CASE CLOSED … what really happened in the 2001 anthrax attacks?

* Dugway Spore Preparations: “Tide’s In… Dirt’s Out!”

Posted by DXer on April 27, 2010


The FBI’s case against Dr. Ivins is bogus: no evidence, no witnesses, an impossible timeline, science that proves innocence instead of guilt. So what really happened? And why? The “fictional” scenario in my novel CASE CLOSED has been judged by many readers, including a highly respected official in the U.S. Intelligence Community, as “quite plausible.”

* buy CASE CLOSED at amazon *


34 Responses to “* Dugway Spore Preparations: “Tide’s In… Dirt’s Out!””

  1. DXer said

    Why did Bruce Ivins send a packet of detergent to the Former Colleague #1, Mara Linscott, who had been thanked by the former Zawahiri associate Tarek Hamouda for providing technical assistance in connection with the virulent Ames supplied by Bruce?

  2. DXer said

    Was there anthrax in the TIDE?

    Or was there TIDE in the anthrax? (as Dugway advised USAMRIID was the case in 2003)

    • DXer said

      Why did Bruce Ivins send a packet of detergent to the Former Colleague #1, Mara Linscott, who had been thanked by the former Zawahiri associate Tarek Hamouda for providing technical assistance in connection with the virulent Ames supplied by Bruce.

      In an email on March 13, 2001, Dr. Ivins made the following reference to a series of packages he sent to her: “The detergent from Laundry Boy was mailed from Virginia during an IPT meeting. The gift certificate and birthday card were mailed from Gaithersburg. The jacket — when it finally came — was to be mailed from Gettysburg, but you had already figured out who sent you everything else, so I just went ahead and sent it from Frederick.”

      Mara knew who it was from and it is not surprising that a married man sending something to a beautiful young doctor would not sign his name if he liked her a lot — but why did he send a packet of detergent?

      Isn’t his explanation to her after he had been interviewed by the FBI about it a little lame — that it was something she had said she needed?

      That anthrax in the TIDE rumor would be an interesting one for the students of social pscyhology to study — to see if at its origin there was some real world event that was the trigger.


      I once asked in connection to the JLo letter issue “who had an obsession about women?” And I referred to Atta. And I’ve noted that the CIA knew “wedding” was Al-Qaeda-speak. But didn’t Bruce also have an obsession with women? Why does Ed resist the scientific finding of a second mailing — that included a packet of detergent in light of the sampling of the keyboard and interviewing of witnesses — when it was Bruce Ivins who had the modus operandi of sending a packet of detergent anonymously.

      What was the brand detergent? Was it TIDE? Or was it LAUNDRY BOY?

      Now it’s true that Atta and Ramzi, who Tenet says had a CBRN role, were talking in codes shortly prior to 9/11 in communicating the 9/11 date. And a brilliant commentator once theorized that the items in the mailing formed that date. But there will be time enough to consider that hypothesis when we settle this scientific issue as to whether there were two routes of contamation –and two letters — as the government scientists found and reiterated.

      The scientific conclusion — oft-repeated and published in the EID — has never been disputed by the FBI (contrary to Ed’s mistaken assumptions).

      • DXer said


        In late 2002, as I best recall, a plot was foiled when an attempt to purchase 1100 pounds of saponin was noticed by a chemical company and stopped. Saponins are natural detergents forming oil-in-water emulsions. What did Al Qaeda biochem plot involve?

        • DXer said


          November 23, 2003, Sunday

          British firm foils terrorist plot to acquire toxic chemicals Scientists were told that substance was to be used as ‘fire retardant for edible rice’

          BYLINE: BY RAJEEV SYAL AND FRANCIS ELLIOTT and Additional reporting by James Robson

          LENGTH: 588 words

          TERRORISTS IN London tried to buy half a ton of toxic chemicals that could have been used to kill many thousands of people, it was confirmed yesterday.

          The plot came to light when staff at Amersham plc, a medical diagnostics and biosciences company based in Buckinghamshire, became suspicious about the quantity of its products being ordered through an obscure London post office box address.

          The terrorist group attempted to buy saponin, usually used as a biological agent in laboratories to enhance the transmission of molecules through cell membranes. But it can be used to enable poisonous chemicals to penetrate human skin.

          Saponin, commonly obtained from foxgloves, can be mixed with toxins such as ricin and smeared on surfaces in public places to cause widespread poisoning.

          The terrorist group, which has been not been named, made the approach in October 2002 while pretending to be a limited company based in London. Amersham’s employees became suspicious because the order was 1,000 times the size of a normal request from a university laboratory. When asked what the saponin was going to be used for, the terrorists said that it was intended as a “fire retardant on rice intended for human consumption” – an incredible explanation, according to biologists.

          Company officials from Amersham then examined the company making the order, and discovered that it was being funded by an obscure “Islamic group”. Dr Lynne Gailey, the director of corporate affairs at Amersham, confirmed yesterday that a suspected terrorist plot was foiled and that police were informed of the order before it was delivered. It is not known if any arrests were made.

          In a separate development, another suspected al-Qaeda terrorist has been picked up in Britain, this newspaper has learned. The detention was made last month after detailed intelligence reports that the man posed a “significant” threat. The detainee, a foreign national, was arrested by police and is being held in a high-security prison under emergency anti-terrorism laws. The man is the 16th person to be held without trial under the legislation over the past two years.

          Comment: I believe Dick Destiny represented (as an expert witness) the jihadi accused of ricin plotting. I’ve emailed Dick to ask if the saponin report has been debunked.

