CASE CLOSED … what really happened in the 2001 anthrax attacks?

* NAS meeting with FBI … very sketchy information posted at NAS site (note NAS attendees, but not FBI)

Posted by DXer on January 22, 2011

are FBI and NAS fighting or colluding?

from the NAS website …

Closed Session Summary Posted After the Meeting

The following committee members were present at the closed sessions of the meeting:

      • Alice Gast
      • David Relman
      • Arturo Casadevall
      • Nancy Connell
      • Thomas Inglesby
      • Murray Johnston
      • Karen Kafadar
      • Richard Lenski
      • Richard Losick
      • Alice Mignerey
      • David Popham
      • Jed Rakoff
      • Robert Shaler
      • Elizabeth Thompson
      • David Walt

The following topics were discussed in the closed sessions: The committee discussed the drafting of its report.

The following materials (written documents) were made available to the committee in the closed sessions: The committee reviewed documents made available to it.

Date of posting of Closed Session Summary: January 20, 2011


14 Responses to “* NAS meeting with FBI … very sketchy information posted at NAS site (note NAS attendees, but not FBI)”

  1. DXer said

    Under FACA, wasn’t the NAS was supposed to identify the FBI and DOJ officials that they met with in mid-January 2011?

    The FBI refuses to put their scientific conclusions in writing, say things inconsistent with the public Amerithrax Summary, and then met without identifying the individuals. Under FACA, shouldn’t the NAS should identify on its project page the FBI and DOJ officials with whom it met in mid-January 2011?

    “The committee subsequently received and reviewed the third batch of materials, an additional 641
    pages of documents, and met for one final briefing with FBI and DOJ officials in mid-January
    1.6 Issues

  2. DXer said

    I guess some of these folks would have presented in Febuary 2010.

    “In addition to materials provided directly by the FBI to the committee, FBI officials also
    briefed the committee on several occasions. Some of these briefings were done in open session,
    while others were conducted in closed sessions covered by FOIA Exemption 7. In these closed
    sessions the committee heard from a number of DOJ/FBI personnel including: John Fraga,
    Christian Hassell, Louis Grever, Edward Montooth, and Rachel Leiber. FBI consultant Ranajit
    Chakraborty (University of Cincinnati and currently University of North Texas Health Sciences
    Center) and Daniel Martin (Dugway Proving Ground) also briefed the committee in closed

  3. DXer said

    Is olive oil what the bloodhounds smelled at Denny’s when the FBI assume they were tracking Steve Hatfill who had visited the day before?

  4. DXer said

    There is a new book on medical forensics that discusses Amerithrax. The NAS should reach the issue of the leg lesion..

    Palm Beach Post, The (FL) – March 24, 2002

    ANTHRAX, AL-QAEDA LINKED BY LEG SORE? A leaked memo raises the specter that Al-Qaeda was behind last fall’s anthrax-letter attacks, despite months of official comments focused on home-grown terrorists and security holes at U.S. laboratories.But the evidence that could have proved a link was never collected, a symptom of cost-conscious, overworked emergency rooms and America’s innocence with terrorism.Three months before the Sept. 11 attacks, Dr. Christos Tsonas treated Ahmed Al Haznawi for a…

    New Haven Register (CT) – October 3, 2003

    Link seen between al-Qaida, 9/11, anthrax Circumstantial evidence suggests a link between al Qaeda, the 9/11 terrorist attacks, and the subsequent anthrax letters – a link that should not be ignored, said the author of a new book about the 2001 bioterror attacks. Leonard Cole, a political science professor at Rutgers University in New Jersey, released his book, “The Anthrax Letters: A Medical Detective Story,” Tuesday, two years to the day after the first clinical diagnosis in the attack.During a press…

  5. Anonymous said

    I wonder if anyone wants to submit the original NAS report?

    NY Times considers creating an ‘EZ Pass lane for leakers’

    The New York Times is considering options to create an in-house submission system that could make it easier for would-be leakers to provide large files to the paper.

    Executive editor Bill Keller told The Cutline that he couldn’t go into details, “especially since nothing is nailed down.” But when asked if he could envision a system like Al Jazeera’s Transparency Unit, Keller said the paper has been “looking at something along those lines.”

    “A small group from computer-assisted reporting and interactive news, with advice from the investigative unit and the legal department, has been discussing options for creating a kind of EZ Pass lane for leakers,” Keller said.

    It should add to the intrigue over the leaking of government information, if the Times follows the model of Al Jazeera. Earlier this month, the Qatar-based network essentially created a WikiLeaks-style “anonymous electronic drop box” but with the promise of vetting by a news organization.

  6. DXer said

    This review provides an in depth description of the current knowledge relating to the mechanisms of iron import in anthrax.

    Biometals. 2011 Jan 22. [Epub ahead of print]
    Mechanisms of iron import in anthrax.

    Honsa ES, Maresso AW.

    Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

  7. DXer said

    Ayman Zawahiri has read the article addressing the use of silicates in the culture medium. How many NAS panel members have read it? Ed certainly hasn’t.

    And if you don’t know which article addresses silicates in the culture medium — but he does — are you qualified to review his work and address the issue of the Silicon Signature in the attack anthrax?

    For the article on silicates in the culture medium that was the focus of Ayman Zawahiri’s interest, see “Online Supplement” at

    Science. 2003 Dec 12;302(5652):1898.

    Public health. Understanding threats to scientific openness.

    Petro JB, Relman DA.

    Joint Military Intelligence College, Bolling AFB, Washington, DC 20340-5100, USA.

