December 10, 2002

      GAO Statement, “Diffuse Security Threats: Information on U.S. Domestic Anthrax Attacks, December 10, 2002

      “Secondary Aerosolization of Viable Bacillus anthracis Spores in a Contaminated US Senate Office,” JAMA, December 2002

      “After 9/11, Universities Are Destroying Biological Agents,” New York Times, December 17, 2002

      US Department of Justice Press Release, “Senior Leader of Hamas and Texas Computer Company Indicted For Conspiracy To Violate U.S. Ban On Financial Dealings With Terrorists,” December 18, 2002

      “Pakistan Security Authorities Arrest Doctor, Relatives for al-Qa’ida Links,” The News, December 20, 2002

      Richard M. Smith, “The Princeton crime scene?” ComputerBytesMan, December 20, 2002

      “With Dog Detectives, Mistakes Can Happen,” New York Times, December 24, 2002

      • DXer said

        “Dhafir’s Lawyer’s Status At Issue – Also, Doctor’s Former Business Partner Suspected Of Link To Anti-U.S. Group,” Post-Standard, January 23, 2004

        “U.S. Action Halted Al-Qaeda WMD Effort in Afghanistan, Officials Say,” Global Security News, January 27. 2004

        “How Saudi wealth fueled holy war: Charity leader funded fighters to spread and defend Islam,” Chicago Tribune, February 22, 2004

        “Montasser Al-Zayat Walks a Legal Tightrope,” Arab News, March 2, 2005

        “WTC boss feared anthrax attack,” Toronto Star, May 19, 2004

        “George Tenet 9/11 written statement,” MSNBC, March 24, 2004

        “An Egyptian doctor is Osama bin Laden’s deadly deputy,” Age, March 29, 2004

        Scott Shane, “Judge postpones Hatfill’s Lawsuit: Decision comes after FBI provides secret reports on progress of anthrax probe,” Baltimore Sun, March 30, 2004

        “Feds release al-Marri documents: Declassified papers detail alleged al-Qaida links, orders,” Peoria Journal Star, April 12, 2004

        “Interrogation: Al Qaeda and Anthrax,” Newsweek, April 12, 2004

        “Suspicious Powders, Packages Keep FBI Unit on Edge,” Washington Post, April 13, 2004

        “IANA’s link to case is unclear,” Ann Arbor News, April 16, 2004

        “Feds find lax security at anthrax lab,” Associated Press, April 22, 2004

        “FBI Checking Crop-Dusting Planes, Pilots,” Associated Press, April 22, 2004

        “MPs Back Security Screen After Anthrax Warning,” Press Association, April 22, 2004

        Betsy Z. Russell “Al-Hussayen urged support for group: Evidence: Suspect advised brother to donate,” Spokane Review, April 30, 2004

        “An Imam in Exile: Haddad breaks his silence,” Metro Times, March 17, 2004

        “Microbes in court,”, May 10, 2004

        “FBI Retracing Steps In Anthrax Investigation,” Hartford Courant, May 16, 2004

        “FBI anthrax probe revisits former Detrick researcher,” Associated Press, May 16, 2004

        “Researcher [Detrick] quizzed again in anthrax probe,” CNN, May 17, 2004

        “Transcript: Ashcroft, Mueller news conference,”, May 26, 2004

        “US lab is sent live anthrax,” Scientist, June 11, 2004

        9/11 Commission Staff Statement, June 16, 2004

        “U.S. Raids N.Va. Office Of Saudi-Based Charity,” Washington Post, June 2, 2004; Page B01

        “Distinct signature found in ’01 anthrax,” Baltimore Sun, July 4, 2004

        “Lists of Sindh’s top terrorists,” Daily Times, July 9, 2004

        “Anthrax Probers Still Seek Md. Leads: Frederick Remains A Focus of Attention,” Washington Post, July 18, 2004

        “FBI probe shuts labs: Detrick searched for attack evidence,” Frederick News-Post, July 21, 2004

        “Anthrax Probe Takes Over Army Labs,” Fox News, July 20, 2004

        “FBI Imposes October Deadline to Make a Case in the 2001 Anthrax Poisonings,” ABC News, July 20, 2004

        “Closing of lab marks renewed intensity in anthrax probe,” Baltimore Sun, July 21, 2004

        John Zimmerman, “Sayyid Qutb’s Influence On the 11 September Attacks,” Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol. 16, No. 2 (Summer 2004), pp. 222-252.