        • DXer said

          The idea of using an additive to increase absorption into the skin was Egyptian Abu Khabab’s idea. Ayman liked the idea. They were pals with Khadr, head of the Canadian cell who had lived with Ayman and Bin Laden in the compound. The Canadian cell was connected to the Florida cell and the footbone is connected to the anklebone… and the FBI has hundreds of intercepted calls to prove it if they would just translate the backlogs.

          It seems a lot of people after 911 just approached the problem from the point of view what they already know — rather than to undertake to inform themselves. Thus, it seems that it is just a matter of time before the next 9/11.

  3. DXer said

    Let’s review of the documents that have been disclosed in February 2010, with an eye toward some earlier press articles that put it in context.

    In October 2001, LSU and University of Michigan were subpoenaed. A DARPA Program Manager at the time privately told a friend of mine that they knew where the attack Ames came from and even the machine used to make it.

    Louisiana State University (“LSU”) and University of Michigan were subpoenaed out of the gate. According to Richard Hidalgo, assistant to the dean of the school of veterinary medicine at LSU, the DOJ asked the school to provide by Oct. 23 a log of all visitors and employees at the Hugh-Jones Special Pathogens Lab since Jan. 1, 2000, including their Social Security numbers and dates of birth. The subpoena also asked for information on shipments of pathogens to and from the lab. “Besides Dr. Hugh-Jones and his lab director, only three others have been in the lab” during the time in question, Hidalgo said. “I’ve never been there myself.” Why did the FBI limit the October 2001 subpoena of LSU Special Pathogens Lab to visitors after January 1, 2000. The DARPA research involving virulent Ames supplied by Bruce Ivins prior to that. Dr. Tarek Hamouda and lab tech Michael Hayes had worked with virulent Ames with Bruce Ivins in May 1998.

    Newsday reported:

    “A subpoena also was delivered to the University of Michigan, according to a source who asked not to be identified. “All research institutions are being contacted by the FBI and asked for information,” the source said. “They were seeking personnel records for those who may be working with select agents.” …”LSU’s Hidalgo said the FBI appears to be looking for any breach in the strict handling procedures for anthrax and other select agents. It could not be determined yesterday how many institutions have received subpoenas. In some cases, the FBI has made investigative inquiries without court orders.”

    Alibek says Russia had Ames. Porton Down reportedly provided it to four unnamed researchers. American Type Culture Collection (“ATCC”) has written me to say that as a matter of policy, they will not address whether their patent repository (as distinguished from their online catalog) had virulent Ames prior to 9/11. Although ATCC did not take the opportunity to deny it, one can infer from the FBI’s affidavit in connection the search of Ivins’ residence that no lab in Virginia is known by the FBI to have had virulent Ames. Thus, FBI, in its “Ivins Theory,” was working on the understanding that ATCC did not have Ames in its patent repository. Work with virulent Ames was done by the Southern Research Institute in Frederick, which in 2000 was announced as the subcontractor under DARPA grant to Advanced Biosystems.

    Ari Fleischer explained: “What you have to keep in mind is the difference between knowledge about what type of information you have to have to produce it, and who could have sent it. They are totally separate topics that could involve totally separate people. It could be the same person or people. It could be totally different people. The information does not apply to who sent it.” Ken Alibek, the former head of the Soviet bio-weapons program suggests that ‘If I were a terrorist, I would certainly not use a strain known to be from my country.'” To the same effect, Bruce Ivins would not have used the strain — a special mixture of the US Army strain — for which he was the “go-to” person.

    The Washington Post explained in a late October 2008 article: “While some FBI scientists were analyzing genetic mutations, others were scouring the planet for repositories of Ames-strain bacteria. To their surprise, Ames turned out to be quite rare, with only 15 U.S. institutions and three foreign ones possessing live, virulent Ames. Samples of Ames were collected and added to a repository the FBI had established at Fort Detrick. In a process that ended only in late 2006, bureau scientists picked up 1,072 samples of anthrax bacteria and tested each for mutations identical to the ones in the bioterrorist’s letters.”

    “Back at the bureau’s Washington field office, agents were reconstructing the history of RMR-1029. A giant flow chart, covering most of a wall, recorded each discovery about the origins of the spores and what Ivins did with them. But the agents wondered: Could others, besides Ivins, have gotten access to the flask of spores?” The Post article continues: “The question drives much of the skepticism about the FBI’s case.”

    The question relevant to an Al Qaeda theory is what access to the US Army strain might have been accomplished by someone with 1) an organization supported by funds diverted from charities backing his play, and 2) a lot of educated and technically-trained Salafists who believe in his Islamist cause.
    example, Ayman had a trusted scientist attending conferences sponsored by Porton Down scheduling 10-day lab visit as early as 1999. In the US, he had the support of other scientists (such as GMU’s Al-Timimi) who did advanced research alongside researchers working with the Ames strain under a contract with USAMRIID for DARPA.
    The DOJ also has provided a December 5, 1997 letter from a University of Michigan Medical Center scientist to Bruce Ivins. It states

    “Dear Dr. Ivins:
    It was a pleasure speaking with you the other day. I much appreciate your willingness to work with us concerning our new anti-sporicidal material. We are looking forward to doing it in vitro evaluating or not whether this material against anthrax spores given its efficacy against other species of bacillus spores. These studies would involve mixing the material with the spores for varying lengths of time and then either separating the spores or culturing them directly to determine the viability. We might also do fixation of the spore preparations to determine if there are any ultrastructural changes in the spores that can be oberved with electron microscopy.”