  8. DXer said

    Dr. Zawahiri’s reading of the journal article in 1999 on the use of silicates in the culture medium demonstrated that he was an avid reader. Is it that we Americans just aren’t as hardworking as Dr. Ayman? Amerithrax represents the greatest failure of US counterintelligence analysis in history. The intelligence analyst — before the closing of Amerithrax — could have spent her time correcting Ed’s mistakes and his failure to retrieve the Frederick News-Post articles precisely addressing the issue of where Dr. Ivins lived in 1982. Or she could have pulled and read the more pertinent articles. “Camp David Accord,” PBS: Online Newshour, September 17, 1978 “Islamic Leader on U.S. Terrorist List Is in Brooklyn,” New York Times, December 16, 1990 “Bin Ladin’s Interest in Biological, Radiological Weapons” (February 2001) (cited in 911 Commission Report) “Trail of Tumult on U.S. Soil,” Washington Post, July 11, 1993 Post to soc.religion.islam dated December 8, 1993 re “Sh. Bilal Philips and Sh. Mohammad Qutb at IANA Conference.” “The Night of Qadr,” The Friday Report Newsletter,” as posted in soc.religion.islam dated February 24, 1994 Tabib, Tawfig, “Interview with Sheikh al-Mujahideen Abu Abdel Aziz,” Al-Sirat Al-Mustaqeem, Issue No. 333, August 1994. Notice in “Information & News Network” dated March 5, 1994 of March 14, 1994 lecture by B. Philips sponsored by The Society For Adherence To The Sunnah and The Islamic Assembly of North America (IANA In Cooperation With Falls Church mosque, Dar Al-Hijrah) “Trail of the Sheik — A special report; On Trial: An Islamic Cleric Battles Secularism,” New York Times, January 8, 1995 “U.S. Moving to Extradite Man Wanted by Israel,” New York Times, August 8, 1995 “MSANEWS: THE LADENESE EPISTLE: DECLARATION OF WAR,” MSANEWS, October 12, 1996 “Vanguards of Conquest Deny Sending Al-Hayat Letter Bombs,” FTS 19970415001191, London Al-Hayat in Arabic January 5, 1997 [“FBI Team Begins Investigation in Alexandria”] “Egyptian Vanguards cited on letter bombs to USA,” BBC Monitoring Summary of World Broadcasts, January 8, 1997 “No Return Address: Who Is Mailing Letter Bombs to America?” TIME, January 13, 1997 “Mail bombs sent to Arab newspaper,” Associated Press, January 14, 1997 “Transcript: State Dept. Briefing on Letter-Bomb Case (Big Reward to be offered in case by State Dept.),” August 14, 1997 Hamouda et al., “Microbiocidal effects of liposome-like microemulsions on pathogenic Gram negative bacteria.” In: American Society for Microbiology, 98th General Meeting, Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A., 1998; Abstract A-52. 47 (11 pages). “Soviet Defector [Alibek] Warns of Biological Weapons,” New York Times, February 25, 1998 “Egypt: Egyptian ‘Vanguards’ Urge ‘World Islamic Front’ to expand,” London Al-Sharq al-Awsat in Arabic, February 26, 1998 Richard Preston, “Bioweaponeers [Alibek and Patrick],” New Yorker, March 9, 1998 Press Release, “Novavax Microbicides Undergoing Testing at University of Michigan Against Biological Warfare Agents; Novavax Technology Being Supplied to U.S. Military Program At University of Michigan as Possible Defense Against Germ Warfare,” March 18, 1998 Statement by Dr. Kenneth Alibek Program Manager, Battelle Memorial Institute, before the Joint Economic Committee, United States Congress, Wednesday, May 20, 1998, “Terrorist and Intelligence Operations: Potential Impact on the U.S. Economy” “Islamic Jihad Vows Revenge,” BBC News, August 7, 1998 “Setting limits to violence?” Al-Ahram Weekly On-line, August 6-12, 1998 “Islamic group threatens more anti-U.S. attacks,” Reuters, August 19, 1998 “Bin Laden Comes Home To Roost,” MSNBC, August 24, 1998 “New Anti-Microbial Agent Destroys Anthrax, Kills Flu Virus,” The University [of Michigan] Record, September 30, 1998 “Jihad Group”, Milnet Terrorist Group Profiles, September 21, 1998 (Retrieved from PR Newswire, “Anti-Microbial Agent Shown to Destroy Anthrax, Data Presented at ICAAC: ‘New Anti-Microbial Agent Destroys Anthrax, But Doesn’t Hurt Animals Or the Environment,’ Say University of Michigan Scientists,” September 26, 1998 “Agent Destroys Anthrax, Doesn’t Hurt Animals Or The Environment,” ScienceDaily (Sep. 29, 1998) “Scientist At Work: Bill Patrick: Once He Devised Germ Weapons; Now He Defends Against Them,” New York Times, November 3, 1998 Bernard Lewis, “License to Kill, Usama Bin Ladin’s Declaration of Jihad,” Foreign Affairs, November 1998, p. 14(1) “Mass trial of suspected islamic militants,” BBC News, February 1, 1999 “Islamic Jihad ‘Confessions’ Described,” London Al-Sharq al-Awsat, (FBIS translation) March 3, 1999 “Anthrax Vial Smuggled In to Make a Point At Hill Hearing,” Washington Post, March 4, 1999 “Bin-Laden Men Reportedly Possess Biological Weapons,” Al-Sharaq al-Awsat, March 6, 1999 (FBIS/FTS 19990306000273) Jane Adas, “After Three Years’ Confinement, Immigrant Nasser Ahmed Learns Substance of ‘Secret Charges,\'” Washington Report, March 1999, pp. 34-35. “Egypt sentences 9 to death in biggest trial of militants ever,” CNN, April 18, 1999 “Counterterrorism Analysts Take Note of New Threats From Egyptian Terrorist Group,” ERRI Daily Intelligence Report, April 20, 1999 “US Said Interrogating Jihadist Over CBW,” Al-Hayat, April 21, 1999 “Nasser Ahmed Interview” “Interview with the Sheik: In MCC with Dr. Omar Abdel Rahman” “Facing an Ill Wind: The U.S. Gears Up To Deal With Biological Terrorism,” The Scientific American, April 1999, “Militants arrested in Egypt [Vanguards of Conquest], BBC, May 27, 1999 Biohazard, by Ken Alibek, New Scientist, May 29, 1999 PR Newswire, “Novavax Microbiocides Shown to Kill Bacteria, Spores, Yeast and Viruses On Contact,” June 2, 1999 “An Arsenal of Germs,” New York Times, June 20, 1999 “Conversations/Ken Alibek; Finding Penance in Going Public About Making Germs Into Bullets,” New York Times, June 27, 1999 “Novavax Receives Extension On Subcontract With the University of Michigan,” Business Wire, August 2, 1999 “Muslim Calls for Bio-Weapon Holy War,” Sunday Times, September 5, 1999 “Cleric Urges Osama to Launch Biological War Against West,” Hindustan Times, September 6, 1999 Undated typed correspondence from Pakistan scientist Rauf Ahmad to Ayman Zawahiri (produced under FOIA) Undated handwritten correspondence from Pakistan scientist Rauf Ahmad to Ayman Zawahiri (and associated notes) (produced under FOIA) “La trêve n’est pas en péril,” Hebdo, September 16, 1999 [Withdrawal of Montasser Al-Zayat from political life in protest of death of 4 Islamic Group leaders in gunfight” [translation] “Move to form Egyptian radical party,” BBC News, October 2, 1999 “Muslim Fighter [Ibn Khattab Embraces Warrior Mystique,” The New York Times, October 17, 1999 “Analysis: Islamic militants re-evaluate tactics,” BBC News, November 17, 1999 “Egyptian freed after being jailed 3 years on secret evidence,” CNN, November 29, 1999 Tarek Hamouda et al, “A Novel Surfactant Nanoemulsion with Broad-Spectrum Sporicidal Activity against Bacillus Species,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases 1999;180:1939–1949 “Killer Bacteria,” New York Times, December 19, 1999 PR Newswire, “Novavax Obtains Two Patents on Antimicrobial Emulsion Technologies – Research Published in Two Peer Reviewed Journals,” March 13, 2000 “Terror alert on anthrax,” The Sunday Age, April 6, 2000 “Methods of preventing and treating microbial infection,” United States Patent 6,506,803 (filed April 28, 2000) Paul Daley, “Report Says UBL-Linked Groups Possess ‘Deadly’ Anthrax and Plague Viruses,” Melbourne Age (Internet version), June 4, 2000 “Egyptian Bomber Arrested Downtown,” The Toronto Sun, June 27, 2000 “Nano Is Now” at Michigan — and James Baker Is Leading The Way,” Medicine at Michigan, Summer 2000 “Report on Dangerous Pathogens Conference on Anthrax, University of Plymouth, September 4-7, 2000.” “Terrorist ruse hurt giving by Muslims,” Sacramento Bee, October 20, 2000 “Ex Us soldier admits embassy bombings,” BBC News, October 20, 2000 “Mason to Pursue Advanced Biodefense Research,” The Mason Gazette, November 17, 2000 “Battelle in anthrax vaccine lab hunt,” Columbus Business First, November 24, 2000 Fatwa of Sheikh Hammoud Al-Uqlaa: 2 Ramadan 1421 / 29 November 2000. “A New Corporate Founding Partner Comes On Board at NASA FTCSC,” NASA FTCSC News , A newsletter from the NASA Food Technology Commercial Space Center,” December 2000 “Bacterial envelope mailed to minister,” Medicine Hat News, February 1, 2001 “Hoax highlights vulnerability to bioterrorism,” The Globe and Mail, February 2, 2001 HADRON SUBSIDIARY AWARDED $2.6 MILLION ANTHRAX RESEARCH CONTRACT BY THE UNITED STATES ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH AND MATERIEL COMMAND, March 22, 2001 Bailey, Charles L., Alibek, Ken, “Microdroplet cell culture technique,” (filing date March 14, 2001; publication date February 21, 2002) HADRON’S ADVANCED BIOSYSTEMS SUBSIDIARY NAMES DR. CHARLES BAILEY VICE PRESIDENT, April __, 2001 HADRON SUBSIDIARY AWARDED ADDITIONAL $1.7 MILLION FOR ANTHRAX RESEARCH BY THE UNITED STATES ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH AND MATERIEL COMMAND, dated June 14, 2001 HADRON SUBSIDIARY AWARDED NEW $3.6 MILLION BIODEFENSE CONTRACT BY DARPA, July 9, 2001 Presentation, “Comparative Studies of the Microbial-Vac™, a Non-destructive Wet-vacuum Microbial Collection System on Beef Carcasses — BRUCE J. BRADLEY, Filomena S. Saddler, and Danielle J. Prescott, Rocky Mountain Resource Labs, Inc., Jerome, ID, USA,” International Association for Food Protection, August 6, 2001 “Risk Assessment of anthrax threat letters,” Defence R&D Canada, September 2001 “Searching Across Globe, and in New Jersey Hotels and Malls,” New York Times, September 16, 2001 “Bin Laden: Architect of New Global Terrorism; Evolving Movement Combines Old Theology and Modern Technology in Mission without Borders,” Washington Post, September 16, 2001. “Chemical and Biological Weapons Pose Threat,” Associated Press, September 17, 2001 “David Siegrist: The threat from biological terrorism,” CNN, September 20, 2001 “Trail of Man Sought in 2 Plots Leads to Chicago And Arrest,” New York Times, September 21, 2001 “Aftermath of Terror: `True Believer’ Prosecutor Brings Knowledge of bin Laden to Hunt,” Wall Street Journal, September 21, 2001 “Bioterrorism: Next Threat?”, Time Magazine, September 24, 2001 “Crop-Dusters Thought to Interest Suspects,” Washington Post, September 24, 2001, A1 “WHO warns of biowarfare threat,” MSNBC, September 24, 2001 “Waiver Would Allow Military Assistance to Once-Shunned Nations,” Washington Post, September 24, 2001 “Cropdusters grounded in poison alert: Toxic threat Pesticide planes could be used to spray cities,” Guardian, September 24, 2001 “Airborne biological weapon attacks are serious concern,” New Scientist, September 24, 2001 “Bioterror Threat: Myth or Reality,” FoxNews, September 25, 2001 “National Crop-Duster Ban Expected to Be Lifted,” Knight-Ridder/Tribune Business News, September 25, 2001 “Anthrax ground zero,” Columbus Alive, September 27, 2001 “Defending Muslims in Court And Drawing Death Threats As Well as a High Profile,” New York Times, September 28, 2001 “Two Muslim Charities Under Scrutiny: Saudi-Funded Groups Deny Ties to Terrorist Networks but Cite Vulnerability,”” Washington Post, September 29, 2001 “Possibility of bio-terrorism,” National Public Radio, September 29, 2001 “U.S. Response: Washington Authorities Prepare for Biochemical Attacks,” Global Security Newswire, October 1, 2001 “Before Attack, U.S. Expected Different Hit: Chemical, Germ Agents Focus of Preparations,” Washington Post, October 2, 2001 “New substance stops germs from spreading,” Detroit Free Press, October 2, 2001 HADRON SUBSIDIARY AWARDED GRANT BY NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HEALTH TO STUDY NEW MEDICAL DEFENSES AGAINST ANTHRAX, October 2, 2001 “Biology of terrorism,” Iowa State Daily, October 2, 2001 “Labs work overtime to find anthrax source,” New Scientist, October 5, 2001 “FBI Probes Man’s Acts In Stark; Librarian Recalls Him Researching Canton Water-System Maps, Parasitic Diseases,” Akron Beacon Journal, October 5, 2001 “Terrorist Investigation Heads To Local Library,” Clickondetroit, October 5, 2001 “No Threat to Canton, Mayor Says Egyptian Man Who Researched City Water System, Parasitic Diseases at Library ‘Just Had Conversations,” Akron Beacon Journal, October 6, 2001 “Canada Orders Deportation of Man With Links to Bin Laden,” Xinhua General News Service, October 6, 2001 Ayman Zawahiri, Knights Under the Prophet’s Banner, (2001) “Anthrax Alarm,” Newsweek Web Exclusive, October 8, 2001 “Nanoparticles May Get Draft Notice As Mini Smart Bombs Against Terror,” Small Times, October 8, 2001 “Bin Laden group ‘has bio-weapons,” BBC News, October 9, 2001 “J.LoAnthrax Connection?” E! OnLine, October 9, 2001 “Anthrax probe widens as second case discovered: FBI investigating terrorism possibility,” Baltimore Sun, October 9, 2001 “British say Bin Laden Probably Has Acquired Bio, Chemical Agents; May Lack Means of Delivery,” Investor’s Business Daily, October 10, 2001 “Analysing the US anthrax attacks,” Jane’s Security News, October 12, 2001 “Cheney: Reasonable to assume anthrax cases linked to terrorists,” CNN, October 12, 2001 “Brokaw’s aide tests positive,” St. Petersburg Times, October 13, 2001 “Fear Hits Newsroom in a Cloud of Powder,” New York Times, October 14, 2001 “Bioterror Is In The Air The U.S. has failed thus far to fully address the most insidious threat,” Fortune, October 15, 2001 Safar al-Hawali, “Open Letter of Sheikh Safar Hawali to President Bush, October 15, 2001 “On the trail of anthrax: A detective story,” USA Today, October 15, 2001 “FBI: Hijacker anthrax link coincidental,” CNN, October 15, 2001 “Anthrax Anxiety: the Truth Behind The Hype,” National Review, October 15, 2001 “Shift, Officials Look Into Possibility Anthrax Cases Have bin Laden Ties,” New York Times, October 16, 2001 “Anthrax: Children and Congress Exposed,” Global Security News, October 16, 2001 “Biological weapons link to al-Qaida,” Guardian Unlimited, October 16, 2001 “Gorbachev: Terrorist using anthrax,” CNN, October 16, 2001 “ABC Producer’s Infant Contracts Anthrax of Skin,” Los Angeles Times, October 16, 2001 “Biological weapons link to al-Qaida,” Guardian Unlimited, October 16, 2001 “Anthrax suggests government expertise,” ABC News, October 16, 2001 “Ken Alibek: Preparing for the range of bioterrorism possibilities,” CNN, October 17, 2001 “Tracking Anthrax,” PBS, October 17, 2001 “Al Qaeda’s Egyptian Leaders,” Stratfor, October 18, 2001 “Anthrax: Exposure Cases Increase Dramatically,” Global Security Newswire, October 18, 2001 Richard Butler, “Who Made the Anthrax?” New York Times, October 18, 2001 “A lethal mastery of some science,” Baltimore Sun, October 18, 2001 “U.S. Response: Thompson Requests More Funding for Bioresponse,” Global Security Newswire, October 18, 2001 R. James Woolsey, “Iraq Connection,” Wall Street Journal, October 18, 2001 “Anthrax Itself May Point to Origin of Letter Sent to Daschle,” New York Times, October 18, 2001 “Stamps, bar codes give clues to letters’ source,” Associated Press, October 18, 2001 “Link Suspected in Anthrax and Hijackings,” New York Times, October 19, 2001 “Anthrax: New Infections in New York and New Jersey,” Global Security Newswire, October 19, 2001 Scott Ritter, “Don’t blame Saddam for this one,” Guardian, October 19, 2001 “Experts doubt anthrax a domestic plot,” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, October 19, 2001 “In anthrax probe, microbial clues,” Christian Science Monitor, October 19, 2001 “Newsweek Poll: Bin Laden to Blame For Anthrax,” MSNBC, October 20, 2001 “Police say letter to New York Post is anthrax-laced,” Baltimore Sun, October 21, 2001 “Did bin Laden buy bioterror? 1999 testimony says he did,” San Francisco Chronicle, October 21, 2001 “Experts seek clues in a bioterrorist’s penmanship,” USA Today, October 21, 2001 “Bioterror expert says threat has escalated,” National Journal, October 22, 2001 “Hamilton complex scrutinized by FBI after discovery of third anthrax letter,” Daily Princetonian, October 22, 2001 “Anthrax: New Infection Case in Washington,” Global Security Newswire, October 22, 2001 ” Anthrax: Two Washington Postal Workers Are Latest Victims, Global Security Newswire, October 23, 2001 “Gephardt thinks anthrax, terror attack linked,” CNN, October 23, 2001 “White House Mail Machine Has Anthrax,” Associated Press, October 23, 2001 Press Release, “Press Update by Ari Fleischer ,” October 23, 2001 “White House targeted in anthrax terror campaign,” Guardian, October 24, 2001 “Bush Emphasizes, More Than Once, That He Doesn’t Have Anthrax,” New York Times, October 24, 2001 “Anthrax Investigation: No Indication Anyone at White House Exposed to Anthrax; Are Antiobiotics Enough,” CNN, October 24, 2001 “US closer to blaming anthrax on al-Qaida: ‘Operating suspicion’ that outbreak linked to September 11,” Guardian, October 24, 2001 “Anthrax: Tainted Letter May Have Been In White House Mail,” Global Security Newswire, October 24, 2001 “Anthrax: Investigators Release Copies of Anthrax Letters,” Global Security Network, October 24, 2001 “Osama bought a batch for 10G,” New York Post, October 24, 2001 “Hand-held Vacuum Finds Hidden Pathogens, Helps Thwart Food Poisoning and Bioterrorism,” TechLink, October 25, 2001 “Bin Laden Bought Anthrax, Coli and Salmonella, Aide Tells Court,” Mirror, October 25, 2001 “Anthrax: Advanced Spores Used in Incidents, Experts Say,” Global Security News, October 25, 2001 “Al-Qa’ida bought anthrax spores, claims informer: Egyptian Connection,” The Independent, October 25, 2001 “Suspected hijacker may have transported anthrax,” AFP, October 25, 2001 “Contradicting Some U.S. Officials, 3 Scientists Call Anthrax Powder High-Grade,” New York Times, October 25, 2001 “Additive Made Spores Deadlier,” Washington Post, October 25, 2001 “Sandia scientist says anthrax attacks sophisticated,” Associated Press, October 25, 2001 “Troubling Anthrax Additive Found,” ABC News, October 26, 2001 “U.S. says Anthrax germ in mail is ‘Ames” strain,” Washington Post, October 26, 2001 “Anthrax: More Details Given on Anthrax Spores,” Global Security News, October 26, 2001 “Anthrax attacks linked to US extremists,” Guardian, October 27, 2001 “FBI and CIA Suspect Domestic Extremists,” Washington Post, October 27, 2001; Page A01 “Terrorist Manual Suggests Hijackers Did a Lot by the Book,” New York Times, October 28, 2001 “Officials Expanding Search, Warn Against Drawing Conclusions on Source,” New York Times, October 28, 2001 “Defector Tries to Undo Own Work,” New York Times, October 28, 2001 “Bin Laden’s Biological Threat,” BBC, October 28, 2001 “The West at War: Bio-Terror: Anthrax Killer Is A US Nut,” Sunday Mirror, October 28, 2001 “Anthrax: Summary of Nationwide Infections,” Global Security News, October 29, 2001 “Anthrax preparation indicates homegrown origin,” New Scientist, October 29, 2001 “Anthrax: Incidents May be the Work of Domestic Terrorists, Officials Say,” Global Security Newswire, October 29, 2001 NanoBio, “Status Report: Bio-Attack Defense,” October 29, 2001 “Silica grains detected in anthrax letter are tiny clues,” San Francisco Chronicle, October 30, 2001 “Spore Samples Are Scarce,” New York Daily News, October 30, 2001 “Anthrax: Investigators Determining Scope of “Cross-Contamination,” Global Security News, October 30, 2001 “Secret desert project on anthrax,” Scripps Howard News Service, October 30, 2001 “Domestic or foreign, anthrax terrorist wants to be associated with Sept. 11,” Associated Press, October 30, 2001 Ely Karmon, “The Anthrax Campaign: An Interim Analysis,”, October 30, 2001 “Excruciating Lessons in the Ways of a Disease,” New York Times, October 31, 2001 “Nightmare That Came In Mail,” National Enquirer, October 31, 2001 “Terrorism Through the Mail: Protecting Postal Workers and the Public,” Opening Statement by Gen. John S. Parker, Joint Hearings Before the Committee On Governmental Affairs and the Subcommittee on International Security, Proliferation and Federal Services, October 30 and 31, 2001 October 31, 2001 “Anthrax: New York Woman Is Fourth Death,” Global Security News, October 31, 2001 NBC News/WSJ poll on whether a foreign terrorist group is responsible for anthrax attacks, November 2001 “Anthrax: U.S. Investigation Continues,” Global Security News, November 1, 2001 “Bush Team Rejects U.N. Plan to Condemn Anthrax Attacks,” New York Times, November 1, 2001 Gary Matsumoto, “Additive Search Requires More Study,” ABC, November 1, 2001 “BWC: U.S. Denies It Rejected French Proposal to U.N. Security Council,” Global Security News, November 2, 2001 “Anthrax: Strain in New York Death Matches Others,” Global Security News, November 2, 2001 “The Secret is Out,” New Scientist, November 3, 2001 “Baffled F.B.I. Asks For Aid In Solving Riddle Of Anthrax,” New York Times, November 3, 2001 “Anthrax is ‘second wave’ of terrorism: Bush’s radio address,” Reuters, November 4, 2001 “Ames