CASE CLOSED … what really happened in the 2001 anthrax attacks?

* amazon customer reviews of CASE CLOSED

Posted by DXer on June 4, 2009


the following customer reviews of CASE CLOSED have recently appeared on …

a good taleCase Closed reads fast and well. It could have happened just the way the author said. Full of intrigue mixed in with almost current events. The real people are just behind the fictional ones.

Is it really fiction? … The author states loud and clear that this book is fiction. But, anyone who has witnessed the last eight years of American history sees great similarities in the underhanded way the last Administration dealt with issues and the way this “fictional” Administration worked. I never have given much credence to conspiracy theories but the investigation of the Anthrax attacks makes one stop and really think about it. Weinstein raises some very interesting and disturbing theories. If it was not meant to make one think about the real situation, the book would still be a great read. It is suspenseful and a real page turner. Please tell me it’s not true!

 An action/thriller that makes you think … The writing is sparse, driven by a plausible plot that allows the reader to think through the crime/mystery along with the protagonist. Despite the troubling reality of the subject matter, it is a thoroughly enjoyable and illuminating read. The writer acknowledges that the novel is fiction, but provides sufficient factual context to sustain his theory on how this dramatic historical footnote could have played out as it did. Even if you do not believe that the Bush Administration repeatedly allowed politics and manipulation of public sentiment to trump fact and law, you will have to acknowlege that the sheer scale of the protocol violations in the Anthrax investigation suggest political motives. Responsible Americans who believe in holding our government accountable for its actions should read Case Closed to be more informed of the facts of the case, regardless of whether they come to agree with the author’s theory. More investigation is needed. 

* purchase CASE CLOSED (paperback)

Fast Moving and “real” intrigue … When you realize that the book is based on real facts, it makes it that much more exciting. At times it seems unreal that we actually lived through these times. It makes it really close to home. The whole Anthrax episode is unquestionably a dark moment in American history. But what makes it fascinating is how it was handled (or should I say mishandled) by the administration and the various agency involved. The book is a must read for anyone who wondered “what really happened? Who did it? and why?” and finally, why didn’t they tell us the truth. Enjoy!

You will not want to stop reading … Lew Weinstein addresses this case with the pen of a highly skilled investigator. As the facts develop, and the characters weigh in, the story becomes an engaging and thought provoking ride that you will want to stay on until you know the truth. The questions asked here stretch the seams of terror with unbelievable possiblilities. A must read for anyone wondering how the anthrax scare could have happened in our own back yard.

* purchase CASE CLOSED (Kindle)

Attack from Within … This scary scenario is as close to truth as fiction can come. The plot is about anthrax attacks, a biological insurgency that doesn’t involve guns, bombs, or armies. Lew Weinstein is a meticulous researcher and a determined storyteller. This book will keep you up at night — reading, then worrying.

Case Closed – great read … Case Closed takes headline events and weaves a credible scenario around the anthrax scare and govt depts working under the radar. Definitely kept me turning the pages

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8 Responses to “* amazon customer reviews of CASE CLOSED”

  1. DXer said

    Threat Level Privacy, Crime and Security Online
    NSA Whistleblower Meets Anthrax ‘Person of Interest’

    * By Kevin Poulsen
    * June 4, 2009 |

  2. DXer said

    In 2007, I addressed the issue in 5,000 words at

    “Anthrax Mystery: Evidence Points to al-Qaida,” Newsmax, June 7, 2007

  3. DXer said

    I addressed the means, opportunities, motive and modus operandi in a lengthy essay published in 2002 on Crytome. It is still uploaded and has hyperlinked authority.

    Al Qaeda, Anthrax and Ayman
    means, opportunities, motive and modus operandi

    Vice President Cheney, CIA Director Tenet, Gorbachev, the former chief arms inspector in Iraq, and the former head CIA agent in Iraq all have said that they believe that Al Qaeda is responsible for the anthrax attacks. A growing number of commentators agree — urging that the publicly known evidence about means, opportunity, modus operandi and motive in the Amerithrax investigation points to Al Qaeda. The argument, however, is far stronger than has been made to date.

    First, Al Qaeda has had anthrax since at least 1997. Dr. Ayman Zawahiri’s right-hand man confessed that Zawahiri succeeded in obtaining anthrax and intended to use it against US targets.