    “My technicians are fully trained in the contagious pathogen handling and have experience with level 3 biosafety requirements. They, as I, are willing to undergo the anthrax and plague immunizations, although I was hoping that they might be able to administer the vaccines at the University of Michigan. This might allow us to only make one trip to USAMRID before we begin the studies. If we could either purchase the vaccine from you or from a commercial distributor, we would be happy to administer it and document titers in any way you feel appropriate.

    I look forward to the initiation of this work. I believe it could be a very interesting collaboration that could eventually lead to animal studies. On December 19, commensurate with the filing of patents on this material, I will send you additional data on the formulations and our studies concerning the ability of these materials to inactivate spores both in vitro and in vivo.


    _____ Division of Allergy”

    The FBI did not ask for documents from Bruce Ivins relating to the correspondence with the University of Michigan researchers until 2005 — four years after the mailings. At that time, he forwarded, for example, evidence that Dr. Hamouda and lab tech Michael Hayes had received anthrax and plague vaccinations in advance of coming to work alongside Dr. ivins in the BL-3 laboratory using virulent Ames.

    The University of Michigan Medical Center letter dated May 10 [1998] to Bruce Ivin

    “My colleagues and I would like to extend our thanks and appreciation to both you and Dr. Ivins for the opportunity to work at USAMRIID. Dr. Ivins _______________________ were very helpful and cooperative in facilitating our studies as well as providing excellent technical assistance. Their efforts made our stay at USAMRIID both pleasant and highly productive. In particular, our discussions with Dr. Ivins provided valuable insights which will enable to better define and develop our technology.”

    “The data generated in these studies serves to clarify and validate the results which we have seen in our model systems (see attachments). We were able to block growth of both strains of B. anthracis with emulsion incorporated media (Table 1). We also were successful in reducing both Vollum and Ames spore counts by 95% (as assessed by CFU of viable organisms). These reductions were observed at spore concentrations of up to 1 X 10 6/ ml (Figure 1) and were seen even in conditions which limited germination (room temperature incubation). Decreased numbers of spores also were identified microscopically in the media after treatment. In contrast, no reduction in counts was noted with an initial spore innoculation of 1 X 10 8 / ml (Figure 2). These conditions probably overwhelm the emulsion given the concentration of spores in approaching the concentration of lipid vesicles. However, extremely high spore concentrations may alter the effect of the lipid in other ways and we are designing experiments with inhibitors of germination used at lower spore densities to clarify this result.”

    “We were pleased with this outcome and the personal interaction that produced them. Given the non-toxic nature of these emulsions, we feel hat they may have a role in the decontamination and treatment of agents such as anthrax and alphavirus. We look forward to future collaborative efforts with Dr. Ivins and his laboratory staff. With the diverse nature of our respective programs, we believe that a cooperative approach will serve to accelerate the development of these compounds.”

    In a number of patents by University of Michigan researchers in Ann Arbor, Tarek Hamouda and James R. Baker, Jr., including some filed before 9/11, the inventors thanked Bruce Ivins of Ft. Detrick for supplying them with virulent Ames. The University of Michigan patents stated: “B. anthracis spores, Ames and Vollum 1 B strains, were kindly supplied by Dr. Bruce Ivins (USAMRIID, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.), and prepared as previously described (Ivins et al., 1995). Dr. Hamouda served as group leader on the DARPA Anti-infective project.

    A patent application filed April 2000 by the University of Michigan inventors explained:

    “The release of such agents as biological weapons could be catastrophic in light of the fact that such diseases will readily spread the air.
    In light of the foregoing discussion, it becomes increasingly clear that cheap, fast and effective methods of killing bacterial spores are needed for decontaminating purposes. The inventive compounds have great potential as environmental decontamination agents and for treatments of casualties in both military and terrorist attacks. The inactivation of a broad range of pathogens … and bacterial spores (Hamouda et al., 1999), combined with low toxicity in experimental animals, make them (i.e., the inventive compounds) particularly well suited for use as general decontamination agents before a specific pathogen is identified.”

    In late August 2001, NanoBio relocated from a small office with 12 year-old furniture to an expanded office on Green Road located at Plymouth Park. After the mailings, DARPA reportedly asked for some of their product them to decontaminate some of the Senate offices. The company pitched hand cream to postal workers. The inventors company, NanoBio, was initially funded by DARPA.

    Dr. Hamouda graduated Cairo Medical in December 1982. He married in 1986. His wife was on the Cairo University dental faculty for 10 years. Upon coming to the United States in 1994 after finishing his microbiology PhD at Cairo Medical, Dr. Hamouda was a post-doctoral fellow at the Wayne State University School of Medicine in downtown Detroit. His immunology department biography at Wayne indicates that he then came to the University of Michigan and began work on the DARPA-funded work with anthrax bio-defense applications with James R. Baker at their company NanoBio.

    The University of Michigan researchers presented in part at various listed meetings and conferences in 1998 and 1999. The Department of Justice provided a copy of December 1999 article titled “A Novel Surfactant Nanoemulsion with Broad-Spectrum Sporicidal Activity of against Bacillus Species” in its disclosure under FOIA. The article in the Journal for Infectious Diseases states: “B. anthracis spores, Ames and Vollum 1B strains, were supplied by Bruce Ivins (US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases [USAMRIID], Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD) and were prepared as described elsewhere. Four other strains of B. anthracis were provided by Martin Hugh-Jones (Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge).” Dr. Baker advises me by email that the work NanoBio’s research with virulent Ames was “done at USAMRIID by a microbiologist under Dr. Ivins’ direct supervision and at LSU under the direction of Dr. Hugh Jones.”