Strain,” New Yorker, November 5, 2001 “The Hunt For The Anthrax Killers,” TIME, November 5, 2001 “Has someone been sitting on the FBI?” BBC, Newsnight, November 6, 2001 “FBI claims Bin Laden inquiry was frustrated: Officials told to ‘back off’ on Saudis before September 11,” Guardian, November 7, 2001 “Anthrax: Small Finds in Investigation, But Larger Issues Go Unsolved,” Global Security News, November 5, 2001 “CDC Update on Anthrax Investigations,”, November 7, 2001 “Anthrax: Investigation Going Slowly, FBI Says,” Global Security News, November 7, 2001 “Partnership of Hate: Ayman al-Zawahiri, The National, November 7, 2001 “Postal inspectors investigate dying worker’s 911 call about a tainted letter,” (Associated Press), November 8, 2001 “Statement of James R. Baker, Jr., MD Ruth Dow Doan Professor of Medicine and Director of Biologic Nanotechnology, Chief, Division of Allergy & Immunology, University of Michigan, “Anthrax Decontamination,” November 8, 2001 FDCH Congressional Testimony (House Science) “Experts See F.B.I. Missteps Hampering Anthrax Inquiry,” New York Times, November 9, 2001 “Agency Looks Into Claim Doctor Had Skin Anthrax,” New York Times, November 10, 2001 “Profile of a Killer,” Time Magazine, November 11, 2001 “Al Qaeda Sites Point to Tests of Chemicals,” New York Times, November 11, 2001 “Kathy Nguyen’s Mystery Link,” Washington Post, November 11, 2001 “Bin Laden says he has bio-weapons but knew nothing of anthrax attacks,” Michigan Daily, November 12, 2001 “See This Goop? It kills anthrax and the tiny biotech startup that invented it has been thrust into a national crisis that is upending its business,” CNN Money, November 12, 2001 “Anthrax: Bin Laden Denies Involvement,” Global Security News, November 12, 2001 “Bin Laden denies anthrax attacks,” Guardian, November 12, 2001 “Doctor May Be Missing Anthrax Link,” ABC, November 12, 2001 “The Mystery Deepens,” TIME, November 12, 2001 “Bravado and blood in Taliban territory,” U.S. News & World Report, November 12, 2001 “Threat Assessment: Possible Taliban CBW Sites Found,” Global Security News, November 12, 2001 “An al Qaeda operative at Fort Bragg,” Raleigh News & Observer, November 14, 2001 “Anthrax Attacks: Who’s Liable?,” Washington Post, November 14, 2001 “Evidence suggests al Qaeda pursuit of biological, chemical weapons,” CNN, November 14, 2001 “Anthrax: CDC Uncertain Over Anthrax Exposure Risks,” Global Security News, November 16, 2001 “New Jersey Doctor Doesn’t Have Skin Anthrax,” New York Times, November 17, 2001 “Anthrax Lair: The factory’s Taliban boss hated the West. He disappeared 7 months ago with half his staff,”, November 19, 2001 “Profile of a Killer,” TIME, November 19, 2001 “HHS chief: Anthrax terrorism likely domestic,” CNN, November 20, 2001 “Afghanistan,” Global Security News, November 20, 2001 “At an Anthrax Lab, the World Changed Quickly,” New York Times, November 21, 2001 “Bin Laden’s Bay Area recruiter: Khalid Abu-al-Dahab signed up American Muslims to be terrorists,” San Francisco Chronicle, November 21, 2001 “Scientists: Taliban took interest in lab that researches anthrax,” Associated Press, November 21, 2001 “Bin Laden’s Allies; An Investigation in Egypt Illustrates Al Qaeda’s Web,” New York Times, November 21, 2001 Kathy Gannon, “Taliban Showed Interest In Anthrax Research Lab. Scientists Say An Official Paid Frequent Visits,” Boston Globe, November 22, 2001 “In the House of Anthrax,” Economist, November 22, 2001 “Deadly anthrax strain leaves a muddy trail,” Washington Post, November 25, 2001 “Imprisoned brothers,” soc.culture.pakistan.religion, November 25, 2001 (it’s “Hijackers’ interest in crop dusters puzzles investigators,” Dawn, November 25, 2001 “”Sergeant Served U.S. Army and bin Laden, Showing Failings in FBI’s Terror Policing,” Wall Street Journal, November 26, 2001 “The New Anthrax Letter: Why Senator Leahy,” TIME, November 26, 2001 “Al-Qaeda: Taliban Sought Scientists Help,” Global Security News, November 26, 2001 “Sketches of anthrax bomb found in Pakistani scientist’s office,”, November 28, 2001 “2 Pakistanis Linked to Papers on Anthrax Weapons,” New York Times, November 28, 2001 “Pakistan: Scientists Questioned About Anthrax Plans,” Global Security News, November 28, 2001 Larry M. Bush, Barry H. Abrams, M.D., Anne Beall, B.S., M.T., and Caroline C. Johnson, M.D., “Index Case of Fatal Inhalational Anthrax Due to Bioterrorism in the United States,” New England Journal of Medicine, 345:1607-1610, November 29, 2001 “Letters anthrax spores pose many obstacles to analysis,” Washington Post, November 29, 2001 “A Solution For Anthrax Mystery; Study: Spores seep through paper,” Newsday, November 30, 2001 “Ames Strain Of Anthrax Limited to Few Labs,” Washington Post, November 30, 2001 “Germ Weapon Plans Found at a Scientist’s House in Kabul,” New York Times, December 1, 2001 “Anthrax inquiry looks at U.S. labs,” New York Times, December 2, 2001 “Bronx Letter May Hold Clues to Anthrax Death: Spores Also Found in Conn. Postal Facility,” Washington Post, December 3, 2001 “Postal Center in Connecticut shows traces of anthrax,” New York Times, December 3, 2001 “Terror Anthrax Resembles Type Made by U.S.,” New York Times, December 3, 2001 “Anthrax I: Insider May Be Responsible, Experts Say,” Global Security Newswire, December 3, 2001 “Electrostatic Charge Kept Anthrax Spores From Spreading More,” Wall Street Journal, December 3, 2001 “A compilation of evidence, ” Federation of American Scientists Report (BHR) December 3, 2001 “Anthrax II: Mail May be Cross-Contaminated,” Global Security Newswire, December 4, 2001 “Anthrax I: Powder Produced Recently, Watchdog Says,” Global Security Newswire, December 4, 2001 “Russia, Iraq and Other Potential Sources of Anthrax, Smallpox and Other Bioterrorist Weapons,” Hearings Before the Committee On International Relations, House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session, December 5, 2001. “Anthrax Investigators Open Letter Sent to Senator Leahy,” New York Times, December 6, 2001 Word for Word/Jihad Lit: Beware of Hidden Enemies And Their Wolves and Foxes,” New York Times, December 9, 2001 Press Release, “Terrorist Sleeper Cells: A U.S.-Based Al Qaeda ‘Sleeper Cell’ Was Poised to Launch a Post-Sept. 11 on a Major Washington Target; Would-Be Terrorists Went Underground or Fled U.S. Evidence Indicates Al Qaeda Had Russian Help Developing Anthrax; Al-Zawahir Believed Involved in Bin Laden’s Biological Weapons Program, ” Newsweek, December 9, 2001 “Anthrax: U.S. Military May Have Ties to Incidents,” Global Security Newswire, December 10, 2001 “Al Qaeda: Anthrax Found in Al-Qaeda Home,” Global Security Newswire, December 10, 2001 “Compilation of Mailed Anthrax Evidence,” Federation of American Scientists, December 10, 2001 “Anthrax Probe Ranges Far and Wide As Investigators Scour Tips, Trash for Leads,” Wall Street Journal, December 11, 2001 “Anthrax: Tests Show Potency of Daschle Letter Spores,” Global Security News, December 11, 2001 “FBI interviews Iowa State U. international students,” University Wire, December 11, 2001 “Anthrax: U.S. Army Reconstructs Spores Used in Attacks,” Global Security Newswire, December 12, 2001 “US biological attack imminent – Taliban,” AFP , December 12, 2001 “Anthrax matches Army spores,” Baltimore Sun, December 12, 2001 “Anthrax II: U.S. Army Can Account for All Spores,” Global Security Newswire, December 13, 2001 “Anthrax I: Ridge Points to Domestic Terrorist in Mailings,” Global Security Newswire, December 13, 2001 “Army confirms making anthrax in recent years,” Baltimore Sun, December 13, 2001 “Anthrax: Investigators Question Expert,” Global Security Newswire, December 14, 2001 “U.S. Recently Produced Anthrax in a Highly Lethal Powder Form,” New York Times, December 13, 2001 “FBI queries expert who sees federal lab tie to anthrax cases,” New York Times, December 14, 2001 Press Release, “Global Relief Foundation Reacts to Freeze Order,” December 14, 2001 Philip Shenon, “F.B.I. Raids 2 of the Biggest Muslim Charities; Assets of One Are Seized,” New York Times, December 15, 2001 “Army’s Anthrax Material Surprises Some Experts,” Washington Post, December 15, 2001 “An Open Letter and Question for FBI Director, Robert Mueller, from Dr. Leonard G. Horowitz, Prepared for Broadcast on “Inside Out,” Hosted by Michael Levine on KRLA radio in Los Angeles,” December 17, 2001 “Anthrax: Senate Spores Match Those From U.S. Army,” Global Security Newswire, December 17, 2001 “The Kinko’s Connection,” TIME, December 17, 2001 “Anthrax Sent to Senate Matches Army Strain,” CNN, December 18, 2001 “Anthrax: Spores Came From Domestic Source, White House Says,” Global Security Newswire, December 18, 2001 “Anthrax: Where the Investigation Stands,” TIME, December 19, 2001 “UNM Anthrax May Be Twin To Strain in Attacks,” Albuquerque Journal, December 19, 2001 “Former Scientist Was Questioned Soon After Sept. 11,” Global Security Newswire, December 21, 2001 “Chronology of Outbreak and Investigation,” Global Security Newswire, December 21, 2001 “Inventor of anthrax process says spores will not be `smoking gun’ to identify who mailed killer letters,” Abilene Reporter-News (AP), December 21, 2001 “Anthrax Probe Story Is Baloney, FBI Says,” Columbus Dispatch, December 21, 2001 “U.S. Inquiry Tried, but Failed, to Link Iraq to Anthrax Attack,” New York Times, December 22, 2001 “Perpetrator, Motive Remain Elusive in Anthrax Case,” Washington Post, December 23, 2001 T. Hamouda and J.R. Baker, Jr., “Antimicrobial mechanism of action of surfactant lipid preparations in enteric Gram-negative bacilli,”Journal of Applied Microbiology, Volume 89, Issue 3, Pages 397-403, Dec 25, 2001 Mark Heinzl and Elena Cherney, “Canada’s Muslim Schools Try to Shelter Their Students From Western Influence,” Wall Street Journal, December 27, 2001 “Scientists at Loss in Anthrax Probe,” Newsday, December 27, 2001 “Computer in Kabul holds chilling memos,” Wall Street Journal, December 31, 2001 “Al-Qaeda: New Evidence of Chemical and Biological Weapons Pursuit,” Global Security Newswire, January 2, 2002 “Profile of a Killer,” New York Times, January 4, 2002 “Everyone has an anthrax theory,” Baltimore Sun, January 6, 2002 Iowa State University, College of Veterinary Medicine,” Anthracis Bacillus, An update on the publicity regarding the “Ames strain” of the anthrax bacillus “Clear and present? Haddad case suspiciously secret,” Michigan Daily, January 9, 2002 “Anthrax: Investigation Focuses on Domestic Source,” Global Security News, January 14, 2002 “F.B.I. Tests Rutgers Photocopiers for Clues to the Anthrax Mailer,” New York Times, January 15, 2002 “Anthrax Missing From Army Lab,” Hartford Courant, January 20, 2002 “Army Lost Track of Anthrax Bacteria: Specimens at Ft. Detrick May Have Been Lost or Stolen,” Washington Post, January 21, 2002 “FBI examined photocopiers on campus,” Princetonian, January 21, 2002 “Anthrax: U.S. Military Facility Lost Samples, Report,” Global Security News, January 22, 2002 “Anthrax: Hatch Rosenberg Analyzes Investigation Clues,” Global Security News, January 25, 2002 “FBI says Central N.J. May Hold Key to Solving Anthrax Mystery,” Washington Post, January 23, 2002 FBI Reward Poster, January 23, 2002 “FBI, Postal Service Raise Anthrax Reward to $2.5 Million,” CNN transcript, January 23, 2002 “One Anthrax Answer: Ames Strain Not From Iowa,” Washington Post, January 29, 2002 “FBI Sends EMail to 40,000 Scientists Requesting Tips: Requesting Tips in Anthrax Probe,” Wall Street Journal, January 29, 2002 “Geographic Gaffe Misguides Anthrax Inquiry,” New York Times, January 30, 2002 “Tracing anthrax spores to a lab in Texas,” NPR, January 30, 2002 “Ames anthrax famous, but strain from other state,” Iowa State Daily, February 1, 2002 “FBI issues anthrax appeal,” BBC, February 5, 2002 “Anthrax Mystery Turns Scholars Into Sleuths,” Hartford Courant, February 6, 2002 “FBI’s New Approach in Search For Anthrax Mailer Focuses on Labs,” Wall Street Journal, February 7, 2002 “Is a U.S. bioweapons scientist behind last fall’s anthrax attacks?”, February 8, 2002 Anthrax: “Amerithrax” Investigation Too Broad, Experts Say,” Global Security News, February 8, 2002 “Agency With Most Need Didn’t Get Anthrax Data,” Washington Post, February 10, 2002 “Scientist’s Findings Could Aid Anthrax Inquiry,” New York Times, February 13, 2002 “GMU Bioterrorism Center Unites Former Foes,” Washingon Post, February 14, 2002 “Investigators explore new anthrax suspect,” Daily Princetonian, February 19, 2002 “Expert: Anthrax scientist ID’d,” Trenton Times, February 19, 2002 “No One Asked Questions: Scientists Recount U.S. Biodefense Labs’ Security Lapses,” Washington Post, February 19, 2002 “Anthrax suspect ‘is US scientist\'” Guardian, February 20, 2002 “‘US scientist’ is suspect in anthrax investigation,” Guardian Unlimited, February 20, 2002 “FBI scrutinizes biodefense labs in anthrax probe,” Baltimore Sun, February 22, 2002 “FBI Not Close to Identifying Anthrax Probe Suspect,” Reuters, February 25, 2002 “U.S. Says Short List of ‘Suspects’ Is Being Checked,” New York Times, February 26, 2002 “FBI Still Lacks Identifiable Suspect in Anthrax Probe,” Washington Post, February 26, 2002 “Anthrax: FBI Denies Report of Targeted Suspect,” Global Security News, February 26, 2002 “Labs Are Sent Subpoenas for Samples of Anthrax,” New York Times, February 27, 2002 “FBI demands anthrax lab samples,” BBC News, February 28, 2002 “US bio-defence security lax,” BBC News, March 1, 2002 “Get on the case: Why is the FBI ignoring vital clues in the hunt for the anthrax attacker?” New Scientist, March 2, 2002 “Science Could Help to Crack Anthrax Case,” Los Angeles Times, March 3, 2002 “Anthrax: Watching the Detectives,” National Journal, March 4, 2002 “Experience at Work in FBI Anthrax Case,” Washington Post, March 4, 2002 “Anthrax story: Detrick cleared,” Frederick News Post, March 6, 2002 “On the trail of the anthrax killer,” Toronto Globe And Mail, March 6, 2002 “Anthrax Spread Reduced by Static Charges,” ESD Journal, March 8, 2002 Robert A. Muller, “Cropduster Terrorism,” MIT Technology Review, March 11, 2002 “Anthrax Culprit” (interview with Barbara Hatch Rosenberg), New Yorker, March 11, 2002 “Anthrax attacks,” BBC, March 14, 2002 “Anthrax Fumble,” Nation, March 18, 2002 “U.S. Concludes Al Qaeda Lacked A Chemical Or Biological Stockpile,” New York Times, March 20, 2002 “U.S. Says It Found Qaeda Lab Being Built to Produce Anthrax,” New York Times, March 23, 2002 “Al Qaeda-Anthrax Link?,” CBS News, March 23, 2002 “Report Linking Anthrax and Hijackers Is Investigated,” New York Times, March 23, 2002 “US says al-Qaeda weapons lab found,” BBC News, March 22, 2002 “Hijacker’s lesion deepens mystery,” Baltimore Sun, March 24, 2002 “Ashcroft: US Still Primary Focus of Anthrax Investigation,” Voice of America, March 24, 2002 “Anthrax, ricin detected in Afghan labs,” United Press International, March 25, 2002 “United States Al-Qaeda Anthrax Laboratory,” Global Security News, March 25, 2002 “Anthrax II: Officials Examine Sept. 11 Hijacker’s Connection to Disease,” Global Security News, March 25, 2002 “CHAT: Ask the FBI: anthrax investigation,” USA, March 26, 2002 “Spore Traces Found in Afghan Laboratory,” Myers Says,” Global Security News, March 26, 2002 “Terrorists switch to ultra-lights,” Calgary-Herald, March 26, 2004 “Al Qaeda is still a bioterrorism threat,” Wall Street Journal, March 26, 2002 “Anthrax at al-Qaida sites; U.S. cautions that small amounts could be naturally occurring,” Hearst Newspapers, March 26, 2002 “Anthrax II: Connecticut Woman Might Have Died From Junk Mail,” Global Security News, March 27, 2002 “Mystery Death From Anthrax Is Analyzed,” New York Times, March 27, 2002 “Anthrax terror remains a mystery,” CNN, March 27, 2002 “Memo on Florida Case Roils Anthrax Probe: Experts Debate Theory Hijacker Was Exposed,” Washington Post, March 28, 2002 “Anthrax: Experts Debate Possible New Sept. 11 Connection,” Global Security News, March 29, 2002 “FBI Questions UK Scientists,” Daily Telegraph, (London) March 31, 2002 “Lessons from the Anthrax Attacks,” FAS Website, April 2002 (pdf) “Bioterror Agents Join List of `Emerging’ Ills,” New York Times, April 2, 2002 “Anthrax: Investigation Could Reveal U.S. Offensive Program, Expert Says,” Global Security News, April 3, 2002 “FBI giving polygraph tests in anthrax probe,” CNN, April 5, 2002 “More Anthrax Tests Planned,” Hartford Courant, April 5, 2002 “Secret New Analysis Suggests Anthrax Attacker May Be a Scientific Whiz,” MSNBC, April 7, 2002 “Tracking the Anthrax Attacks,” TIME, April 8, 2002 “Anthrax: Spores Are More Sophisticated Than Previously Thought, Analysis Says,” Global Security News, April 8, 2002 “‘Thousands’ could be anthrax suspects,” USA Today, April 9, 2002 “Anthrax: Thousands of Suspects Possible, Law Enforcement Says,” Global Security News, April 9, 2002 “Anthrax: USAMRIID to Assist in “Amerithrax” Investigation,” Global Security News, April 10, 2002 “Official: Unusual coating in anthrax mailings,” CNN, April 11, 2002 “Attorney among 4 accused of supporting terrorism,”, April 10, 2002 “Many leads, many dead ends,” US News & World Report, April 15, 2002 “A Sophisticated Strain of Anthrax,” Newsweek, April 15, 2002 “Al Qaeda’s Anthrax: Osama bin Laden behind the mail attacks?” Technology Review, April 16, 2002 “Powder Used in Anthrax Attacks ‘Was Not Routine’,” Washington Post, ApriI l 8, 2002 “Anthrax: Handwriting Analysis Refines Investigation Profile,” Global Security News, April 18, 2002 Richard M. Smith, “Why did the attacks stop?”, April 20, 2002 “Scientists Weigh In With Deductions on Anthrax Killer,” Los Angeles Times, April 21, 2002 “Anthrax: USAMRIID Worker Exposed, Pentagon Says,” Global Security News, April 22, 2002 “Transcripts Offer First Look At Secret Federal Hearings,” New York Times, April 22, 2002 “Florida Discovered Intentional Attack, Ties to Mail, Report Says,” Global Security News, April 23, 2002 “FBI ‘Amerithrax’ Investigation Focus Misguided, Commentator [David Tell] Says,” Global Security News, April 24, 2002 “2nd Leak Of Anthrax Found at Army Lab,” Washington Post, April 24, 2002 Francis Boyle, “Biowarfare, Terror Weapons and the US,” Counterpunch, April 25, 2002 “Army questions scientist’s motives for anthrax search,” Frederick News-Post, April 26, 2002 “Remember Anthrax?: Despite the evidence, the FBI won’t let go of its ‘lone American’ theory,” Weekly Standard, April 29, 2002 “Coalition uncovers possible anthrax lab,” Air Force Magazine, May 2002 “Peter Lance Interview” Intervew with Radical Attorney Lynne Stewart “Anthrax as a Biological Weapon,” Journal of the American Medical Association, May 1, 2002 “Anthrax Sent Through Mail Gained Potency by the Letter,” New York Times, May 7, 2002 “Postal Theory: Mail Sorter Acted as Mill For Anthrax,” New York Times, May 9, 2002 “Gene research may help solve anthrax mystery,”, May 9, 2002 :Scientists Find New Markers For Anthrax Isolates,” TIGR Press Release, May 9, 2002 “Clues to Anthrax Attacks Found,” Washington Post, May 9, 2002 “Senators Criticize FBI Chief For Not Acting on Warning: Mueller Says Plot Would Not Have Been Uncovered,” Washington Post, May 9, 2002 “Global Relief Foundation tied to 1998 terrorist,” Michigan Daily, May 9, 2002 Editorial, “Deepening Anthrax Mystery,” New York Times, May 11, 2002 “Terror by Mail,” Washington Post, Editorial May 12, 2002 Letter from John E. Collingwood, Assistant Dir., Office of Public and Congressional Affairs, F.B.I., to Editor of New York Times, May 11 Editorial May 18, 2002 “F.B.I.’s Anthrax Inquiry” “Anthrax Letters: More Disinformation?”, May 13, 2002 “U.S. Intercepting Messages Hinting at a New Attack,” New York Times, May 19, 2002 “The Men Who Knew Too Little,” Los Angeles Times, May 19, 2001 United States Department of Justice,” Immigration and Naturalization Service’s Contacts With Two September 11 Terrorists,” May 20, 2002 “FBI to polygraph workers in Md., Utah on anthrax,” Baltimore Sun, May 21, 2002 Nicholas D. Kristof, “Connecting Deadly Dots,” New York Times, June 1, 2002 “Does Al Qaeda Have Anthrax? Better Assume So,” National Journal, June 1, 2002 “FBI Reform: Connect Anthrax Dots: Re’Lone wolf’ theory is evidence of the Bureau’s ineptitude,” Wall Street Journal, June 3, 2002 “Sender Unknown,” New Republic, June 4, 2002 “Anthrax: Look for International Terrorist Sources, Columnist [Rauch[ Says,” National Journal, June 4, 2002 “Administration Sued in Anthrax Case,” Associated Press, June 7, 2002 “White House Faces Disclosure Suit: Group Says Government Had Braced for Anthrax Attacks,” Washington Post, June 8, 2002, A11 Congressman Mike Pence, “Request for Update on FBI Anthrax Investigation,” June 11, 2002 “Why We Fight America’: Al-Qa’ida Spokesman Explains September 11 and Declares Intentions to Kill 4 Million Americans with Weapons of Mass Destruction,” Middle East Media Research Institute, Special Dispatch Series – No. 388 June 12, 2002 No. 388. “Scientists: FBI Questions Suggest Insider Grew Spores At Lab, Refined Them Elsewhere,” Hartford