CASE CLOSED … what really happened in the 2001 anthrax attacks?

* Dr. Ivins card access records in late September 2001 and early October 2001 corroborate his work with animals — “AR” on the Floor For USAMRIID Building Floor Plan Stands For “Animal Resources”

Posted by Lew Weinstein on April 19, 2011

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5 Responses to “* Dr. Ivins card access records in late September 2001 and early October 2001 corroborate his work with animals — “AR” on the Floor For USAMRIID Building Floor Plan Stands For “Animal Resources””

  1. DXer said

    A 1998 study by Dr. Ivins and colleagues supported use of rabbits and compared the pathology of subcutaneous challenge versus aerosol challenge.

    August / September 2001 emails indicate that Dr. Ivins preferred subcutaneous challenge because it could be done with fewer people and less material.

    The pathology of experimental anthrax in rabbits exposed by inhalation and su…
    Gary M Zaucha; M Louise M Pitt; James Estep; Bruce E Ivins; Arthur M Friedlander
    Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine; Nov 1998; 122, 11; Health & Medical Complete
    pg. 982

    Rabbits were
    identified by cage card and /or by subcutaneously implanted microchips
    and were housed individually in stainless steel rabbit
    cages in a facility fully accredited by the Association for Assessment
    and Accreditation of Laboratory Anirnal Care International.
    Rabbits were fed once daily with commercial rabbit chow. Tap
    water was provided ad libitum.
    ***

    The virulent Ames strain of B. anthracis was obtained from the
    US Department of Agriculture Ames, la. It was grown in I.eighton-
    Doi medium, and spores were harvested and washed in sterile
    distilled water as described elsewhere.4 The spores were purified
    by centrifugation through 3% Renografin-76, washed
    again, resuspended in 1% phenol, and stored at 4’C.
    For subcutaneous inoculation, spores were suspended in sterile
    water for injection and then heat shocked at 60°C for 13 minutes.
    Appropriate dilutions were prepared, to achieve the desired dose
    of spores in a final volume of 0.5 mL/dose. Spore dilutio~isw ere
    held on ice until administered. Actual spore counts in the inoculum
    were verified by quantitative bacterial culture Rabbits were
    inoculated with 0.5 mL of the material (dose range, 43 to 1.56 x
    10′ colony-forming units (CFU); subcutaneous LD,,, = 1.56 X 10′
    CFU; subcutaneous lethal dose, (LD,) = 2.83 X 1fY CFU) in the
    dorsal interscapular region.

    The principal lesions of anthrax were similar in rabbits
    after subcutaneous injection or aerosol exposure. Major
    differences were the pattern of lymph node involvement,
    the presence of mediastinitis exclusiveIy in aerosol-exposed
    rabbits, and dermal lesions in subcutaneously inoculated
    rabbits. Although the disease is characterized by
    a more rapid progression in rabbits, the end-stage pathology
    of anthrax in the rabbit model appears remarkably
    similar to that of inhalational anthrax in humans, and
    it supports the use of rabbits as an appropriate animal
    model. Furthermore, the more fulrninant nature of the disease
    in rabbits could be considered advantageous in that
    it provides a rigorous test of candidate products, useful in
    the development of vaccines and therapeutic regimens
    against inhalational anthrax in humans.

    • DXer said

      Although the October 2, 2001 was by subcutaneous injection, USAMRIID researchers explained in 2001 why they chose rabbits as a model of inhalational anthrax in the journal VACCINE.

      In vitro correlate of immunity in a rabbit model of inhalational anthrax*
      M.L.M. Pitt * , r ~ .L~itt.le , B.E. Ivins, P. Fellows, J. Barth, J. Hewetson, P. Gibbs,
      M. Dertzbaugh, A.M. Friedlander

      United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21 702-501 1, USA t Received 16 April 2001; received in revised form 25 May 2001; accepted 30 May 2001
      Abstract

      Rabbits are also used for anthrax research [34,35].
      These animals are extremely sensitive to lethal infection
      by B. anthracis. The pathology of anthrax in the rabbit
      model appears remarkably h i l a r to that of inhalational
      anthrax in humans, abhough the disease progresses
      more rapidly [36]. In addition, rabbits are a
      good predictor for vaccine efficacy in rhesus monkeys
      [13]. AVA is efficacious in rabbits given two doses of
      the vaccine 4 weeks apart and aerosol challenged 3
      months later with a lethal dose of anthrax spores. We
      found a similar high degree of efficacy of AVA in
      rabbits in this study and another study of challenge
      with other B. anthracis [37]. Thus, we chose this animal
      model to develop a surrogate marker of efficacy for
      inhalational anthrax with the licensed anthrax vaccine,
      AVA.

  2. Old Atlantic said

    Bjorn Borg photo winning Wimbledon

  3. Old Atlantic said

    If the animal work was in building 1412 and not 1425 and Ivins was in the BSL3 in 1425 on those nights while the animals were in 1412, presumably the FBI and DOJ would have put that in the report.

  4. Old Atlantic said

    How do entry and exit from B301 fit into this? How did B301 relate to AR room(s)? To the entry and exit logs for AR? For Bacti?

    Was he taking a shower on all those nights or only when he went into B301?

    What is B301?

    Which room(s) are part of the BSL3? Was it a BSL2 at the time? or a BSL3?

    What is the difference in equipment?

    Did it have a glove box? Where?
    A hood? Anything else?

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