    In the acknowledgements section, the University of Michigan authors thanked:

    (1) Shaun B. Jones, Jane Alexander, and Lawrence DuBois (Defense Science Office, Defense Advanced Research Project Agency) for their support;

    (2) Bruce Ivins for supplying virulent Ames;

    (3)Patricia Fellows (who is identified as Ivins’ Former Colleague #2 in the Amerithrax Investigative Summary);

    (4) Mara Linscott (who is identifed as Ivins’ “Former Colleague #1); and

    (5) Arthur Friedlander, the Army’s top anthrax expert.

    He thanked Drs. Fellows, Linscott and Friedlander for their technical support and helpful suggestions in the performance of the initial anthrax studies.

    (7) Martin-Hugh-Jones at LSU,
    (8) Kimothy Smith, who moved from LSU to Northern Arizona University, where he was a key genetics expert for the FBI typing submitted samples in 2002; and

    (9) Pamela Coker, Kimothy’s close associate who served as the LSU biolevel 3 lab head.

    Dr. Hamouda thanked Hugh-Jones, Smith and Coker for supplying the characterized B. anthracis strains and the space at Louisiana State University (Baton Rouge).

    The University of Michigan researchers found that their nanoemulsion incorporated into the growth medium completely inhibited the growth of the spores. Transmission electron microscope was used to examine the spores.

    The patent explained that “The nanoemulsions can be rapidly produced in large quantities and are stable for many months *** Undiluted, they have the texture of a semisolid cream and can be applied topically by hand or mixed with water. Diluted, they have a consistency and appearance similar to skim milk and can be sprayed to decontaminate surfaces or potentially interact with aerosolized spores before inhalation.”

    A March 18, 1998 press release had provided some background to the novel DARPA-funded work. It was titled “Novavax Microbicides Undergoing Testing at University of Michigan Against Biological Warfare Agents; Novavax Technology Being Supplied to U.S. Military Program At University of Michigan as Possible Defense Against Germ Warfare.” The release stated that “The Novavax Biologics Division has designed several potent microbicides and is supplying these materials to the University of Michigan for testing under a subcontract. Various formulations are being tested as topical creams or sprays for nasal and environmental usage. The biocidal agent’s detergent degrades and then explodes the interior of the spore. Funding, the press release explains, was provided by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency of the Department of Defense.

    In a presentation at the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC) on September 26, 1998, Michael Hayes, a research associate in the U-Michigan Medical School, presented experimental evidence of BCTP’s ability to destroy anthrax spores both in a culture dish and in mice exposed to anthrax through a skin incision. “In his conference presentation, Hayes described how even low concentrations of BCTP killed more than 90 percent of virulent strains of Bacillus anthracis spores in a culture dish.” Its website explains that the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy is the “[p]remier meeting on infectious diseases and antimicrobial agents, organized by the American Society for Microbiology.”

    In 1999, LSU researcher Dr.Kimothy Smith moved to the Arizona lab, bringing with him the lab’s first samples of anthrax.”

    A University of Michigan Medical school, Medicine at Michigan, (Vol. 1, No. 1, Spring 1999) explained: “In studies with rats and mice in the U-M Medical School under the direction of James R. Baker, Jr., M.D., professor of internal medicine and director of the Center for Biologic Nanotechnology, the mixture, known as BCTP, attacked anthrax spores and healed wounds caused by a closely related species of bacteria, Bacillus cereus. (The letters BCTP stand for Bi-Component, Triton X-100 n-tributyl Phosphate.)
    Baker describes the process as follows: “The tiny lipid droplets in BCTP fuse with anthrax spores, causing the spores to revert to their active bacterial state. During this process, which takes 4-5 hours, the spore’s tough outer membrane changes, allowing BCTP’s solvent to strip away the exterior membrane. The detergent then degrades the spores’ interior contents. In scanning electron microscope images, the spores appear to explode.” The rapid inactivation of anthrax bacteria and spores combined with BCTP’s low toxicity thus make the emulsion a promising candidate for use as a broad-spectrum, post-exposure decontamination agent.
    The research is sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the central research and development organization for the U.S. Department of Defense.”

    Dr. Baker, by email, advises me that Ivins did the studies involving Ames for them at USAMRIID. He reports: “We never had Ames and could not have it at our UM facilities.” Before September 2001, it’s office was described as in the basement of a downtown bank which seems to describe 912 N. Main St., Ann Arbor, just west of the University of Michigan campus.

    An article in the Summer of 2000 in Medicine at Michigan explains:

    “Victory Site: Last December [December 1999] Tarek Hamouda, Amy Shih and Jim Baker traveled to a remote military station in the Utah desert. There they demonstrated for the U.S. Army Research and Development Command the amazing ability of non-toxic nanoemulsions (petite droplets of fat mixed with water and detergent) developed at Michigan to wipe out deadly anthrax-like bacterial spores. The square vertical surfaces shown here were covered with bacterial spores; Michigan’s innocuous nanoemulsion was most effective in killing the spores even when compared to highly toxic chemicals.”

    An EPA report explains: “In December 1999, the U.S. Army tested a broad spectrum nanoemulsion and nine other decontamination technologies in Dugway, Utah, against an anthrax surrogate, Bacillus globigii. Nanoemulsion was one of four technologies that proved effective and was the only nontoxic formulation available. Other tests against the vaccine strain of B. anthracis (Sterne strain) were conducted by the John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory and by the U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research.”