Courant, June 13, 2002 Dr. Barbara Hatch Rosenberg, “Anthrax Case: What the FBI Knows,” June 13, 2002 “U-S. Based Charity Is Under Scrutiny,” New York Times, June 14, 2002 “Pence wants the FBI to look at foreign links to anthrax letters,” Star Press, June 14, 2002 “FBI Probes Leads on Anthrax Source,” Associated Press, June 14, 2002 “Sept 11 as Right-Wing U.S. Plot; Conspiracy Theory Grips French,” New York Times, June 22, 2002 “Anthrax in Mail Was Newly Made, Investigators Say,” New York Times, June 22, 2002 “Anthrax Spores From Hill Said to Be Made Recently,” Washington Post, June 23, 2002 “New Anthrax Attack Fear,” BBC, June 24, 2002 “FBI Searches Home in Anthrax Probe,” Washington Post, June 25, 2002 “Search of Biologist is Uneventful,” New York Times, June 26, 2002 “Blueprint for Anthrax Attack,” ABC News, June 27, 2002 “Scientist theorized anthrax mail attack,” Baltimore Sun, June 27, 2002 “Biological Warfare Experts Questioned in Anthrax Probe,: More Than Two Dozen Homes Searched By FBI,” Washington Post, June 27, 2002 “Anthrax: FBI Investigating About 30 Scientists, Searching Homes,” Global Security News, June 28, 2002 “FBI’s anthrax probe focuses on scientists.” Associated Press, June 29, 2002 Nicholas Kristof, “Anthrax? F.B.I. Yawns,” New York Times, July 2, 2002 Andrew Higgins, Alan Culli, “Saga of Dr. Zawahri Sheds Light On the Roots of al Qaeda Terror,” Wall Street Journal, July 2, 2002 “Questions Nobody Wants To Ask,” Red Flags Weekly (Meryl Nass), July 8, 2002 “Anthrax case homes in on unusual suspect,” Christian Science Monitor, July 10, 2002 Nicholas Kristof, “Anthrax Files,” New York Times, July 12, 2002 “Their Faraway Eyes; In LAX Case, As In Anthax, FBI Averts Its Gaze,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 14, 2002 Rocco Parascandola, “Guilty Plea in Fraud Case But Feds Fear Pakistani’s Purpose for buying Food Mixer,” Newsday , July 15, 2002. “Solving the Anthrax Case—With No Mistakes,” Newsweek, July 15, 2002 “FBI ‘guilty of coverup’ over anthrax suspect,” Scotland, July 16, 2002 “Who Is Syed Athar Abbas?” Weekly Standard, July 17, 2002 “Al Qaeda Weapons Worries,” CBS News, July 18, 2002 Nicholas Kristof, “Case of the Missing Anthrax,” New York Times, July 19, 2002 “White House Warns on Anthrax Tests,” Associated Press, July 19, 2002 “Anthrax: The Noose Widens,” TIME, July 29, 2002 “At anthrax base, ‘space suits’ and haze of suspicion,” Christian Science Monitor, July 25, 2002 “Army aims to correct ‘sloppy methods’ after accidental release of anthrax spores,” Associated Press, July 27, 2002 “Slowness in Tracking Down Anthrax Killer is Intolerable,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, July 28, 2002 “Inquiry targets Muslim charities in the Palouse: WSU and U. of Idaho groups investigated,” Seattle Post-Intelligencer, August 2, 2002 “Lab security may not prevent anthrax theft,” United Press International, August 3, 2002 “Still No Arrests in Anthrax Probe, but ‘Progress’ Is Noted,” Washington Post, August 4, 2002 “Hunt for the Anthrax Killer,” Newsweek, August 12, 2002 issue “Anthrax probe proceeding with increased vigor,” USA Today, August 8, 2002 “Anthrax Investigators Test Mailbox in Princeton Area,” Wall Street Journal, August 12, 2002 “Scientist Wants Leaks Investigated,” CBS, August 12, 2002 “Scientist says he’s anthrax ‘fall guy’,” Baltimore Sun, August 12, 2002 “The Hunt for the Anthrax Killer,” Newsweek, August 12, 200 Scott Shane, “FBI defends anthrax inquiry: Bureau denies leaking Hatfill’s name to reporters, alerting them to searches,” Baltimore Sun, August 13, 2002 “Leaks, focus on single suspect undercut anthrax probe,” Los Angeles Times, June 28, 2008 “Martin Schram: When the only evidence is barking dogs,” Naples News (Scripps Howard), August 14, 2002 “FBI leaks threaten innocent people and criminal investigations,” Athens BannerHerald August 14, 2002 “FBI and Anthrax: Another TWA 800 in the Making?” NewsMax, August 14, 2002 “Attorney protests anthrax case leaks FBI agents investigate tainted mailbox in N.J.,” USA Today, August 15, 2002 hil Brennan, “FBI Ignored Letter in Anthrax Probe,” Newsmax, August 15, 2002 “Who’s suspect here?” Baltimore Sun, August 16, 2002 “Anthrax killer ‘is US defence insider,\'” BBC, August 18, 2002 “FBI anthrax investigation smells funny,” Baltimore Sun (columnist), August 19, 2002 “The Hatfill Case: Essential Background,” Wall Street Journal, August 19, 2002 “Ashcroft: No charges yet in anthrax probe,” CNN, August 22, 2002 “A Year Later: Evidence points to foreign terrorists as anthrax culprits,” Postal Magazine, September 7, 2002 “U.S. Not Claiming Iraqi Link To Terror,” Washington Post, September 9, 2002 “Lab Suggests Qaeda Planned to Build Arms, Officials Say,” New York Times, September 14, 2002 “A New Use For Vegetable Oil – It’s Like Bleach But Edible, Teeny Drops Kill Germs On People, Places, Food,” Detroit Free Press, September 14, 2002 “Anthrax at AMI traveled via copiers,” Palm Beach Post, September 15, 2002 “The Man Behind Bin Laden,” The New Yorker, September 16, 2002 “F.B.I. to question suspect in Malaysia,” New York Times, September 18, 2002 “Anthrax Hits, Misses Traced In CDC Study,” Hartford Courant, September 18, 2002 “Anthrax hunt conspires to dent confidence,” Financial Times (London), September 18, 2002 Anthrax Attacks Pushed Open an Ominous Door,” Los Angeles Times, September 22, 2002 “Anthrax probe raises doubts on FBI,” Boston Globe, September 23, 2002 “Academia becomes target for new security laws,” Christian Science Monitor, September 24, 2002 Azzam Publications, “Statement from Regarding Closure of its Web-site,” E-mail statement issued on September 24, 2002 “Anthrax case remains frustrating mystery,” USA Today, September 30, 2002 “Public Health in the Time of Bioterrorism,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, October 2002 “For Decades, Mailing Germs Was Routine,” Philadelphia Inquirer, October 2, 2002 Alibek Doubts FBI Claims on Hatfill,”, October 3, 2002 “Walker Lindh: Al Qaeda planned more attacks,” CNN, October 3, 2002 “Rethinking the Anthrax Attacks” (audio), NPR, October 4, 2002 “Seeking Terrorist Plots, F.B.I. Is Tracking Hundreds of Muslims,” New York Times, October 6, 2002 “Questions Linger a Year After Anthrax Mailings: Unknown dominates probe,” Newsday ,October 7, 2002 (part 1) “Anthrax Crisis,” Newsday, October 8, 2002 (part 2) “Former Army Scientist Forged Ph.D. Certificate,” Baltimore Sun, October 9, 2002 “A year later, clues on anthrax still few,” Baltimore Sun, October 9, 2002 “An Anthrax Widow May Sue U.S.,” Hartford Courant, October 9, 2002 “Terrorist Link Looked at Ohio Water Supply, FBI Probing,” NewsMax, Oct. 9, 2001 “Biowarriors,” Washington Post, October 10, 2002 “U.S. Indicts Head Of Islamic Charity In Qaeda Financing,” New York Times, October 10, 2002 “Armchair Sleuths Track Anthrax Politically Correct ProfilingWithout a Badge,” Wall Street Journal, October 14, 2002 “Billion dollar lab planned at Detrick,” Frederick News-Post, October 16, 2002 “U.S. Response: Army, NIH Plan USAMRIID Upgrade,” Global Security News, October 16, 2002 “Tracking Anthrax,” PBS, October 17, 2001 “Czechs retract terror link,” UPI, October 20, 2002 “Prague Discounts an Iraqi Meeting,” New York Times, October 21, 2002 “Deadly Delivery,” TIME, October 22, 2001 “Al-Qaeda: Pakistani Held for Providing Biological, Chemical Weapons,” Global Security News, October 22, 2002 “Surgeon Accused of Aiding Al Qaeda,” Gulf News, October 23, 2002 “Six Weeks in Autumn,” Washington Post, October 27, 2002 “FBI’s Theory On Anthrax Is Doubted,” Washington Post, October 27, 2002 “Sleuth Without a Badge,” Time Magazine, October 28, 2002. “Anthrax: Scientists Criticize FBI’s Theory on Lone Culprit in Attacks,” Global Security News, October 28, 2002 “Anthrax: Experts Dog Bloodhound Usage in ‘Amerithrax’ Investigation,” Global Security News, October 29, 2002 “FBI’s use of bloodhounds in anthrax probe disputed,” Baltimore Sun, October 29, 2002 “FBI Working to Replicate Type of Anthrax Used in Last Year’s Deadly Mailings,” Washington Post, November 1, 2002 “FBI Laments Lack of Anthrax Arrests,” Los Angeles Times, November 2, 2002 “FBI Secretly Trying to Re-Create Anthrax From Mail Attacks,” Washington Post, November 2, 2002 “Anthrax powder from attacks could have been made simply,” Baltimore Sun, November 3, 2002 “Anthrax: FBI Attempts to Recreate Spores Used in Attacks,” Global Security News, November 4, 2002 “Anthrax Under Microscope,” Washington Post, November 5, 2002 “US suspects Al Qaeda creating bio weapons,” UPI, November 11, 2002 “FBI science experiment could help anthrax investigation,” Global Security Newswire, November 11, 2002 “Anthrax: Experts Praise New Investigative Tactic,” Global Security News, November 11, 2002 “Study: Lowlevel anthrax exposure not as dangerous,” Miami Herald, November 12, 2002 “Anthrax use questioned in Dugway investigation,” Tooele (Utah) Transcript Bulletin, November 14, 2002 “Pakistan ordered to produce ‘anthrax’ surgeon,\'” Times, November 15, 2002 “Iraqis ‘infiltrated UK germ labs\'”, BBC News, November 16, 2002 “Senior Intelligence Officials ‘100 Percent Certain’ bin Laden had Succeeded in ‘Making and Experimenting’ with Small Amounts of Biological, Chemical Agents Before the U.S. Attack on Afghanistan,” November 17, 2002 “Anthrax: a Political Whodunit,” ABC Australia Background Briefing, November 17, 2002 (and Part II) “Top Pakistani doctor released,” BBC News, November 19, 2002 Ross E. Getman, “Al Qaeda, Anthrax and Ayman: means, opportunities, motive and modus operandi,”, November 20, 2002 “Surgeon reveals he met ‘well’ bin Laden in Kabul,” Times Online, November 28, 2002 “Islamic groups ‘slither’ into Egyptian society,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, December 1, 2002 “U.S. policies causing Islamists rage, some say,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, December 1, 2002 “Skilled Technician Behind Anthrax Attacks, New CDC Director Believes,” DefenseLINKnews, December 9, 2002 “Office Activity Stirs Up WeeksOld Anthrax Spores,” Reuters, December 10, 2002 GAO Statement, “Diffuse Security Threats: Information on U.S. Domestic Anthrax Attacks, December 10, 2002 “Secondary Aerosolization of Viable Bacillus anthracis Spores in a Contaminated US Senate Office,” JAMA, December 2002 “After 9/11, Universities Are Destroying Biological Agents,” New York Times, December 17, 2002 US Department of Justice Press Release, “Senior Leader of Hamas and Texas Computer Company Indicted For Conspiracy To Violate U.S. Ban On Financial Dealings With Terrorists,” December 18, 2002 “Pakistan Security Authorities Arrest Doctor, Relatives for al-Qa’ida Links,” The News, December 20, 2002 Richard M. Smith, “The Princeton crime scene?” ComputerBytesMan, December 20, 2002 “With Dog Detectives, Mistakes Can Happen,” New York Times, December 24, 2002 “Death to America: Search for anthrax source,” Sunday Times, January 5, 2003 “Poison trail that started in al-Qaeda safe house,” TimesOnline, January 8, 2003 “Mystery man in 9/11 terror case – Who is Ali Marri? FBI links him to hijackers,” New York Daily News, January 12, 2003 “Former Bin Laden friend [Khalifa] denies terror ties,” Christian Science Monitor, January 21, 2003 “Hunt for Clues in Anthrax Case Revived,” Washington Post January 25, 2003 “Anthrax investigators return to Frederick,” Baltimore Sun, January 25, 2003 “Government’s Evidentiary Proffer Supporting The Admissibility of Co-Conspirator Statements,” United States v. Enaam M. Arnaout, (Northern District of Illinois January 31, 2003), p. 57 “Bill of Particulars,” United States of America v. Enaam M. Arnaout, United States District Court Northern District of Illinois Eastern Division, Feburary 3, 2003, p. 2. “Biodefense Lab on the Defensive,” Los Angeles Times, February 12, 2003 “Anthrax victim’s widow files $50 million suit against government,” Sun-Sentinel, February 15, 2003 “Lone Terrorists May Strike In the U.S., Agencies Warn,” New York Times, February 23, 2003 “Newspaper: Texas Tech professor carried plague on airlines,” CNN, February 22, 2003 “Anatomy of the Threat,” Newsweek, February 24, 2003 “5 Tied to Islamic Charity Indicted in N.Y., Idaho; Doctoral Student Accused of Urging Anti-U.S. Terrorism,” The Washington Post, February 27, 2003 Gary Fields, “Four accused of sending cash to Iraq,” The Wall Street Journal, February 27, 2003, A4 “4 Accused of Illegally Sending Money to Iraq,” New York Times, February 27, 2003 “Two Other Top Al Qaeda Operatives Nabbed,” Fox News, March 4, 2003 “How al-Qaeda ‘chief’ was caught,” BBC, March 4, 2003 “Bush hails ‘al-Qaeda killer’ arrest,” BBC News, March 4, 2003 Azzam Publications. “What Sheikh Abdullah Azzam said about Khalid Ash-Sheikh Muhammad,” March 4, 2003 John O’ Brien and John Mariani, “Witness Freed – Suspect Held, “Iraqi Charity Probe,” Syracuse Post-Standard, March 4, 2003 “KSM in Custody,” National Review Online, March 5, 2003 “Case filed against Qudoos,” The Nation (Pakistan), March 5, 2003 “How the Feds Broke The Iraqi Charity Case; Help The Needy Probe Included Bugs, Trash Searches and Financial Sleuthing,” Syracuse Post-Standard, March 9, 2003, A1 “Egyptian paid for Khalid’s capture,” Dawn, March 10, 2003 Zahid Hussain, “Closing In?” Newsline, March 2003 “New methods trace anthrax source by water,” Baltimore Sun, March 12, 2003 “Iraq Links Germs for Weapons to U.S. and France,” New York Times, March 16, 2003 “Al Qaeda Near Biological, Chemical Arms Production,” Washington Post, March 23, 2003 “Al-Qaida’s plans for anthrax ‘very scary’: U.S. officials report ‘evidence’ of chemical and biological production,” The Daily Telegraph, March 24, 2003 “Key to Strains of Anthrax Is Discovered,” New York Times, March 27, 2003 “Statement of James Baker Jr. Professor Center for Biological Nanotechnology,” House Energy and Commerce Committee Subcommittee on Health, FDCH Congressional Testimony, March 27, 2003 (“Project Bioshield”) “Moussaoui Said Not to Be Part of 9/11 Plot,” Washington Post, March 28, 2003 “Kenneth Alibek Q&A on bioterrorism,” Washington Post web site, March 31, 2003 Douglas Feiden, “Upstate Charity Tied to Illegal Iraqi Cash: Feds say N.Y. group laundered millions,” Daily News April 6, 2003, at 38 “DNA sequence may help stop killer in its tracks,” Nature, May 1, 2003 “Key to Anthrax’s Toxicity Is in Its Genetic Code,” Washington Post, May 5, 2003 William Kates, “Man Held As Witness,” Albany Times Union, March 5, 2003 Letter to Editor from FBI, “F.B.I.’s Anthrax Inquiry,” New York Times, May 18, 2002 “FBI has wrecked my life, claims anthrax suspect,” The Times, May 21, 2003 Carolyn Thompson, “Seventh man charged with taking part in terror cell in upstate New York,” Associated Press, May 21, 2003 “Pentagon: al-Qaeda pursuing bio weapons,” USA Today, May 23, 2003 “Belgian probe links powder scare to Iraq war or terror trial,” BBC Monitoring International Reports, June 5, 2003 “Al Qaeda in America: The Enemy Within,” Newsweek, June 23, 2003 “FBI mystified by anthrax attacks,” USA Today, June 24, 2003 “Anthrax Investigation” (Q&A with Marilyn Thompson), Washington, July 3, 2003 “A Rare Look At A Top-Secret Facility, [USAMRIID]” Hartford Courant, July 15, 2003 “Threats and Responses: A Michigan Case; U.S. Deports Charity Leader In Visa Dispute,” New York Times, July 16, 2003 “FBI Again Refuses To Release Anonymous Anthrax Letter,” Hartford Courant, July 18, 2003 “Anthrax Case Is a Lure to Persons of Interest,” Los Angeles Times, July 20, 2003 “Anthrax Update,” NPR, July 24, 2003 Statement of Homam Albaroudi, Member, Muslim Community Association Of Ann Arbor, July 30, 2003 in Muslim Community Association of Ann Arbor et al. v. John Ashcroft and Robert Mueller: The First Challenge to The USA PATRIOT Act “Jamaican-Born Canadian Interviewed on Islamic Missionary Work Among US Troops, London Al- Al-Majallah (in Arabic), August 3-8 2003 (FBIS translated text) “FBI Draws Blank in Anthrax Probe,” BBC News, August 5, 2003 “Accused scientist [Assaad] says letter links to anthrax mailers,” Washington Times, August 10, 2003 “Accused scientist says letter links to anthrax mailers,” Washington Times, August 10, 2003 Statement August 26, 2003 “Statement of Thomas G. Connolly, Attorney for Dr. Steven J. Hatfill” “Scientist Files Suit Over Anthrax Inquiry,” New York Times, August 27, 2003 “Hatfill Ex-Colleague Gets FBI Job; Analyst Gave Details on ‘Person of Interest in Anthrax Probe,” Washington Post, September 7, 2003 “Simi founder says organisation gone off-track,” Times of India, September 7, 2003 “Ex-Prosecutor’s Past Case Contrasts With Anthrax Probe,” Washington Post, September 8, 2003 “Founder of charity enters guilty plea,” Ann Arbor News, September 11, 2003 “Pursuit of Steven Hatfill,” Washington Post, September 14, 2003 “A Q&A Session With Marilyn W. Thompson,”, September 15, 2003 “VANITY FARCE? Hatfill lawyer rips mag’s anthrax article,: Trentonian (New Jersey), September 15, 2003 “D.C. FBI Chief Regrets Leaks and Labels in Anthrax Case,” Washington Post, September 20, 2003 “F.B.I. Names Top Scientists for Advisory Panel on Germs,” New York Times, September 26, 2003 “Anthrax Mailer May Not Have Intended Harm,” Reuters, September 29, 2003 “D.C. FBI Chief Regrets Leaks and Labels in Anthrax Case,” Washington Post, September 30, 2003 “Anthrax Probe Panned By New Boss,” CBS, September 30, 2003 “A Conversation With Peter Lance,” (September-October 2003) “Link seen between al Qaeda, 9/11, anthrax,” New Haven Register, October 3, 2003 “Anthrax Probe Should Trump the WMD Search,” Newsday, October 7, 2003 “Is Al Qaeda Making Anthrax?” CBS News, October 9, 2003 Hatfill Complaint Memorandum Opinion “Is Al Qaeda Making Anthrax? Exclusive: Bomb Suspect Says Bio-Terror Weapons May Be in Works,” CBS News, October 9, 2003 “Reports: Al Qaeda Operative Sought Anthrax,” CNN, October 10, 2003 “Al-Qaeda agents reveal their hunt for anthrax,” The Straits Times, October 14, 2003 “FBI launches germ forensics network,” MSNBC, October 15, 2003 “New Chief of FBI Office Comes Prepared,” Washington Post, October 16, 2003 “Bioweapons Vets Urged To Share Secrets,” Associated Press, October 16, 2003 Evan Kohlmann, “The Michigan Jihad,” FrontPageMagazine, October 23, 2003 “Islamic charity leader receives sentencing,” Ann Arbor News, November 14, 2003 “Anthrax Powder State of the Art?” Science Magazine, November 28, 2003 “Additive use could shift theory in anthrax case,” Baltimore Sun, November 28, 2003 “FBI Urges Keeping Anthrax Probe Secret,” Washington Post, December 3, 2003 “FBI: Anthrax Probe Disclosures Could Aid Terror,” FoxNews, December 2, 2003 “Officials Claim Alumnus Assisted Terror Group,” State Hornet, December 10, 2003 “U.S. Has New Concerns About Anthrax Readiness,” New York Times, December 28, 2003 “Philippines to Deport U.S. Brothers Held in Terrors,” New York Times, December 31, 2003 “U.S. Hunts Terror Clues in Case of 2 Brothers,” New York Times, January 1, 2004 “Philippines deports Americans with terrorism links,” Tapei Times, January 1, 2004 “Dhafir’s Lawyer’s Status At Issue – Also, Doctor’s Former Business Partner Suspected Of Link To Anti-U.S. Group,” Post-Standard, January 23, 2004 “U.S. Action Halted Al-Qaeda WMD Effort in Afghanistan, Officials Say,” Global Security News, January 27. 2004 “How Saudi wealth fueled holy war: Charity leader funded fighters to spread and defend Islam,” Chicago Tribune, February 22, 2004 “MRI scientist [Franz] talks terrorism,” American City Business Journals, March 2, 2004 “Montasser Al-Zayat Walks a Legal Tightrope,” Arab News, March 2, 2005 “WTC boss feared anthrax attack,” Toronto Star, May 19, 2004 “George Tenet 9/11 written statement,” MSNBC, March 24, 2004 “An Egyptian doctor is Osama bin Laden’s deadly deputy,” Age, March 29, 2004 Scott Shane, “Judge postpones Hatfill’s Lawsuit: Decision comes after FBI provides secret reports on progress of anthrax probe,” Baltimore Sun, March 30, 2004 “Bipartisan CoverUps—From Vince Foster to Anthrax,”, April 7, 2004 “Feds release al-Marri documents: Declassified papers detail alleged al-Qaida links, orders,” Peoria Journal Star, April 12, 2004 “Interrogation: Al Qaeda and Anthrax,” Newsweek, April 12, 2004 “Suspicious Powders, Packages Keep FBI Unit on Edge,” Washington Post, April 13, 2004 “IANA’s link to case is unclear,” Ann Arbor News, April 16, 2004 “Feds find lax security at anthrax lab,” Associated Press, April 22, 2004 “FBI Checking Crop-Dusting Planes, Pilots,” Associated Press, April 22, 2004 “MPs Back Security Screen After Anthrax Warning,” Press Association, April 22, 2004 Betsy Z. Russell “Al-Hussayen urged support for group: Evidence: Suspect advised brother to donate,” Spokane Review, April 30, 2004 “An Imam in Exile: Haddad breaks his silence,” Metro Times, March 17, 2004 “Microbes in court,”, May 10, 2004 “FBI Retracing Steps In Anthrax Investigation,” Hartford Courant, May 16, 2004 “FBI anthrax probe revisits former Detrick researcher,” Associated Press, May 16, 2004 “Researcher [Detrick] quizzed again in an
    • DXer said