    Second, Senators Daschle and Leahy likely were targeted because of the appropriations to military and security forces that have prevented the militant islamists from achieving their goals. The appropriations are made pursuant to the “Leahy Law.” The FBI’s involvement in muslim countries is deemed to interfere with the sovereignty of those countries. Senator Leahy is Chairman of both the Judiciary Committee overseeing the FBI and the Appropriations Subcommittee in charge of foreign aid to these countries.

    Third, the Egyptian islamists sent letter bombs a few years ago to newspaper offices in New York City and Washington, D.C. in connection with the earlier bombing of the World Trade Center. The letter bombs were sent in connection with the treatment of the Egyptian islamists imprisoned for the earlier attack on the WTC. The apparent purpose of the letter bombs –which resulted in minimal casualty — was to send a message. (There is an outstanding $2 million reward)

  4. Ike Solem said

    Good job, Lew!

    And no, DX, Al Qaeda doesn’t have any capacity to produce anthrax spores, unless they built a BSL-4 level lab somewhere in Pakistan and ordered a whole lot of uniquely specialized equipment.

    It’s a nice PR line, but nothing more than that. Here is some interesting reading material, however:

    Bush Developing Illegal Bioterror Weapons For Offensive Use
    By Sherwood Ross
    Wednesday, 20 December 2006

    In violation of the U.S. Code and international law, the Bush administration is spending more money (in inflation-adjusted dollars) to develop illegal, offensive germ warfare than the $2-billion spent in World War II on the Manhattan Project to make the atomic bomb.

    Those were outgrowths of programs run earlier by various intelligence agencies using information gleaned from Soviet defectors. Try this:

    The 1972 treaty forbids nations from developing or acquiring weapons that spread disease, but it allows work on vaccines and other protective measures. Government officials said the secret research, which mimicked the major steps a state or terrorist would take to create a biological arsenal, was aimed at better understanding the threat.

    The projects, which have not been previously disclosed, were begun under President Clinton and have been embraced by the Bush administration, which intends to expand them.

    Earlier this year, administration officials said, the Pentagon drew up plans to engineer genetically a potentially more potent variant of the bacterium that causes anthrax, a deadly disease ideal for germ warfare.

    The experiment has been devised to assess whether the vaccine now being given to millions of American soldiers is effective against such a superbug, which was first created by Russian scientists. A Bush administration official said the National Security Council is expected to give the final go-ahead later this month.

    Two other projects completed during the Clinton administration focused on the mechanics of making germ weapons.

    In a program code-named Clear Vision, the Central Intelligence Agency built and tested a model of a Soviet-designed germ bomb that agency officials feared was being sold on the international market. The C.I.A. device lacked a fuse and other parts that would make it a working bomb, intelligence officials said.

    The chances are the the CIA program was largely aimed at recreating the dry aerosol spore powders that were developed in the Soviet Union as well as in the offensive U.S. biowarfare program, which peaked in the late 60s, before they killed thousands of sheep with aerosolized spores in Dugway Utah, prompting Nixon to close the whole thing down in 1969.

    That CIA program is thus a very good candidate for being the ultimate source of the aerosolized (physically weaponized) material used in the Daschle and Leahy letters. However, what strain did they use? If it was the Ames strain, which is also the standard “anthrax vaccine challenge strain” then that would be very curious indeed.

    It only gets better:

    Administration officials said the need to keep such projects secret was a significant reason behind President Bush’s recent rejection of a draft agreement to strengthen the germ-weapons treaty, which has been signed by 143 nations.

    The draft would require those countries to disclose where they are conducting defensive research involving gene-splicing or germs likely to be used in weapons. The sites would then be subject to international inspections.

    Many national security officials in both the Clinton and Bush administrations opposed the draft, arguing that it would give potential adversaries a road map to what the United States considers its most serious vulnerabilities.

    Among the facilities likely to be open to inspection under the draft agreement would be the West Jefferson, Ohio, laboratory of the Battelle Memorial Institute, a military contractor that has been selected to create the genetically altered anthrax.

    Several officials who served in senior posts in the Clinton administration acknowledged that the secretive efforts were so poorly coordinated that even the White House was unaware of their full scope.

    The Pentagon’s project to build a germ factory was not reported to the White House, they said. President Clinton, who developed an intense interest in germ weapons, was never briefed on the programs under way or contemplated, the officials said.