    As Fortune magazine explained in November 2001 about NanoBio: “Then bioterror struck…. It moved to a bland corporate park where its office has no name on the door. It yanked its street address off its Website, whose hit rate jumped from 350 a month to 1,000 a day.” NanoBio was part of the solution: “in the back of NanoBio’s office sit two dozen empty white 55-gallon barrels. A few days before, DARPA had asked Annis and Baker if they could make enough decontaminant to clean several anthrax-tainted offices in the Senate. NanoBio’s small lab mixers will have to run day and night to fill the barrels. ‘This is not the way we want to do this,’ sighs [its key investor], shaking his head. ‘This is all a duct-tape solution.’ ” James Baker, founder of Ann Arbor’s NanoBio’s likes to quote a Chinese proverb: “When there are no lions and tigers in the jungle, the monkeys rule.”

    It’s naive to think that Al Qaeda could not have obtained Ames just because it tended to be in labs associated with or funded by the US military.

  4. DXer said

    The Department of Justice provided 20 pages of records relating to the fellow who I describe as a former Zawahiri associate who was supplied virulent Ames by Bruce Ivins. Dr. Hamouda’s decontamination agent was tested at the Capitol. Tested using aerosol simulant at Dugway. Tested by Johns Hopkins DARPA researchers with whom Bruce Ivins and FBI anthrax expert John Ezzell worked. And perhaps the decontamination agent was tested at Edgewood in 2001 based on a 2002 report. Later studies were done at Battelle where DARPA researchers worked with virulent Ames. Dr. Hamouda thanked Dr. Ivins for supplying virulent Ames. He thanks the highly skilled Dr. Arthur Friedlander and Dr. Fellows who had provided technical assistance. Dr. Fellows is described as “Former Colleague #2 and was Dr. Bruce Ivins’ close colleague in the records. He also thanked Mara Linscott, who is Former Colleague #1 in the records and Dr. Ivins other close colleague. (Dr. Ivins had personal emails and IMs with both on the subject of the Amerithrax investigation).

    I’ve been meaning to make inquiry as to who Dr. Hamouda knew from the early 1980s and early 1990s from the Egyptian Islamic Group, Vanguards of Conquest and Muslim Brotherhood. Dr. Hamouda himself did not respond when I asked about the 800 Vanguards of Conquest members arrested in 1993. That upheaval caused Dr. Agiza to split from Zawahiri; Dr. Agiza was rendered in December 2001 and mistreated. With 800 charged, and with VOC members tending to be educated lawyers, doctors and engineers from the Cairo area, anyone there would have known many of the people whose lives and families were affected. (And most any educated professional would be offended at the torture reported at the hands of Egyptian authorities).

    The anthrax threat described in the CIA’s February 2001 PDB to President Bush (I believe) describes the threat to use mailed anthrax if bail was denied the VOC #2 under Agiza. (The threat was made in late January 2001). His bail was denied and for years I’ve alleged that the mailer dropped what he was doing after the bail was denied on October 5, 2001 and rushed to mail the “real deal.” Specifically, I asked Dr. Hamouda how many of the defendants he knew in the Cairo prosecution. It would have been during the 1993-1994 period he was finishing up his PhD in microbiology in the department where Heba Zawahiri taught. Dr. Hamouda’s wife was on the faculty and so I presume he had been in the Cairo area, rather than Khartoum, Sudan, during the 1980s and early 1990s, but I don’t know.

    Any educated person would have been horrified at the mass arrests of their educated colleagues.

    I’ve described what his friend, “Tawfiq Hamid” says. Tawfiq describes his recruitment by Ayman Zawahiri in INSIDE JIHAD (May 2008). “Tawfiq” consults with intelligence agencies. He uses the name “Tawfiq” for security purposes but is very articulate and you can readily pull up many interviews, to include video interviews. “Tawfiq” told me how he, his brother, and Dr. Hamouda would go to the comic store while Dr. Hamouda visited from Khartoum, Sudan, where his mother was an accounting professor. Dr. Hamid, his brother, an MD, in St. Louis, and Dr. Hamouda were all in Cairo Medical School in the early 1980s where the Egyptian Islamic Group, then legal, dominated the student body. That is where EIJ chief of intelligence Ali Mohammed was recruiting — and where he recruited, for example, medical student Dahab, who he trained in sending lethal letters. Dahab later joined Ali Mohammed in California and they reported to Bin Laden that they had recruited 10 sleepers in the US.

    “Tawfiq” described his childhood friend, Dr. Hamouda before 911 to ask about patents and being told “It’s all in the marketing.” The small Ann Arbor company then garnered $80 million in investment and has not yet marketed a product.

    I’ve been meaning to contact the brother of this former Cairo Med alum, the doctor from St. Louis. “Tawfiq” says his brother won’t talk to him since he now consults with intelligence agencies. I didn’t have the presence of mind to ask his brother’s name at the time. And given my shy nature, have not called “Tawfiq” back. But would that be Dr. Khaled Hamid? Is he the CAIR Board member? Is he the articulate blogger and distinguished MD/PhD who spent time in Michigan and Toronto? (I don’t have confirmation it is the right fellow but Dr. KH’s bio says he received his degree from Cairo Medical School in 1983 (I had understood that he and Dr. Hamouda attended the December 1982 graduation ceremony).

    If I am mistaken in any of my facts, Khaled would be in the best position to set me straight.

    Infiltration of US Biodefense (fully previewable 4/29 draft)

    • DXer said

      I should add that Dr. Hamouda also thanked Kimothy L. Smith, the key genetics person typing the samples in 2001 and 2002 for providing the Biolevel 3 space to work with 4 characterized anthrax strains at LSU.