      “Transcript: Ashcroft, Mueller news conference,”, May 26, 2004

      “US lab is sent live anthrax,” Scientist, June 11, 2004

      9/11 Commission Staff Statement, June 16, 2004

      “U.S. Raids N.Va. Office Of Saudi-Based Charity,” Washington Post, June 2, 2004; Page B01

      “Distinct signature found in ’01 anthrax,” Baltimore Sun, July 4, 2004

      “Lists of Sindh’s top terrorists,” Daily Times, July 9, 2004

      “Scholar is Given Life Sentence in ‘Virginia Jihad’ Case, New York Times, July 14, 2005

      “Anthrax Probers Still Seek Md. Leads: Frederick Remains A Focus of Attention,” Washington Post, July 18, 2004

      “FBI probe shuts labs: Detrick searched for attack evidence,” Frederick News-Post, July 21, 2004

      “Anthrax Probe Takes Over Army Labs,” Fox News, July 20, 2004

      “FBI Imposes October Deadline to Make a Case in the 2001 Anthrax Poisonings,” ABC News, July 20, 2004

      “Closing of lab marks renewed intensity in anthrax probe,” Baltimore Sun, July 21, 2004

      John Zimmerman, “Sayyid Qutb’s Influence On the 11 September Attacks,” Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol. 16, No. 2 (Summer 2004), pp. 222-252.