        “Agents search homes of bioterror expert,” Baltimore Sun, August 6, 2004

        “FBI queried ex neighbors of anthrax probe figure,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, August 7, 2004

        “Terror Suspect’s Opens New Inquiries,” Washington Post, August 8, 2004

        “New Jersey Man [Mokhtar] Investigated In Terror Probe: U.S. Attorney Alleges Link to Suspect Jailed in Britain,” CNN, August 9, 2004

        “Anthrax Probe: Two Views of FBI Investigation,” WGRZ-TV, August 10, 2004

        “N.Y. man [Mohammed Junaid Babar] admits he aided al Qaeda set up jihad camp,” CNN, August 11, 2004

        “CDC chief tours K.C. facilities, discusses anthrax, bioterrorism,” Lawrence (KS) Journal-World, August 12, 2004

        “FBI Took Coolers From Anthrax Investigation,” Fox News, August 18, 2004

        “Anthrax Leaks Blamed on Lax Safety Habits,” Los Angeles Times, August 20, 2004

        “1.5B for labs only fuels my bioterror,” New York Daily News, (columnist) August 22, 2004

        Alan Cullison, “Inside Al-Qaeda’s Hard Drive,” The Atlantic Monthly, September 2004

        “Osama Vid Played At Terror Trial,” New York Daily News, September 8, 2004

        “Declaration of Jeffrey N. Rapp, Director, Joint Intelligence Task Force for Combating Terrorism,” United States v. Al-Marri, dated Sept. 9, 2004

        “GAO: U.S. underestimated risks of anthrax,” Seattle Post-Intelligencer, September 9, 2004

        “Bush administration accuses Saudi charity of financing terrorism,” USA Today (AP), September 9, 2004

        “Va. Islamic Leader Faces Jihad Charges,” Washington Post, September 24, 2004

        “Islamic Scholar From Virginia Is Charged in Holy War Plot,” New York Times, September 24, 2004

        “Staten Island Phone Lets U.S. Eavesdrop on Global Militants,” New York Times, October 2, 2004

        “Interest in Bioterror Issues Puts Doctor Under Scrutiny and His Life in Turmoil,” New York Times, October 3, 2004

        “Who’s Afraid of Aafia Siddiqui?” Boston Magazine, October, 2004

        “Lawyer: Anthrax Probe MD Reeling,”, October 5, 2004

        “Anthrax Inquiry Draws Criticism From Federal Judge,” New York Times, October 7, 2004

        “Anthrax Probe Leaks Assailed,” Washington Post, October 8, 2004

        “Anthrax slip-ups raise fears about planned biolabs,” USA Today, October 14, 2004

        Katherine Ozment, “Who’s Afraid of Aafia Siddiqui?” Boston Magazine, October 2004

        “Flagged Doc Had Bridge Plan In Apt.,” Daily News, November 6, 2004

        “FBI Says N.Y. Man Had Beltway Blueprints,” Associated Press, November 6, 2004; Page A14

        “U.S. Letter Tries To Establish a Doctor’s Links to Terrorists,” New York Times, dated November 6, 2004

        “Washington-Area School Plans Biodefense Laboratory,” Global Security News, November 10, 2004

        “NYC judge lets defendant go free despite government terror allegations,” Associated Press, November 10, 2004

        “Anthrax Killer at Large,” Washington Post, December 15, 2004

      • DXer said

        “Al-Qaeda seeks toxins for biowarfare attack,” The Sunday Times, January 2, 2005

        “The Hamza connection,” Al-Ahram, January 13-19, 2005

        “Pakistani Authorities Seize Computer With Information on Anthrax, Dirty Bombs From Suspected Militant,” Global Security News, January 18, 2005

        “Al Qaeda Plan Biowarfare Attack on Britain,”, January 19, 2005

        “Al-Qaida Remains Grave Threat to United States, FBI and CIA Say,” States News Service,February 16, 2005

        “Al-Qaeda Made Biological Weapons in Georgia — French Minister,”, March 1, 2005

        “France Calls For Global Watchdog on Bio-Warfare Risk,” Reuters, March 2, 2005

        Deborah Scroggins, “The Most Wanted Woman in the World,” Vanity Fair, March 2005

        “Al-Qaida made surprising advances in ‘Agent X’ ,” Associated Press, March 31, 2005

        “Former school official faces terrorism charges,” CNN, March 31, 20055

        “Scholar ‘rock star’ to young,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, April 5, 2005

        “Witness testifies against Al-Timimi,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, April 10, 2005