      • DXer said

        When you see DARPA allowing the scientist working with 911 imam to share a suite with the leading anthax scientist and head DIA biothreat assessment person — both Battelle consults — all this sort of science seems not only irrelevant but reckless, because it involves the proliferation of labs, research, strains etc..

        See, e.g.,

        “Unmasking anthrax for immune destruction
        April 30, 2010

        Finding a way to encourage B. anthracis to unwittingly unmask itself, using the bacterium’s own machinery would be a novel approach to eradicating the pathogen. “What is more, these measures may also be effective against strains of B. anthracis that have been genetically engineered to be resistant to antibiotics and/or existing vaccines,” suggested Dr. Friedlander.”

      • DXer said

        Dr. Hamouda also thanked Dr. Jane A. Alexander of DARPA (for funding). Dr. Alexander once explained at DARPA Tech, 1999:

        “Small scale attacks may be adequate to immobilize national will with panic unless reasonable defenses are available. Terrorists do not need the technological sophistication of a military offensive biological warfare program. A military offensive BW program strives for predictable effect so that military operations can be planned. Terrorists could actually benefit from the variation of the onset and outcome of the illnesses creating added panic in the public.”

        Who does Dr. Alexander think is responsible for the anthrax mailings?

    • DXer said

      Scott Shane or his colleague appear to have interviewed Dr. Khaled Hamid in 2007. Dr. Hamid agrees with me that to engage in terrorism violates the oath “first do no harm.” For years, I had argued that the former heads of Vanguards of Conquest — all doctors from Cairo Medical (Al-Sharif, Agizah, Zawahiri) had violated their hippocratic oath. (I’ve also argued that Zawahiri, the anthrax mailer, the Ames acquirer have violated the hadiths.

      2 Doctors Held in British Bomb Plots Had Looked to U.S.

      Published: July 7, 2007
      LONDON, July 6 — Two of the medical doctors arrested in connection with the bungled London and Glasgow car bomb attacks had made preliminary inquiries about practicing medicine in the United States, an American law enforcement official said Friday.

      Dr. Khaled Hamid, an Egyptian-born allergy and asthma specialist, helped organize a news conference of local Muslim physicians in St. Louis on Friday to denounce the terrorist plots in Britain. When he heard that those arrested in Britain were doctors, Dr. Hamid said in an interview, “I felt sick. The idea that a physician would participate in that is incomprehensible to me.”

      He and others called the news conference to “make it very clear where we stand,” said Dr. Hamid, who is active in the local chapter of the Council on American-Islamic Relations. “We’re hurt as Muslims and as physicians who believe sacred life must be protected.”

      Silence, he said, “can wrongly be interpreted as approval.”

      • DXer said

        Khaled Hamid (the erudite blogger who I presume is the same individual as the medical doctor interviewed by Scott, but don’t yet have confirmation) explains the principles of “Islam, Violence and War”:

        • War is permitted under Islamic rules, but only for defensive purposes. War of aggression is not permitted in Islam (2:190).
        • If the non-Muslim warring party stops aggression, Muslims have no choice but to stop (2:192, 4:90, 8:61) even if they think it is not in Muslim’s army interest (8:61 and 8:62).
        • The purpose of war is to resist or stop oppression and to fight aggression (2:190, 2:193, 4:75) not to expand territory or to dominate others (28:83) [note: Exalt in this verse means ‘raise in rank and status, or attain supremacy, Uluwan in Arabic]. War is definitely not a mean to force Islam on non-Muslims (2:256, 2:272 [first sentence], 10:99, 16:82).
        • War with another Muslim community is also permitted (for the same purpose stated of fighting oppression and aggression) if that Muslim community engages in oppressing another community, and does not heed the calls for just and fair resolution (49:9)
        • War is permitted in defense of the right and religious freedoms of non-Muslims well as Muslims suffering from oppression (22:39 and 22:40)
        • Revenge for past hatred and hostilities does not justify war and aggression (5:2, 5:8) and Muslims are instructed and advised by God to forgive (43:89, 15:85)
        War is the last resort: Not only does the Quran forbid wars of aggression, but it also very strongly encourages peaceful means to counter aggression and resolve conflicts before war is resorted to (8:61, 23:96, 41:34).

        • DXer said

          The articulate St. Louis blogger Khaled Hamid writes:

          “The Prophet’s teaching: Muhammad, pbuh, has set a very well defined path for warriors to follow. During the sending off the Muslim army to a battle, the prophet issued the following ‘battle field code of conduct’: “You shall not break a promise you make, you shall not mutilate the dead”, and “You shall not kill an elder, a child or a woman”. He gave clear instructions not to kill the injured and unarmed enemy members (equivalent to army civilians, and non-combat support troops in modern times).”

          So KH would agree with me that the anthrax mailer violated the hadiths.