      “Agents search homes of bioterror expert,” Baltimore Sun, August 6, 2004

      “FBI queried exneighbors of anthrax probe figure,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, August 7, 2004

      ” Instead of waking U.S. to bioterror, he woke the FBI,” (NJ) Star-Ledger, August 8, 2004

      “Terror Suspect’s Opens New Inquiries,” Washington Post, August 8, 2004

      “New Jersey Man [Mokhtar] Investigated In Terror Probe: U.S. Attorney Alleges Link to Suspect Jailed in Britain,” CNN, August 9, 2004

      “Anthrax Probe: Two Views of FBI Investigation,” WGRZ-TV, August 10, 2004

      “N.Y. man [Mohammed Junaid Babar] admits he aided al Qaeda set up jihad camp,” CNN, August 11, 2004

      “CDC chief tours K.C. facilities, discusses anthrax, bioterrorism,” Lawrence (KS) Journal-World, August 12, 2004

      “Man Accused of Aiding Terrorists Called ‘Moderate’, Washington Post, August 12, 2004

      “Doctor in anthrax probe flaunted ‘connections’,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, August 15, 2004

      “FBI Took Coolers From Anthrax Investigation,” Fox News, August 18, 2004

      “Anthrax Leaks Blamed on Lax Safety Habits,” Los Angeles Times, August 20, 2004

      “1.5B for labs only fuels my bioterror,” New York Daily News, (columnist) August 22, 2004

      Alan Cullison, “Inside Al-Qaeda’s Hard Drive,” The Atlantic Monthly, September 2004

      “Osama Vid Played At Terror Trial,” New York Daily News, September 8, 2004

      “Declaration of Jeffrey N. Rapp, Director, Joint Intelligence Task Force for Combating Terrorism,” United States v. Al-Marri, dated Sept. 9, 2004

      “GAO: U.S. underestimated risks of anthrax,” Seattle Post-Intelligencer, September 9, 2004

      “Bush administration accuses Saudi charity of financing terrorism,” USA Today (AP), September 9, 2004

      “Va. Islamic Leader Faces Jihad Charges,” Washington Post, September 24, 2004

      “Islamic Scholar From Virginia Is Charged in Holy War Plot,” New York Times, September 24, 2004

      “Staten Island Phone Lets U.S. Eavesdrop on Global Militants,” New York Times, October 2, 2004

      “Interest in Bioterror Issues Puts Doctor Under Scrutiny and His Life in Turmoil,” New York Times, October 3, 2004

      “Who’s Afraid of Aafia Siddiqui?” Boston Magazine, October, 2004

      “Lawyer: Anthrax Probe MD Reeling,”, October 5, 2004

      “Anthrax Inquiry Draws Criticism From Federal Judge,” New York Times, October 7, 2004

      “Anthrax Probe Leaks Assailed,” Washington Post, October 8, 2004

      “Anthrax slip-ups raise fears about planned biolabs,” USA Today, October 14, 2004

      Katherine Ozment, “Who’s Afraid of Aafia Siddiqui?” Boston Magazine, October 2004

      “Flagged Doc Had Bridge Plan In Apt.,” Daily News, November 6, 2004

      “FBI Says N.Y. Man Had Beltway Blueprints,” Associated Press, November 6, 2004; Page A14

      “U.S. Letter Tries To Establish a Doctor’s Links to Terrorists,” New York Times, dated November 6, 2004

      “Washington-Area School Plans Biodefense Laboratory,” Global Security News, November 10, 2004

      “NYC judge lets defendant go free despite government terror allegations,” Associated Press, November 10, 2004

      “Anthrax Revisited,” Oxford (CT) Republican-American, November 21, 2004

      Getman, “Key Anthrax Plotters Have Been Captured Or Killed,” OpinionEditorials, December 16, 2004

      “Anthrax Killer at Large,” Washington Post, December 15, 2004

      “Al-Qaeda seeks toxins for biowarfare attack,” The Sunday Times, January 2, 2005

      “The Hamza connection,” Al-Ahram, January 13-19, 2005

      “Pakistani Authorities Seize Computer With Information on Anthrax, Dirty Bombs From Suspected Militant,” Global Security News, January 18, 2005

      “Al Qaeda Plan Biowarfare Attack on Britain,”, January 19, 2005

      “Al-Qaida Remains Grave Threat to United States, FBI and CIA Say,” States News Service,February 16, 2005

      “Al-Qaeda Made Biological Weapons in Georgia — French Minister,”, March 1, 2005

      “France Calls For Global Watchdog on Bio-Warfare Risk,” Reuters, March 2, 2005

      Deborah Scroggins, “The Most Wanted Woman in the World,” Vanity Fair, March 2005

      “Al-Qaida made surprising advances in ‘Agent X’ ,” Associated Press, March 31, 2005

      “Former school official faces terrorism charges,” CNN, March 31, 2005

      “Panel Warns That Defense Against Germ Attack Is Weak,” New York Times, April 1, 2005

      “Views of Va. Muslim Leader Differ as Terror Trial Opens,” Washington Post, April 5, 2005

      “Scholar ‘rock star’ to young,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, April 5, 2005

      “Witness testifies against Al-Timimi,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, April 10, 2005

      “On Al Qaeda, Totally In The Dark,” US News, April 11, 2005

      Theresa Koehler, University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center, “Anthrax: A Research Perspective,” 2005 ( with slides)

      “Muslim Scholar on Trial for Inciting Jihad,” MSNBC, April 15, 2005

      “Muslim Cleric Found Guilty in the ‘Virginia Jihad’ Case,” New York Times, April 27, 2005

      “Prosecution Called ‘Overzealous’: Guilty Verdict in Terror Case Angers Muslims Who Know Lecturer,” Washington Post, April 26, 2005

      “Scholar convicted of urging holy war on US,” MSNBC, April 26, 2005

      “Analyzing the Anthrax Attacks by Ed Lake,” New Scientist, April 30, 2005

      Debra Erdley, “Al-Timimi verdict a turning point in legal war on terror,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, May 1, 2005

      “Mason Graduate Convicted on Federal Terrorism Charges,”, May 2, 2005

      Jonathan Turley, “When is violent speech still free speech?” USA Today, May 2, 2005

      “Qaeda Letters Are Said to Show Pre-9/11 Anthrax Plans,” New York Times, May 21, 2005

      Craig Whitlock, “New Swedish Documents Illuminate CIA Action Probe Finds ‘Rendition’ Of Terror Suspects Illegal,” [Agiza] Washington Post, May 21, 2005; A01

      “Al-Qaeda Gathered Equipment for Biological Weapons Laboratory Before 9/11, Documents Indicate,” Global Security News, May 23, 2005

      Ali Asad Support Committee Website, “Ali Asad Trial — May 25, 2006, Day 4,” Witness 20

      “Interpol Fears Bioterrorism,” Reuters, May 26, 2005

      “Pakistan to hand over senior al-Qaida suspect,” Houston Chronicle, May 31, 2005

      “Al-Qaeda’s Secret Emails Part One,” Asharq Alawsat, June 12, 2005

      “Al-Qaeda’s Secret Emails Part Two,” Asharq Alawsat, June 13, 2005

      “Al-Qaeda’s Secret Emails Part Three,” Asharq Alawsat, June 14, 2005

      “Al-Qaeda’s Secret Emails Part Four,” Asharq Alawsat, June 19, 2005

      “London Bombings Show ‘Cold War’ Within Islamic Forces,” Pacific News Service, News Analysis, July 11, 2005

      “Overlooked Attack,” Washington Post, July 12, 2005

      “Scholar is Given Life Sentence in ‘Virginia Jihad’ Case,” New York Times, July 14, 2005

      “In Cairo Suburb, Man in Bombing Inquiry Is Described as Committed to His Studies,” New York Times, July 16, 2005

      “Terrorists Turn to the Web as Base of Operations,” Washington Post, August 7, 2005; Page A01

      “Iraq’s anthrax source traced back to Britain,” Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) , August 10, 2005

      “Egyptian chemist knew two London attackers,” Associated Press, August 10, 2005

      “Egyptian Chemist Is No Terrorist,” Christian Science Monitor, August 15, 2005

      “Little Progress In FBI Probe of Anthrax Attacks,” Washington Post, September 16, 2005

      “Investigation into 2001 Anthrax Attacks Slows,” Global Security News, September 16, 2005

      “In 4 Year Anthrax Hunt, F.B.I. Finds Itself Stymied, and Sued,” New York Times, September 17, 2005

      “Anthrax Metaphor,” Washington Post, September 22, 2005

      “Anthrax terrorists outfox the FBI: Failure of Inquiry Has Astonished Americans and Angered Widow,” Times of London, September 24, 2005

      “FBI Is Still on the Anthrax Trail,” Washington Post, (Michael Mason letter to editor), September 29, 2005

      “A new class of evidence for the courtroom,” USA Today (AP), September 30, 2005

      “Al-Qaeda’s WMD Strategy Prior to the U.S. Intervention in Afghanistan,” Jamestown Foundation, October 7, 2005

      “Egypt: Parliamentary Islamic Candidate Blasts Muslim Brotherhood,” Alsharq Awsat, October 29, 2005

      “Experts: Bioterror Threat More Domestic Than Foreign,” Associated Press, November 2, 2005

      “Anthrax victim’s widow breaks four-year silence,” Palm Beach Post, November 5, 2005

      “Anthrax Widow’s Outburst,”, November 8, 2005

      Commentary, “Anthrax Whodunit: Is It A Cold Case File?” Christian Science Monitor, November 10, 2005

      “Area 51, aliens and anthrax? Dugway boss dismisses rumors,” Tooele Transcript Bulletin, November 11, 2005

      Phil Brennan, “Anthrax Revisited Too Many Coincidences,” November 16, 2005

      “Bio-terror strike ‘is inevitable’,” BBC News, November 21, 2005

      “Interpol chiefs warn of real risk of bioterror attack by al-Qaida,” Associated Press, November 21, 2005

      “List of “Ghost Prisoners” Possibly in CIA Custody,” Human Rights Watch, December 1, 2005

      “Reward Issued for Suspected al-Qaeda Chemist,” Global Security News, December 5, 2005

      “Foreign students face lab limits,” Daily Targum, December 12, 2005

      “Iraq releases Dr. Germ, ” Times Online, December 19, 2005

      “Lawyers: Did NSA snoop on suspects?” CNN, December 28, 2005

      “Videotapes Shown at Dhafir Trial; Manlius Doctor Talks Into A Hidden Camera About Duping Charity Workers,” Syracuse Post-Standard, January 17, 2006

      “A biological threat?” Frederick News-Post, June 05, 2006

      “Cheney Believed He, His Family and Staff May Have Been Exposed in an Anthrax Attack After 9/11; Was False Alarm But Story Kept Quiet,” PR Newswire, February 19, 2006

      “Judge to Probe if NSA Spied on Scholar,” Associated Press, April 25, 2006

      “Va. Terror Case Sent Back to Lower Court: Appeals Panel Cites Eavesdropping Program,” Washington Post, April 26, 2006

      Ali Asad Support Committee Website, “Ali Asad Trial — May 25, 2006, Day 4,” Witness 20

      “Jihadist of Mass Destruction,” Washington Post, June 11, 2006; Page B02

      “A Misdirected War on Terror,” TIME, June 20, 2006

      “Secretive fight against bioterror,” (Washington Post), July 30, 2006

      “A Spy Among Us?” Baltimore Sun, July 30, 2006

      “9/11 Panel Suspected Deception by Pentagon,” Washington Post , August 2, 2006

      “Al-Qaida No. 2 Releases New Video,” MSNBC, August 5, 2006

      “Zawahri: Gamaa Islamiya members join Al Qaeda,”, August 5, 2006

      “Teacher [Chandia] “Sentenced for Aiding Terrorists,” Washington Post, August 26, 2006

      Milton Viorst, “The Education of Ali Al-Timimi, ” Atlantic Monthly, August 26, 2006

      “Decoding the Origin of a Bioagent,” Science & Technology Review, September 2006

      “Hardball Tactics in an Era of Threats,” Washington Post September 3, 2006

      Muhammad Khalil al-Hakaymah, “Towards a New Strategy In Resisting the Occupier, ” September 11, 2006

      “My anthrax survivor’s story,” NBC News, September 13, 2006

      “Raid turns up cash in home: FBI seizes $134,000, computers and photos in Muslim charity probe,” The Detroit News, September 22, 2006

      “FBI Is Casting A Wider Net in Anthrax Attacks,” Washington Post, September 25, 2006

      “Anthrax for the Memories: Washington Post’s ‘rowback’,” Slate Magazine, September 25, 2006

      “Anthrax Not Weapons Grade, Official Says,” New York Times, September 26, 2006

      Congressman Rush Holt September 27, 2006 Letter to FBI Director Mueller

      “Congressman wants FBI anthrax briefing,” Seattle Post-Intelligencer, September 27, 2006

      FBI Asst. Dir. Eleni P. Kalisch September 28, 2006 FBI’s response to Congressman Holt

      “FBI denies overestimating anthrax power,” Associated Press, September 28, 2006

      George Smith, “Low-tech anthrax still deadly? FBI research widens suspect list,” Register (UK), September 29, 2006

      “Anthrax Redux,” Chemical & Engineering News, October 2, 2006

      “Anthrax attacks fodder for rumors,” Palm Beach Post, October 5, 2006

      “Anthrax suspect as elusive as bin Laden,” USA Today, October 5, 2006

      “Security Fears At Anthrax Labs,” Hartford Courant, October 8, 2006

      “Questions on anthrax swirl anew for the FBI,” Newark Star-Ledger, October 9, 2006

      “Unsolved Case Of Anthrax,” Washington Post, October 15, 2006

      “Congress, FBI battle over anthrax investigation,” NBC News, October 24, 2006

      “Top GOP Senator Joins Critics of FBI Anthrax Probe,” New York Sun, October 25, 2006

      “Anthrax Mystery and Misery Linger for Postal Workers,” Washington Post, October 25, 2006

      “Suspect and A Setback In Al-Qaeda Anthrax Case,” Washington Post, October 31, 2006

      “U.S. Frustrated in Al-Qaeda Anthrax Case,” Global Security News, October 31, 2006

      “Many fear FBI’s anthrax case is cold,” Los Angeles Times, November 3, 2006

      Jerry Mark Long, “Strategic Culture, Al-Qaida, and Weapons of Mass Destruction,” report prepared by Science Application International Corporation for Defense Threat Reduction Agency, November 20, 2006

      Government Accountability Office (GAO), “Export Controls: Agencies Should Assess Vulnerabilities and Improve Guidance for Protecting Information at Universities,” Report to the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives (December 2006)

      “Science aids a nettlesome FBI criminal probe,” Chemical & Engineering News, December 4, 2006

      “Mueller, senators tangle,” CNN, December 6, 2006

      “Anthrax attack on US Congress made by scientists and covered up by FBI, expert [Francis Boyle] says,” Middle East Times, December 11, 2006

      “Congress demands answers on anthrax,” Associated Press, December 12, 2006

      “Anthrax attack posed greater potential threat than thought,” Science Daily, January 8, 2007

      State of the Union 2007

      “Fort Detrick Biodefense Lab,” Frederick News-Post, January 6, 2007

      “Study: People outside Senate office infected with anthrax,” USA Today, January 8, 2007

      “U.S. official [Crumpton] says ‘very high’ chance of terrorists acquiring and using WMDs,” Associated Press, January 17, 2006

      “Taliban spokesman caught ‘with anthrax’: Afghan governor,” Nation (Pakistan) January 17, 2007

      “Mullah Omar ‘hiding in Pakistan,” BBC, January 17, 2007

      United States Senate Hearing Before the Committee on the Judiciary, January 18, 2007

      “State Secrets Doctrine and the Hatfill Case,” FAS Secrecy News, January 22, 2007

      “Britain tightens security over germ terror threat,” Daily Times Monitor, January 26, 2007

      “More on State Secrets and the Hatfill Case,” FAS Secrecy News, January 30, 2007

      Human Rights Watch, “Ghost Prisoner [Marwan Jabour]: Two Years in Secret CIA Detention” (February 2007)

      “Three Explanations for al-Qaeda’s Lack of a CBRN Attack, The Jamestown Foundation, February 15, 2007