        “On Al Qaeda, Totally In The Dark,” US News, April 11, 2005

        Theresa Koehler, University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center, “Anthrax: A Research Perspective,” 2005 ( with slides)

        “Muslim Scholar on Trial for Inciting Jihad,” MSNBC, April 15, 2005

        “Muslim Cleric Found Guilty in the ‘Virginia Jihad’ Case,” New York Times, April 27, 2005

        “Scholar convicted of urging holy war on US,” MSNBC, April 26, 2005

        Debra Erdley, “Al-Timimi verdict a turning point in legal war on terror,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, May 1, 2005

        “Mason Graduate Convicted on Federal Terrorism Charges,”, May 2, 2005

        “Qaeda Letters Are Said to Show Pre-9/11 Anthrax Plans,” New York Times, May 21, 2005

        Craig Whitlock, “New Swedish Documents Illuminate CIA Action Probe Finds ‘Rendition’ Of Terror Suspects Illegal,” [Agiza] Washington Post, May 21, 2005; A01

        “Al-Qaeda Gathered Equipment for Biological Weapons Laboratory Before 9/11, Documents Indicate,” Global Security News, May 23, 2005

        Ali Asad Support Committee Website, “Ali Asad Trial — May 25, 2006, Day 4,” Witness 20

        “Interpol Fears Bioterrorism,” Reuters, May 26, 2005

        “Pakistan to hand over senior al-Qaida suspect,” Houston Chronicle, May 31, 2005

        “Al-Qaeda’s Secret Emails Part One,” Asharq Alawsat, June 12, 2005

        “Al-Qaeda’s Secret Emails Part Two,” Asharq Alawsat, June 13, 2005

        “Al-Qaeda’s Secret Emails Part Three,” Asharq Alawsat, June 14, 2005

        “Al-Qaeda’s Secret Emails Part Four,” Asharq Alawsat, June 19, 2005

        “Scholar is Given Life Sentence in ‘Virginia Jihad’ Case,” New York Times, July 14, 2005

        “In Cairo Suburb, Man in Bombing Inquiry Is Described as Committed to His Studies,” New York Times, July 16, 2005

        “Terrorists Turn to the Web as Base of Operations,” Washington Post, August 7, 2005; Page A01

        “Iraq’s anthrax source traced back to Britain,” Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) , August 10, 2005

        “Egyptian chemist knew two London attackers,” Associated Press, August 10, 2005

        “Egyptian Chemist Is No Terrorist,” Christian Science Monitor, August 15, 2005

        “Little Progress In FBI Probe of Anthrax Attacks,” Washington Post, September 16, 2005

        “Investigation into 2001 Anthrax Attacks Slows,” Global Security News, September 16, 2005

        “In 4 Year Anthrax Hunt, F.B.I. Finds Itself Stymied, and Sued,” New York Times, September 17, 2005

        “Anthrax Metaphor,” Washington Post, September 22, 2005

        “Anthrax terrorists outfox the FBI: Failure of Inquiry Has Astonished Americans and Angered Widow,” Times of London, September 24, 2005

        “FBI Is Still on the Anthrax Trail,” Washington Post, (Michael Mason letter to editor), September 29, 2005

        “A new class of evidence for the courtroom,” USA Today (AP), September 30, 2005

        “Al-Qaeda’s WMD Strategy Prior to the U.S. Intervention in Afghanistan,” Jamestown Foundation, October 7, 2005

        “Experts: Bioterror Threat More Domestic Than Foreign,” Associated Press, November 2, 2005

        “Anthrax victim’s widow breaks four-year silence,” Palm Beach Post, November 5, 2005

        Commentary, “Anthrax Whodunit: Is It A Cold Case File?” Christian Science Monitor, November 10, 2005

        Phil Brennan, “Anthrax Revisited Too Many Coincidences,” November 16, 2005

        “Bio-terror strike ‘is inevitable’,” BBC News, November 21, 2005

        “Interpol chiefs warn of real risk of bioterror attack by al-Qaida,” Associated Press, November 21, 2005

        “List of “Ghost Prisoners” Possibly in CIA Custody,” Human Rights Watch, December 1, 2005

        “Reward Issued for Suspected al-Qaeda Chemist,” Global Security News, December 5, 2005

        “Foreign students face lab limits,” Daily Targum, December 12, 2005

        “Lawyers: Did NSA snoop on suspects?” CNN, December 28, 2005

      • DXer said

        “A biological threat?” Frederick News-Post, June 05, 2006

        “Cheney Believed He, His Family and Staff May Have Been Exposed in an Anthrax Attack After 9/11; Was False Alarm But Story Kept Quiet,” PR Newswire, February 19, 2006