          Now I’ve ventured that Khaled Hamid’s lifelong friend and medical school colleague, if it is the same articulate St. Louis KH who addresses these issues, worked with Bruce Ivins with virulent Ames, participated in anthrax simulant tests at Dugway, had his decontamination agent tested by the JH-APL researchers, and thanked leading anthrax specialsts at Ft. Detrick for providing technical assistance. There simply would be no more fascinating interview on the subject of the Hippocratic Oath given that the three heads of the Vanguards of Conquest were from Dr. Khaled Hamid’s alma mater Cairo Medical. Ayman Zawahiri was actively recruiting at the school there — and, in fact, had personally recruited Khaled Hamid’s brother, “Tawfiq.” “Tawfiq” withdrew because they wanted him to bury a security officer near the mosque. Now Khaled Hamid won’t speak to his brother “Tawfiq” (Tawfiq tells me) because he is consulting with intelligence agencies (and is the articulate champion of peace and co-existence). If Khaled won’t talk to “Tawfiq”, but remains close to Tarek Hamouda, what are Tarek Hamouda’s political views on these issues? (I have no idea; as a child, he was secular). When DARPA put him in charge of the anti-infective project for which Bruce Ivins supplied, was there a question on the form that asked if he knew Ayman Zawahiri, the person who was known to plan to use anthrax against US targets? When Richard Holbrooke (now #3 at Department of State in charge of Afghanistan and Pakistan) oversaw investment of $30 million in the Ann Arbor NanoBio, did he ask Tarek whether he knew Ayman? What due diligence did Perseus do at the time of its investment? What due diligence did Perseus do after I contacted Brian Leitch (a great guy) and asked him to do a due diligence? Everyone benefits by having questions asked and answered (except the mailer, of course) and I hope I answered his questions years ago.

          Infiltration of US Biodefense (fully previewable 4/29 draft)

        • DXer said

          Is Dr. Khaled Hamid, the expert on Arabic transcripts of Bin Laden, the same St. Louis doctor who is the lifelong friend of Ames researcher Tarek Hamouda?

          Messages to the world: the statements of Osama Bin Laden‎ – Page vii
          Osama Bin Laden, Bruce Lawrence – Political Science – 2005 – 292 pages
          Dr Khaled Hamid and Tammy Elmansoury provided invaluable help in tracking down
          Arabic transcripts of bin Laden ‘s speeches, as did the staff a

        • DXer said


          JULY 7, 2007
          Muslim Doctors Angry and Saddened by Possible Terrorist Plot

          Some Muslim physicians in our area, want the public to know they are angry and saddened by the possible terrorist plot, in the United Kingdom, which possibly includes Muslim medical professionals.

          Dr. Khaled Hamid a CAIR board member says, “We are part of the society, to stay and are not a threat.”

        • DXer said

          Ann Arbor resident Bassem Khafagi was CAIR’s community relations director. He was the President of IANA, the charity for which Al-Timimi was the leading speaker and the founder of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad was the one of the two leading writers. Khafagi’s personal papers were found in Al-Timimi’s home when it was searched. Al-Timimi did classified work and walked the halls with the DARPA-funded Center for Biodefense researchers who were doing research with virulent Ames in an area BL-3 lab.

          Dr. Khaled Hamid is active in CAIR. Was he also active in CAIR while in Michigan during the 1997-2000?

          Did he know Mahmoud Mahjoub and Jaballah while living in Toronto? (Mahjoub was the Vanguards of Conquest #2 whose bail was the subject of the threat to use mailed anthrax and Jaballah was an EIJ/VOC shura member. Jaballah kept in touch with Ayman Zawahiri by satellite phone and is the brother-in-law of the EIJ special operations person Shehata. Relatedly, did Dr. Hamid know Marzouk while living in British Columbia, who trained the 1998 embassy bombers?

          Did Dr. Hamid, given how articulate and thoughtful he is, write in the Arabic quarterly journal of the Islamic Assembly of North America in which all the heavyweight thinkers were discussing islam and the tactics allowable in seeking the release of blind sheik Abdel-Rahman? See hard copy and also book discussing the authors and their views (I don’t have it handy).

        • DXer said

          In a January 2010 post he mentions that he is a medical doctor.

          He writes eloquently of finding his muslim voice in this special to St. Louis Post.

        • DXer said

          “Khaled Hamid, 48, is an American Muslim. He was born in Egypt but has lived in Canada and the United States for nearly 20 years. Since 2000 he has worked as a physician in St. Louis where he lives with his wife and two sons. He is especially interested in civil rights issues and inter-faith dialog.”

          I’m trying to find his email to put the factual questions to him. Did he know Ayman Zawahiri who would come to recruit at the medical school? Did he know Ali Mohammed? Did he know fellow medical student Dahab? Did he know Mahjoub? Did he know Jaballah? Marzouk? Is he a member of the Muslim Brotherhood? And same questions for his lifelong friend Tarek Hamouda, who was working with virulent Ames alongside Bruce Ivins.

  5. DXer said

    Here is an April 28 a.m. draft, fully previewable draft of my argument. Am looking for recommendations of mages to add, errors to correct etc.

    Infiltration of US Biodefense

    • Old Atlantic said

      I have not looked at the current version in detail, the link works on the other page, but not here.

      However, based on looking at past I would suggest following points.

      1) The issue of Bruce Ivins rating the anthrax. What was the quality rating of the New York Post anthrax? Is it really mostly debris as Ed says or is it in fact close to the Senate letters in percentage spores, etc. but lacking in some other factors. The higher quality the first letters were the harder to make in a weekend. Page references etc are very important. I recall at times there was info that it was much better than what Ed describes it as. Since this is a point of contention with Ed, its important to nail it down.

      2) Document names, page numbers, and links are all important.

      3) I would add a graphic on the Laurie Carey paper and include their table on page 20.

      Click to access GetTRDoc

      Page 12 of the pdf goes through their preparation procedure. This is important. It also is worth putting up as part of the graphic.

      Page 11, percent viable spore count definition. This is important to understand the table on page 20 of the pdf. Some runs with high milligrams per liter still has low viable spore counts.