      “LAW and ORDER Meets BIO Crime,” Homeland Defense News, March 5, 2007

      “Egypt Details Al Qaida Revival,” Middle East Newsline, April 8, 2007

      “Tables Turned In Anthrax Probe,” CBS News, March 11, 2007

      “Suspected leader of 9/11 is Said To Confess,” New York Times, March 15, 2007

      “KSM’s World War,” Wall Street Journal, March 16, 2007

      “Unresolved story of ABC News’ false Saddam anthrax reports,”, April 9, 2007

      “Anthrax: some new findings,” American Thinker, April 9, 2007

      “Holt renews calls for anthrax probe update,” Trenton Times, April 10, 2007

      Press Release, “Holt and Postal Employees: FBI Must Account for Anthrax Case Progress: Lawmaker and Postal Workers Call on FBI to Report on Status of Five Year-old Investigation,” April 10, 2007

      Ross Getman, “The Code Used In The Anthrax Letters?” Postal Magazine, April 11, 2007

      “Response from ABC News re: the Saddam anthrax reports,”, April 11, 2007

      “Man [al-Hadi] Said to Be Bin Laden Aide Detained by U.S.,” New York Times, April 27, 2007

      “US holds ‘senior al-Qaeda figure,” BBC News, April 27, 2007

      “Bioterror scientist cites lack of funds,” [Alibek] Star-Ledger, April 28, 2007

      “FBI Briefs Senators on Anthrax Case,” Global Security News, May 4, 2007

      “U.S. Company Sued For Aiding ‘Rendition: ACLU Suit Claims Boeing Subsidiary Aided Controversial CIA Anti-Terror Program,” CBSNews, May 31, 2007

      “Anthrax, bombs and al-Qaeda,”, May 28, 2007

      Helen W. Kreuzer-Martin and Kristin H. Jarman, “Stable Isotope Ratios and Forensic Analysis of Microorganisms,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, June 2007, p. 3898-3908

      Getman, “Anthrax Mystery: Evidence Points to al-Qaida,” Newsmax, June 7, 2007

      “Selling the threat of bioterrorism,” Los Angeles Times, July 1, 2007

      “U.K. Tightens Laboratory Security,” Global Security News, July 6, 2007

      Susan Schmidt, “Trail of an ‘Enemy Combatant’: From Desert to U.S. Heartland,” Washington Post, July 20, 2007, A1

      “Anthrax vaccine produces immunity with nanoparticles, not needles,” August 18, 2007

      “The Go-To Lawyer of ‘Northern Virginiastan,'” ABA Journal, September 2007

      “Gitmo Panels Struggle to Assess Facts,” Associated Press, September 9, 2007

      “Criminalizing Compassion in the ‘War on Terror,” Washington Report, September/October 2007, pp. 48-49

      “Process Innovators: NanoBio Corp.,”, October 11, 2007

      “Jordan’s Spy Agency: Holding Cell for the CIA: Foreign Terror Suspects Tell of Torture,” Washington Post, Dec. 1, 2007; A01

      “Study of bioterror agents adds to risk,” Los Angeles Times, October 3, 2007

      “Did al Qaeda mastermind the anthrax attack on the U.S. Capitol?” Press Release, October 10, 2007

      “FBI and Universities Unite to Fight Terror,” NPR, Nov-07-2007

      “FBI: Terrorists Moving Toward Greater Use of WMDs, Attacks on Soft Targets,” Fox News, November 7, 2007

      “Startling implications of a jihadi letter,” American Thinker, November 9, 2007

      “Suspect in Pearl’s killing dies after interrogation; report,” AFP via Yahoo! News, November 11, 2007

      Malcolm Gladwell, “Dangerous Minds: Criminal Profiling Made Easy,” The New Yorker, November 12, 2007

      “Suspect in Pearl Killing Dies,” News24, November 12, 2007

      “Suspect in Pearl Murder Was Held, Covertly Questioned Before Death; Rights Groups Say Torture Of Detainee by Pakistan Likely Led to His Demise,” Wall Street Journal, November 12, 2007

      “Anthrax And Al Qaeda,” CBS News, November 13, 2007

      “Judge questions government’s reliability in terror trials,” Associated Press, November 20, 2007

      Jerry Markon, “Government Secrecy May Lead to New Trial In Va. Terrorism Case,” Washington Post, November 21, 2007; Page A08

      Eric Lichtblau, “Wiretap Issue Leads Judge to Warn of Retrial in Terror Case,” New York Times, November 21, 2007

      “Bidding violence farewell, Al-Ahram, November 22-28, 2007

      ‘Seas of blood’ for jihad extolled in articles to jury: Excerpts from Muslim paper cited in charities case,” Telegram & Gazette [Worcester], December 4, 2007

      “Jihad reconsidered,” New York Times, December 6-12, 2007

      Anne Ryman, “Finding link to anthrax, professor set NAU apart,” The Arizona Republic, December 16, 2007

      Press Release, “Senate Approves Whistleblower Protection Legislation,” Government Accountability Project, December 18, 2007

      “U.S. attorney’s office accused of anthrax case leaks,” Los Angeles Times, January 12, 2007

      Evan Kohlmann, “U.S. v. Muntasser et al – The Evidence Behind The Convictions,” Counterterrorism Blog, January 11, 2008

      Press Release, “Former Officers Of A Muslim Charity, Care International, Inc., Convicted Reports U.S. Attorney,” January 16, 2008

      “Islamic charity indicted for ties to terrorist [Hekmatyar], Reuters, January 16, 2008

      Press Release, “Former Officers Of A Muslim Charity, Care International, Inc., Convicted Reports U.S. Attorney,” January 16, 2008

      Press Release, “Islamic Charity [IARA]Charged With Terrorist Financing; Former U.S. Congressman Indicted for Money Laundering,” January 16, 2008

      “Terrorist [Jabarah] to Be Unmasked in NY Courtroom,” Associated Press, January 18, 2008

      “Terror Informant for FBI Allegedly Targeted Agents,” Washington Post, January 19, 2008

      “Terror tag isn’t right,” Telegram & Gazette [Worcester], January 20, 2008

      Jacob Weisberg, “Fishing for a Way to Change the World,” Newsweek, January 28, 2008

      “Canadian Al Qaeda Member Sentenced to Life for Conspiring to Bomb U.S. Embassies,” New York Times, January 28, 2008

      Stewart Bell et al., “Ottawa reveals classified files on five terror suspects,” National Post Published: Friday, February 22, 2008

      Summary of the Security Intelligence Report concerning Mahmoud Jaballah, Prepared by the Canadian Security Intelligence Service for the Minister of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness and the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, February 22, 2008

      “Imam From Va. Mosque Now Thought to Have Aided Al-Qaeda,” Washington Post, March 1, 2008

      “FBI Focusing on ‘About Four’ Suspects in 2001 Anthrax Attacks,” FoxNews, March 28, 2008

      “Shaykh Ayman al-Zawahiri: On the Fifth Anniversary of the Invasion and Torture of Iraq,” Released on: April 17, 2008

      Editorial “End anthrax stailling,” Palm Beach Post, May 6, 2008

      “Computer held by Khadr’s sister contains al-Qaeda files, RCMP say,” Globe and Mail, May 15, 2008

      Matthew Barakat, “Judge: Too many classified documents in Va. treason case,” Daily Press, May 16, 2008

      “Fact Sheet: The 16 Prisoners Charged in Guantanamo’s Military Commissions,” Huffington Post, May 27, 2008

      As-Sahab Media: Dr. Ayman al-Zawahiri – On the Anniversary of the Gaza Blockade June 4, 2008

      “Leaks, focus on single suspect undercut anthrax probe,” Los Angeles Times, June 28, 2008

      “Senate Judiciary Cmte. on DOJ Oversight, July 9, 2008”

      “Cheney Thought He Had Lethal Anthrax Dose,” ABCNews, July 14, 2008

      “Muslim charity found gets jail for lying to FBI,” Worcester Telegram & Gazette News, July 18, 2008

      Dave Zirin, “When COINTELPRO Came To Town,” The Nation, July 21, 2008

      “Anthrax suspect dies in apparent suicide,” The Los Angeles Times, August 1, 2008

      “Md. Anthrax Scientist Dies in Apparent Suicide,” The Washington Post, August 2, 2008

      Richard Spertzel, “Bruce Ivins Wasn’t the Anthrax Culprit,” Wall Street Journal, August 5, 2008; Page A17

      Carrie Johnson, Joby Warrick and Marilyn W. Thompson, “Anthrax Dryer a Key To Probe: Suspect Borrowed Device From Lab,” Washington Post, August 5, 2008; A01

      Scott Shane and Nicholas Wade, “Pressure Grows for F.B.I. to Show Anthrax Evidence,” New York Times, August 5, 2008

      “Pakistani Suspected of Qaeda Ties is Held,” New York Times, August 5, 2008

      “Anthrax Suspect’s Distress Detailed: As FBI Closed In, Ivins Sought Help With Addiction, Scientist,” Washington Post, August 6, 2008

      “Dead Army vaccine scientist eyed in anthrax probe,” The Associated Press, August 1, 2008

      “Scientist’s Suicide Linked to Anthrax Inquiry,” The New York Times, August 2, 2008

      “Anthrax Indictment May Have Been Weeks Away,”, August 3, 2008

      “Woman’s ties to anthrax case unclear,” Frederick News-Post, August 3, 2008

      “Anthrax Evidence Is Called Circumstantial,” The New York Times, August 4, 2008

      “Anthrax suspect obsessed with sorority, officials say,” CNN, August 4, 2008

      “Anthrax suspect’s colleague blames FBI for suicide,”, August 4, 2008

      “Anthrax Dryer a Key To Probe,” The Washington Post, August 5, 2008

      “Bruce Ivins Wasn’t the Anthrax Culprit,” The Wall Street Journal (Opinion), August 5, 2008

      “Pressure Grows for F.B.I.’s Anthrax Evidence,” The New York Times, August 5, 2008

      “How Solid is the Anthrax Evidence?” Time Magazine, August 5, 2008

      “Not the FBI’s proudest moment,” The Los Angeles Times, August 5, 2008

      “Some of the remaining gaps in the FBI anthrax case,” Associated Press, August 5, 2008

      “Transcript of Amerithrax Investigation Press Conference,”, August 6, 2008

      Blog, Anthrax probe: Questions about counselor’s credibility; Feds to release evidence,” USAToday, August 6, 2008

      “How strong is the case agisnt Bruce Ivins,” NPR, August 7, 2008

      “Leahy says he wants to know motivation behind anthrax attacks,” Vermont Pubilc Radio, August 7, 2008

      “The Adventures of Jimmy flathead – The Internet postings of Bruce Ivins,”, August 7, 2008

      “Anthrax investigation should be investigated, congressmen say,” The Los Angeles Times, August 8, 2008

      “Ex-colleague questions government’s case against anthrax suspect,” The Herald-Mail, August 8, 2008

      “The Ivins Dossier,” The Wall Street Journal, August 8, 2008

      “Full NPR Interview With Ivins’ Attorney Paul Kemp,”, August 8, 2008

      “Doubts Persist Among Anthrax Suspect’s Colleagues,” The New York Times, August 9, 2008

      Gerry Andrews, “Open Questions on a Closed Case,” New York Times, August 9, 2008

      Editorial, “Forensic Microbiology, and the Reinterpretation of History,” Surg Infect 2008 Aug ;9 (4):413-414, by Philip S. Barie, Cornell Medical.

      “Analysis: What if a jury heard the anthrax case,” The Associated Press, August 9, 2008

      “Ivins remembered for intelligence, compassion,” The Associated Press, August 9, 2008

      “The Case Still Isn’t Closed,” Newsweek, August 9, 2008

      “The Anthrax Case: From Spores to a Suspect,” Science Magazine, August 12, 2008

      “Talk Back: Do you believe Bruce Ivins was responsible for the anthrax attacks?,” Frederick News-Post, August 13, 2008

      “Nagging Questions in the Anthrax Case,” Time Magazine, August 13, 2008

      “Hair Samples in Anthrax Case Don’t Match,” The Washington Post, August 14, 2008

      “FBI had, then tossed anthrax type used in attacks,” Associated Press, August 18, 2008

      “Anthrax Scientist Aided FBI’s Probe,” ABC News, August 18, 2008

      “The Anthrax Case: The Trail of the Spores,” Science Now, August 18, 2008

      “The Science,” FBI press briefing, August 18, 2008

      “F.B.I. Details Anthrax Case, but Doubts Remain,” The New York Times, August 19, 2008

      “FBI Elaborates on Anthrax Case,” The Washington Post, August 19, 2008

      “Scientists elaborate on the case against Bruce Ivins,” The Los Angeles Times, August 19, 2008

      “Scientists still looking for FBI to release anthrax data,” Frederick News-Post, August 20, 2008

      “‘Spore on the Grassy Knoll’,” The Washington Post (Editorial), August 20, 2008

      “Too Little Information,” The New York Times (Editorial), August 20, 2008

      “Ivins’ Attorney To Be Interviewed In Congressional Probe,”, August 20, 2008

      “FBI says it easily replicated anthrax used in attacks,” CIDRAP News – August 20, 2008

      “Case Not Closed,” Nature (Editorial), August 20, 2008

      “Too close for comfort,” Nature, August 21, 2008

      “A Trained Eye Finally Solved the Anthrax Puzzle,” The New York Times, August 21, 2008

      “FBI Unveils Science Of Anthrax Investigation,” Science Daily, August 21, 2008

      “Ivins’ attorney: Don’t blame the FBI,” CNN, August 21, 2008

      “Working In Secret,” The Albuquerque Journal, August 22, 2008

      “FBI explains the science behind the anthrax investigation,” USA Today, August 24, 2008

      “Validation: FBI’s Anthrax Analysis,” Chemical & Engineering News, August 25, 2008

      “White Powder and 007,”, August 27, 2008 (opinion)

      “If not Ivins … ,” The Frederick News-Post (Opinion), August 29, 2008

      “Cracking the anthrax case,” The Philadelphia Inquirer, September 1, 2008

      “A marathon, not a sprint,” The Frederick News-Post (Editorial), September 6, 2008

      “Lawmakers Seek Anthrax Details,” The New York Times, September 6, 2006

      “Early anthrax suspect doubts guilt of Ivins,” The Frederick News-Post, September 7, 2008

      “FBI: Anthrax suspect Ivins obsessed with Kappa,” The Daily Princetonian, September 8, 2008

      “WMD Panel Urges Focus on Biological Threats,” Wall Street Journal, September 9, 2008

      Letter, Vahid Majidi, Assistant Director, Weapons of Mass Destruction, to National Academy of Sciences, September 15, 2008

      “FBI to Request Scientific Review of Its Anthrax Investigation,” ScienceNOW, September 16, 2008

      “Sweden compensates Egyptian ex-terror suspect,” Associated Press, September 19, 2008

      “Anthrax Suspicions: Why an independent look at the FBI probe is essential,” Washington Post, September 19, 2008, Page A18

      Editorial, “Congressional probe more than warranted,” New York Post, September 22, 2008

      Scott Shane, “Critics of Anthrax Inquiry Seek an Independent Review,” New York Times, September 23, 2008

      “FBI did not analyze anthrax from biodefense lab,” USA Today, September 24, 2008

      “Suspect: ‘I finally know who mailed the anthrax letters,” CNN, September 24, 2008

      S.H. Faruqi, “A mockery of justice,” Nation, September 28, 2008

      “Two Portraits of a Bioterror Suspect: As FBI Paints Ivins as Killer, Friends Recall Him as Good, if Flawed,” Washington Post, September 28, 2008

      Amber Dance, “Silicon highlights remaining questions over anthrax investigation,” Nature, September 29, 2008

      “Silicon highlights remaining questions over anthrax investigation,”Nature, Sept. 29, 2008