        “Judge to Probe if NSA Spied on Scholar,” Associated Press, April 25, 2006

        “Va. Terror Case Sent Back to Lower Court: Appeals Panel Cites Eavesdropping Program,” Washington Post, April 26, 2006

        “Jihadist of Mass Destruction,” Washington Post, June 11, 2006; Page B02

        “Secretive fight against bioterror,” (Washington Post), July 30, 2006

        “A Spy Among Us?” Baltimore Sun, July 30, 2006

        “9/11 Panel Suspected Deception by Pentagon,” Washington Post , August 2, 2006

        “Zawahri: Gamaa Islamiya members join Al Qaeda,”, August 5, 2006

        “Teacher [Chandia] “Sentenced for Aiding Terrorists,” Washington Post, August 26, 2006

        Milton Viorst, “The Education of Ali Al-Timimi, ” Atlantic Monthly, August 26, 2006

        “Decoding the Origin of a Bioagent,” Science & Technology Review, September 2006

        “Hardball Tactics in an Era of Threats,” Washington Post September 3, 2006

        Muhammad Khalil al-Hakaymah, “Towards a New Strategy In Resisting the Occupier, ” September 11, 2006

        “Raid turns up cash in home: FBI seizes $134,000, computers and photos in Muslim charity probe,” The Detroit News, September 22, 2006

        “FBI Is Casting A Wider Net in Anthrax Attacks,” Washington Post, September 25, 2006

        “Anthrax for the Memories: Washington Post’s ‘rowback’,” Slate Magazine, September 25, 2006

        “Anthrax Not Weapons Grade, Official Says,” New York Times, September 26, 2006

        Congressman Rush Holt September 27, 2006 Letter to FBI Director Mueller

        “Congressman wants FBI anthrax briefing,” Seattle Post-Intelligencer, September 27, 2006

        FBI Asst. Dir. Eleni P. Kalisch September 28, 2006 FBI’s response to Congressman Holt

        “FBI denies overestimating anthrax power,” Associated Press, September 28, 2006

        George Smith, “Low-tech anthrax still deadly? FBI research widens suspect list,” Register (UK), September 29, 2006

        “Anthrax Redux,” Chemical & Engineering News, October 2, 2006

        “Anthrax attacks fodder for rumors,” Palm Beach Post, October 5, 2006

        “Anthrax suspect as elusive as bin Laden,” USA Today, October 5, 2006

        “Security Fears At Anthrax Labs,” Hartford Courant, October 8, 2006

        “Questions on anthrax swirl anew for the FBI,” Newark Star-Ledger, October 9, 2006

        “Unsolved Case Of Anthrax,” Washington Post, October 15, 2006

        “Congress, FBI battle over anthrax investigation,” NBC News, October 24, 2006

        “Top GOP Senator Joins Critics of FBI Anthrax Probe,” New York Sun, October 25, 2006

        “Suspect and A Setback In Al-Qaeda Anthrax Case,” Washington Post, October 31, 2006

        “U.S. Frustrated in Al-Qaeda Anthrax Case,” Global Security News, October 31, 2006

        “Many fear FBI’s anthrax case is cold,” Los Angeles Times, November 3, 2006

        Jerry Mark Long, “Strategic Culture, Al-Qaida, and Weapons of Mass Destruction,” report prepared by Science Application International Corporation for Defense Threat Reduction Agency, November 20, 2006

        Government Accountability Office (GAO), “Export Controls: Agencies Should Assess Vulnerabilities and Improve Guidance for Protecting Information at Universities,” Report to the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives (December 2006)

        “Congress demands answers on anthrax,” Associated Press, December 12, 2006

      • DXer said

        Anthrax attack posed greater potential threat than thought,” Science Daily, January 8, 2007

        State of the Union 2007

        “Study: People outside Senate office infected with anthrax,” USA Today, January 8, 2007

        “U.S. official [Crumpton] says ‘very high’ chance of terrorists acquiring and using WMDs,” Associated Press, January 17, 2006

        “Taliban spokesman caught ‘with anthrax’: Afghan governor,” Nation (Pakistan) January 17, 2007

        “Mullah Omar ‘hiding in Pakistan,” BBC, January 17, 2007

        United States Senate Hearing Before the Committee on the Judiciary, January 18, 2007