      • DXer said

        Thanks for the expert input.

        The 4/28 draft has been deleted and the new link, the 4/29 draft is:

        Dr. Ivins rated the Post anthrax a “C”. See 302 interview statement. There is a 1 page description from his October 2001 examination, as there is for the Daschle, for example. I should include them. I’ve tried to include as many pages from the record as possible.

  6. DXer said

    What is the scientific data or literature, if any, that indicates that antifoam could not also result in the silicon signature if grown in shaker flasks?

    • DXer said

      Dr. KIel, who makes aerosolized anthrax simulants for biodefense purposes, last week advised me that it could.

      • BugMaster said

        Antifoam is occasionally used in shake flasks, to eliminate the foam on the surface that can limit the gas transfer (oxygen into solution, CO2 offgas to atmosphere).

        But the concentration of antifoam used in these applications is very low.

        The last shake flask fermentations I added antifoam to utilized 1:10000 and 1:5000 dilutions of a silicon-based antifoam agent.

        Adding higher concentrations added specifically for foam control probably wouldn’t provide much more foam control and at some point, inhibit the fermentation and/or cause purification problems when trying to isolate the resulting fermentation products.

  7. Anonymous said

    Treatment of the spores of the anthrax attack letters with a surfactant might explain the location of the silicon content of the anthrax attack spores. In particular, use of substantial quantities of a silicon-containing defoaming agent during fermentation might have left a silicon-containing residue on the exterior of the spores and also on spore surfaces below the permeable exosporium. It would be possible, in theory, that a subsequent surfactant treatment might completely remove the silicon residues from exterior spore surfaces without removing residue below the exosporium to the same extent.

  8. DXer said

    Here’s a fully previewable book collection of almost 50 of the top graphics appearing on Lew’s CaseClosed in case you haven’t got your set of trading cards yet.

  9. Old Atlantic said

    Hydrophobic means doesn’t like water. Won’t suspend in water means it wants to get away from the water, ie drop out. So Dugway spores without Tide would be even more hydrophobic. That is Dugway spores prepared without Tide are in the direction of behaving like the Senate anthrax behaved. A dry powder that doesn’t clump and spreads out. Is this wrong?

  10. BugMaster said

    They wouldn’t have used Tide, but rather one of the Tween formulations (free fatty acids, such as linoleic acid / oleic acid, etc).

    In otherwords: Soap, not detergent.

    The description of the AMI material from one witness I recall was “a soapy powder”.

    Note that a “soapy powder” is soap flakes, very different from powdered DETERGENT such as Tide (although these days, there are fewer people that have ever seen or used “soap flakes”.

    Additional support for the free fatty acid theory:

    Tide would be too extreme, and denature the spore protein.

    And perhaps Tinkerbell would agree!

    The “Tide” comment was very likely someone at Dugway being a smartass.

    • BugMaster said

      Note also that the RMR-1029 material is referred to as “GLP” material, as in a reference material that complies with Good Laboratory Practices.

      Therefore, the use of a complex somewhat undefined (by laboratory standards) material such as Tide would be most unlikely.

    • DXer said

      Dr. Ivins wrote on September 2, 2002 about Battelle and antifoam.

      The subject was “Expert Review Panel for Battelle Aerosol Procedures”.

      “Battelle asked me for suggestions about spores for aerosolization and I made 2 suggestions: 1) Put more suspension in the collison; 2) add 0.1% Tween 80 to the suspension to be aerosolized (which eliminates the foaming). At CDC they may ask us about differences in spores delivered by aerosol with or without the Tween 80. Would it be possible to have a small, no animal experiment, comparing a couple of sprays with Tween 80 versus a couple without to see what kind of difference (if any) it makes in the AGI? Battelle contacted me and they were absolutely beside themselves because they couldn’t get a very high spore challenge dose. A short experiment wouldn’t take very long and could be very helpful. My guess is that it could be run in a couple of hours, and plates could be counted next day. …”

  11. DXer said

    Putting aside the issue whether the JLo letter contained anthrax, what brand detergent was included in the Jennifer Lopez letter to AMI?

    Do we have confirmation that it was “TIDE” and not another non-bleach containing detergent? (and as for production of Dugway spores, we will want to confirm the brand).

    The October 31, 2001, article from The National Enquirer

    • DXer said

      The article provides a lot of information about what “the J-Lo letter” looked like and what was in it:

      1. “a bulky manila envelope” was delivered to Joe West on September 19, 2001.

      2. “The envelope sent to the Sun was addressed: ‘Please forward to Jennifer Lopez, c/o the Sun.'”

      3. The envelope contained:

      A small detergent carton.

      A metal cigar tube with a cheap cigar inside.

      An empty can of chewing tobacco.

      A handwritten letter to Jennifer Lopez.

      The writer said how much he loved her and asked her to marry him. (Wedding is Al-Qaeda-speak used for attack).

      It was a business-size sheet of stationery decorated with pink and blue clouds around the edges. (Clouds is the translation of KSM/Al-Hawsawi’s group; al-Hawsawi had the spraydrying docs on his computer)

      It was folded into three sections, and in the middle was a pile of what looked like pink-tinged talcum powder.

      Buried in the powder was “a little Star of David with a little loop for a string or chain.”

      • BugMaster said

        1. “a bulky manila envelope” was delivered to Joe West on September 19, 2001.

        If this was in fact the anthrax containing package, how in the hell did it get there overnight?

        Especially 8 days after September 11, when the mail service still wasn’t back to normal (lots of mail flys on airliners!)

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