      “Mail carriers to bring drugs in anthrax attack,” Reuters, Oct 1, 2008

      “FBI outlines scope of anthrax study,” Frederick News-Post, Oct. 2, 2008

      “ACLU Condemns New FBI Guidelines: Guidelines Released Amid Protest from Congress, Privacy Groups and American Public,” October 3, 2008

      “Pursue anthrax probe,” The Times of Trenton, Oct. 6, 2008

      “Straight talk with…Charles Grassley,” Nature Medicine 14, 1006-1007 (2008)

      “Aafia in better health but vague about missing years,” Daily Times, October 9, 2008

      “Pak terror suspect Dr Aafia says she doesnt have faith in US judicial system,” ANI, October 9, 2008

      “Scientist to discuss anthrax case,” Ravalli Republic, October 9, 2008

      [Jdey’s] “Letters show anger of Canadian terrorism suspect,” Globe and Mail, October 13, 2008


      Editorial, “Porous Defenses,” New York Times, October 22, 2008

      Investigations: Derek Kravitz, “FBI’s Road To Ivins,” Washington Post, October 27, 2008

      Joby Warrick, “Trail of Odd Anthrax Cells Led FBI to Army Scientist,” Washington Post, October 27, 2008; A01

      “Running the yellow light,” Frederick News-Post, October 29, 2008

      “Detrick releases Ivins’ personnel file,” Frederick News-Post, October 29, 2008

      “Holt Asking Hard Questions About Anthrax,” Town Topics (Princeton), October 29, 2008

      “Fla. ruling will help widow’s [$50 million] anthrax lawsuit,” Associated Press, October 30, 2008

      (Chertoff interview) “Bio Terror ‘Next Threat’ For US,” SkyNews, October 31, 2008

      “Al-Qaeda propaganda chief killed in Pakistan strike: officials,” AFP, November 1, 2008

      “Terrorists try to infiltrate UK’s top labs: The security services have intercepted up to 100 suspects posing as postgraduate students who aim to acquire weapons material and expertise,”Guardian, November 2, 2008

      “Scientists Slam FBI ‘Thrax Probe In Bid To Clear Buddy ‘Dr. Doom'”, New York Post, November 2, 2008

      “Eyes only: Obama’s spy briefing,” BBCNews, November 5, 2008

      Dark Days: “Shining A Light,”, Canada, November 6, 2008

      Editorial, “Are You a Suspect?” Syracuse Post-Standard, November 7, 2008

      “The FBI’s 15-Year Campaign to Ferret Out Norman Mailer,” Washington Post, November 11, 2008

      “Newspapers seek unsealing of anthrax search records,”, November 12, 2008

      “FBI accuses man of lying in terror case: [PhD pharmacy student] Sudbury resident arrested on way to job overseas,” Boston Globe, November 12, 2008

      “Scientific impossibility: Did FBI get their man in Bruce Ivins?,” Baltimore Examiner, November 16, 2008

      “Judge decides to make anthrax records,” Reuters, November 17, 2008

      “Judges throws out contempt order against reporter,” Forbes, November 17, 2008

      “Judge decides to make anthrax records public,” Reuters, November 17, 2008

      “Terrorism Suspect Aafia Siddiqui Unfit for Trial: Judge Slates Hearing After Report That Former MIT Student Not Mentally Competent,” ABCNews, November 17, 2008

      Risen and Lichtblau, “Early Test for Obama on Domestic Spying Views,” The New York Times, November 19, 2008

      “Remarks Prepared for Delivery by Attorney General Michael B. Mukasey at the 2008 Annual Meeting of the Federalist Society,”Washington, D.C., November 20, 2008

      “Top Islamic radicals continue catfight,”, November 24, 2008

      “Documents released in Hatfill anthrax case,” Associated Press, November 25, 2008

      “New Details on F.B.I’.s False Start in Anthrax Case,” New York Times, November 25, 2008

      “Profile: Controversial Jihad Theoretician Dr. Fadl,” Asharq Al-Awsat, November 25, 2008

      “FBI’s early anthrax hunches revealed in documents,” Los Angeles Times, November 26, 2008

      “In Anthrax Probe, Focus on Hatfill Relied on Informants,” Washington Post, November 26, 2008

      “Court unseals Hatfill anthrax documents,” Frederick News-Post, November 26, 2008

      “New Al-Qaida Video from Dr. Ayman al-Zawahiri,” Counterterrorismblog, November 27, 2008

      “The Most Dangerous Woman In The World,” Spiegel, November 27, 2008

      Niraj Warikoo, “FBI power in terror cases grows: Metro Detroiters worry it’ll open door to profiling,” Detroit Free Press, November 30, 2008

      Joby Warrick, “Report Sounds Alarm Over Bioterror: Bipartisan Study Finds Insufficient Laboratory Safeguards, Loose Regulations,” Washington Post, November 30, 2008

      OpEd, “An Interrogator Speaks: I’m Still Tortured by What I Saw in Iraq,” Washington Post, November 30, 2008

      Editorial, “The Next Attorney General,” Washington Post, December 1, 2008

      WORLD AT RISK: The Report of the Commission on the Prevention of WMD Proliferation and Terrorism, December 2008

      Editorial, “The Next Attorney General,” Washington Post, December 1, 2008

      White House Fact Sheet: Defending Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Terrorism , December 3, 2008 Commission Report Endorses Administration Initiatives and Calls for Continuation of Successful WMD Policies to Address Increasing Threat

      Eric Lichtblau and James Risen, “Panel to Call for Probe Into Wiretapping of Scholar,” New York Times, December 7, 2008

      “Warrantless Wiretapping Used In Terrorist Trial,”, December 8, 2008

      “Marri case is just a taste of hard choices waiting for Obama,” Boston Globe, December 9, 2008

      “Man Linked to Sept. 11 Hijackers Is Released,” New York Times, December 10, 2008

      “Dr Aafia’s children: father’s plea,” Dawn, December 12, 2008

      “The Fed Who Blew the Whistle,” Newsweek, December 13, 2008

      Shane, “Portrait Emerges of Anthrax Suspect’s Troubled Life,” New York Times, January 4, 2009

      “Secret hearing for ‘jihadist’; U.S. moves to deport Lebanese national with ties to Canada,” The Globe and Mail (Canada), January 9, 2009

      Olivier Guitta, “Al-Qaida and the Plague,” Middle East Times, January 27, 2009

      “Science Found Wanting in Nation’s Crime Labs,” New York Times, February 4, 2009

      ” Dr Aafia Siddiqui’s husband breaks his silence after six years: Claims most reports in the local media are false, suspects his two ‘missing’ children are in Karachi,” The News, February 18, 2009

      “An In-Depth Summary of Sayyid Imam’s New Polemic against Al-Qaeda, ‘Exposing the Exoneration’,” Memri, February 23, 2009

      “Revealed: Scientific Evidence for the 2001 Anthrax Attacks,” New Scientist, February 27, 2009

      “Terror Suspect Taught Khadr’s Children: Document,” Ottawa Citizen, March 9, 2009

      “Eight Years Into An Investigation Thas Has Consumed Millions of Dollars, Some Scientists and Legislators Remain Unconvinced That The FBI’s Case Is Closed,” Seed Magazine, 2009

      l”FBI’s Evidence in Anthrax Attacks Case Leaves Puzzling Scientific Questions,” FoxNews, March 06, 2009

      “Ruling lets anthrax suit go forward,” Fort Mills Times, March 6, 2009

      “Terror Suspect Taught Khadr’s Children: Document,” Ottawa Citizen, March 9, 2009

      “Biosecurity. Paul Keim on his life with the FBI during the anthrax investigation,” Science, 2009 Mar 13;323(5920):1416

      “F.B.I. to Pay for Anthrax Inquiry Review,” New York Times, May 7, 2009

      “Ask The Expert: Paul Keim,” ScienceNow, July 7, 2009

      Mark Marzetti and Scott Shane, “House Looks Into Secrets Withheld From Congress,” New York Times, July 17, 2009

  9. DXer said

    Bearing on separate CDC conclusion that there likely were two letters to AMI and two paths of contamination through the Florida post offices:

    Environmental sampling results of bioterrorism-related anthrax epidemic, New Jersey, October–November 2001

    Case-patient 6 was a bookkeeper at a Hamilton Township accounting firm; she did not visit the Trenton PDC. However, mail delivered to both her home and workplace came directly from the Trenton PDC without passing through an intermediate local post office. The bookkeeper’s onset of cutaneous anthrax was October 17, eight days after the Washington, D.C., destined letters were processed at the Trenton PDC.
    Envelopes containing B. anthracis were handled at the Trenton PDC in a limited area of the facility: they passed through a small number of the many machines used to handle letters. Yet environmental sampling found evidence of spores throughout the facility, including on nearly all of the sorting machines, in the ventilation system, and in the rafters high above the plant floor. These findings are consistent with recent experiments indicating that spores deposited on high-speed sorting machines from the passage of B. anthracis–containing envelopes can be readily aerosolized or dispersed through the air and are capable of being carried for considerable distances

    The two workers in whom inhalational anthrax developed stood next to one another when the letters containing B. anthracis were sorted: they worked on machines next to the sorters that processed these letters. Symptoms developed in these workers within 1 day of each other. These findings are consistent with an exposure to a local plume of aerosolized spores during or soon after the passage of the letters. Such a plume could have been produced by air circulation patterns in the vicinity or when compressed air was used to blow out or clean a nearby machine that had processed the letters. We had no means of assessing individual exposure to explore this hypothesis further.

    • DXer said

      On GAO Report re Florida sampling:

      Applied and Environmental Microbiology, October 2006, p. 6431-6438, Vol. 72, No. 10
      0099-2240/06/$08.00+0 doi:10.1128/AEM.01165-06
      Copyright © 2006, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

      Quality Sample Collection, Handling, and Preservation for an Effective Microbial Forensics Program

      Bruce Budowle,1 Steven E. Schutzer,2* James P. Burans,3 Douglas J. Beecher,1 Thomas A. Cebula,4 Ranajit Chakraborty,5 William T. Cobb,6 Jacqueline Fletcher,7 Martha L. Hale,8 Robert B. Harris,9 Michael A. Heitkamp,10 Frederick Paul Keller,1 Cheryl Kuske,11 Joseph E. LeClerc,4 Babetta L. Marrone,11 Thomas S. McKenna,12 Stephen A. Morse,13 Luis L. Rodriguez,14 Nancy B. Valentine,15 and Jagjit Yadev5


      It is important to draw distinctions between investigations designed to gather microbial forensic evidence and investigations designed to determine whether a pathogen is still present, perhaps after a remediation effort. A recent GAO report provided recommendations concerned predominantly with remediation. However, some important areas of overlap with evidence collection for law enforcement purposes are instructive. The GAO report (40) addressed and was consistent with many of the issues discussed at the recent conference. The scientists in attendance generally agreed with and supported the findings of the GAO report in that validation of methods and processes was deemed necessary to achieve best practices. However, the conference attendees cautioned that the sampling strategy advocated by the authors of the GAO report for postremediation analysis should not be extrapolated to, nor is it the best approach for, microbial forensic or initial public health and agricultural health investigations.

      The GAO report was critical of the targeted sampling strategy used to detect Bacillus anthracis in postal facilities in 2001. In this instance, government agencies collected samples where, in their best judgment, B. anthracis spores would most likely be found. The GAO report suggested that the use of a random and/or probability sampling strategy would allow determination of a level of statistical confidence for the absence of building contamination in cases when all sampling results are negative. As noted above, the report apparently pertains to remediation and the decision of when to consider a building safe for reoccupation. Whereas such verification sampling may be necessary to confirm decontamination of a building (10), it should not be confused with the different requirements of microbial forensics.

    • DXer said

      bearing on CDC conclusion likely two paths of contamination and two letters through Florida offices?

      Investigation of Bioterrorism-Related Anthrax, United States, 2001: Epidemiologic Findings

      Although no B. anthracis–positive envelopes were recovered in Florida, B. anthracis was isolated from environmental sampling at the AMI building (the worksite of the Florida case-patients) and at least six postal facilities along the path of mail delivered to AMI. The dates of illness onset in AMI media company employees in Florida suggest possible exposure to envelopes mailed in mid-September 2001 (23).

      [citing Emerg Infect Dis. 2002 Oct;8(10):1029-34.
      First case of bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax in the United States, Palm Beach County, Florida, 2001.
      Traeger MS, Wiersma ST, Rosenstein NE, Malecki JM, Shepard CW, Raghunathan PL, Pillai SP, Popovic T, Quinn CP, Meyer RF, Zaki SR, Kumar S, Bruce SM, Sejvar JJ, Dull PM, Tierney BC, Jones JD, Perkins BA; Florida Investigation Team.]

  10. DXer said

    With respect to the suggestion that the leg lesion related to the newly arrived hijacker’s exposure to anthrax (he had just come from Afghanistan where the anthrax lab was located and said he got the gash on his leg from carrying a suitcase).

    Characteristics of CDC field investigations of anthrax in humans and animals, 1950–August 2001a

    In 1975, anthrax was initially suspected in a 23-year-old Arizona man, but his illness was quickly determined to be plague (Epi-Aid 1975-115). In 1973, two sisters in California developed vesiculopapular lesions on their fingers after contact with ill lambs. Anthrax was suspected, but the cultures were negative, and the disease was diagnosed as human orf (59). In 1969, investigators determined that a gram-positive spore-forming bacillus from a skin lesion on a Wyoming meat-packing company worker was not B. anthracis, but no definitive species identification could be made (Epi-Aid 1969-78). B. anthracis was initially suspected as the cause of cutaneous lesions in persons in a remote village in Nepal in 1967, but plague was subsequently documented (Epi-Aid 1968-34). In 1965, laboratory samples from a skin lesion of a South Carolina customs inspector who had had contact with imported wool were negative for B. anthracis. Although no definitive diagnosis was made, the clinical picture made anthrax unlikely (Epi-Aid 1966-18). Finally, in 1957, cutaneous lesions on five New York butchers initially considered as possible anthrax were subsequently diagnosed as pyoderma caused by staphylococci, streptococci, or both (Epi-Aid 1958-16).

  11. DXer said

    With respect to the statements made October 9, 2001- October 13, 2001 that there was no reason to associate Dr. Stevens illness with an opened letter:

    Anthrax as a Biological Weapon, 2002

    Updated Recommendations for Management

    • Thomas V. Inglesby, MD;
    • Tara O’Toole, MD, MPH;
    • Donald A. Henderson, MD, MPH;
    • John G. Bartlett, MD;
    • Michael S. Ascher, MD;
    • Edward Eitzen, MD, MPH;
    • Arthur M. Friedlander, MD;
    • Julie Gerberding, MD, MPH;
    • Jerome Hauer, MPH;
    • James Hughes, MD;
    • Joseph McDade, PhD;
    • Michael T. Osterholm, PhD, MPH;
    • Gerald Parker, PhD, DVM;
    • Trish M. Perl, MD, MSc;
    • Philip K. Russell, MD;
    • Kevin Tonat, DrPH, MPH;
    • for the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense

    Prior to the anthrax attacks of 2001, there had been no recognition or scientific study showing that B anthracis spores of “weapons grade” quality would be capable of leaking out the edges of envelopes or through the pores of envelopes, with resulting risk to the health of those handling or processing those letters. When it became clear that the Florida case of anthrax was likely caused by a letter contaminated with B anthracis, assessment of postal workers who might have handled or processed that letter showed no illness.69​ When the anthrax cases were discovered, each was linked to a letter that had been opened. At first, there was no evidence of illness among persons handling or processing unopened mail. This fact influenced the judgment that persons handling or processing unopened B anthracis letters were not at risk. These judgments changed when illness was discovered in persons who had handled or processed unopened letters in Washington, DC.

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