        “Three Explanations for al-Qaeda’s Lack of a CBRN Attack, The Jamestown Foundation, February 15, 2007

        “LAW and ORDER Meets BIO Crime,” Homeland Defense News, March 5, 2007

        “Egypt Details Al Qaida Revival,” Middle East Newsline, April 8, 2007

        “Tables Turned In Anthrax Probe,” CBS News, March 11, 2007

        “Suspected leader of 9/11 is Said To Confess,” New York Times, March 15, 2007

        “KSM’s World War,” Wall Street Journal, March 16, 2007

        “Unresolved story of ABC News’ false Saddam anthrax reports,”, April 9, 2007

        “Anthrax: some new findings,” American Thinker, April 9, 2007

        “Holt renews calls for anthrax probe update,” Trenton Times, April 10, 2007

        Press Release, “Holt and Postal Employees: FBI Must Account for Anthrax Case Progress: Lawmaker and Postal Workers Call on FBI to Report on Status of Five Year-old Investigation,” April 10, 2007

        Ross Getman, “The Code Used In The Anthrax Letters?” Postal Magazine, April 11, 2007

        “Response from ABC News re: the Saddam anthrax reports,”, April 11, 2007

        “Man [al-Hadi] Said to Be Bin Laden Aide Detained by U.S.,” New York Times, April 27, 2007

        “US holds ‘senior al-Qaeda figure,” BBC News, April 27, 2007

        “Bioterror scientist cites lack of funds,” [Alibek] Star-Ledger, April 28, 2007

        “FBI Briefs Senators on Anthrax Case,” Global Security News, May 4, 2007

        “U.S. Company Sued For Aiding ‘Rendition: ACLU Suit Claims Boeing Subsidiary Aided Controversial CIA Anti-Terror Program,” CBSNews, May 31, 2007

        “Anthrax, bombs and al-Qaeda,”, May 28, 2007

        Helen W. Kreuzer-Martin and Kristin H. Jarman, “Stable Isotope Ratios and Forensic Analysis of Microorganisms,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, June 2007, p. 3898-3908

        Getman, “Anthrax Mystery: Evidence Points to al-Qaida,” Newsmax, June 7, 2007

        “Selling the threat of bioterrorism,” Los Angeles Times, July 1, 2007

        “U.K. Tightens Laboratory Security,” Global Security News, July 6, 2007

        Susan Schmidt, “Trail of an ‘Enemy Combatant’: From Desert to U.S. Heartland,” Washington Post, July 20, 2007, A1

        “The Go-To Lawyer of ‘Northern Virginiastan,'” ABA Journal, September 2007

        “Gitmo Panels Struggle to Assess Facts,” Associated Press, September 9, 2007

        “Criminalizing Compassion in the ‘War on Terror,” Washington Report, September/October 2007, pp. 48-49

        “Study of bioterror agents adds to risk,” Los Angeles Times, October 3, 2007

        “Did al Qaeda mastermind the anthrax attack on the U.S. Capitol?” Press Release, October 10, 2007

        “FBI and Universities Unite to Fight Terror,” NPR, Nov-07-2007

        “FBI: Terrorists Moving Toward Greater Use of WMDs, Attacks on Soft Targets,” Fox News, November 7, 2007

        “Startling implications of a jihadi letter,” American Thinker, November 9, 2007

        “Suspect in Pearl’s killing dies after interrogation; report,” AFP via Yahoo! News, November 11, 2007

        Malcolm Gladwell, “Dangerous Minds: Criminal Profiling Made Easy,” The New Yorker, November 12, 2007

        “Suspect in Pearl Killing Dies,” News24, November 12, 2007

        “Suspect in Pearl Murder Was Held, Covertly Questioned Before Death; Rights Groups Say Torture Of Detainee by Pakistan Likely Led to His Demise,” Wall Street Journal, November 12, 2007

        “Anthrax And Al Qaeda,” CBS News, November 13, 2007

        “Judge questions government’s reliability in terror trials,” Associated Press, November 20, 2007

        Jerry Markon, “Government Secrecy May Lead to New Trial In Va. Terrorism Case,” Washington Post, November 21, 2007; Page A08

        Eric Lichtblau, “Wiretap Issue Leads Judge to Warn of Retrial in Terror Case,” New York Times, November 21, 2007

        “Bidding violence farewell, Al-Ahram, November 22-28, 2007

        ‘U.S. attorney’s office accused of anthrax case leaks,” Los Angeles Times, January 12, 2007

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