    Now, those programs were all given new life and billions in new funding, all as a result of the anthrax letters. Someone within that complex had the means, motive and opportunity to carry out the attacks – and Bruce Ivins did not, nor did Al Qaeda or Saddam.

    That, at least, is very clear.

    • DXer said

      Ike says,

      “And no, DX, Al Qaeda doesn’t have any capacity to produce anthrax spores, unless they built a BSL-4 level lab somewhere in Pakistan and ordered a whole lot of uniquely specialized equipment.”

      You are mistaken. There is not a microbiologist PhD in the country who would say that a BSL-4 is required. These issues have been discussed now for 8 years and you may be new to following the matter. Indeed, $250,000 was spent draining ponds on the theory that a glove box would work submerged in a pond, although it did not take into account the problem of moisture. Indeed, Ike, if one is out in the middle of the forest, and doesn’t care about containment, one can just leave the mess you made.

      “It’s a nice PR line, but nothing more than that.”

      You are the political activist posting PR lines and requiring regularly multi-pointed correction (as Ed has done in the previous posts).

      If you like, I would be glad to pull up numerous quotes and cites after an obligation I have this evening. But I recommend you just search for 2002 articles in which my friends BHR and Dr. Nass were urging that containment facilities such as a BS-3 were indicated. No one has ever argued a BSL-4 — because that is a baseless suggestion. You need to read more. I consider my friend, Dr. RHE the world authority on the number and location of BS-3 and BS-4. If you remain confused, email him. He is at Rutgers. But these are very basic issues.

      Then Ike cites my friend, who is a publicist paid by my friend Francis. I recommend you instead cite a microbiologist — or the literature and I’ll cite or email a half dozen PhDs for every political activist you cite. Fair enough? Or if you like, you could email the quick question to any of the folks I regularly consult with on such subjects like Dr. Ebright, Dr. Popov, or Dr. Alibek.

      While Lew and I are glad for folks to take an interest in the issue, either do the necessary background reading or don’t make unsupported assertions. And definitely don’t turn to political activists who was paid to promote President Bush’s impeachment for authority on such questions. Instead, consult with someone like Dr. Andrews, Franz, Byrne, or Jeff A. all of whom are available for such basic questions. Ed could also cut-and-paste explanations from his archives.

      The DIA has provided me the correspondence between Ayman Zawahiri and Rauf Ahmad referring to the containment that would be required. The DIA’s lead analyst has kept in touch over the years as anthrax lab techs were interviewed at Gitmo.

      Ike, have you ever used a Bucchi mini-spraydryer so as to know its dimensions?

    • DXer said

      Ike says that Ayman Zawahiri did not have the means, motive, modus operandi and opportunity to carry out the mailings even though the documents seized and his public pronouncements say he did. Ike has not discussed this issue of recruitment of specialists by Ayman Zawahiri established by the correspondence and memos. Ike has not yet addressed the documentary evidence and instead states his political views which are shared by many of us. But politics has no role in true crime analysis.

      For example, Ike, where the DARPA-funded research by the firm that then ended up collecting $80 million was done involving the former Zawahiri associate to whom Bruce Ivins supplied virulent Ames? That scientist and I have a mutual friend who was recruited by Ayman Zawahiri and was a member of the Egyptian Islamic Group. He now consults with intelligence agencies and has described Zawahiri’s recruitment at the Cairo Medical school in the early 1980s.

      The Ann Arbor scientist was given virulent Ames by Bruce Ivins for DARPA research relating to nanoemulsions. The company pitched hand cream to the postal workers. They helped decontaminate the Senate Offices. Then they collected $80 million in investment — with $50 million coming from a DC investment firm, Perseus, that was led by Richard Holbrooke, who now has oversight over Pakistan and Afghanistan. This fellow Bruce Ivins gave the virulent Ames, at the same time he thanked Bruce in numerous patents, thanked the fellow who typed the attack anthrax (Kimothy Smith) for supplying space at Louisiana State University. They needed the LSU facilities for small animal studies involving virulent anthrax. (Pre-911 anthrax was a BL-2 pathogen in its liquid form but if you are going to do wet aerosol experiments, you can’t just do it anywhere.) He and his colleagues then visited Dugway for aerosol experiments.

      So, if you would, focus on the distribution of Ames from Bruce Ivins. Where was the DARPA-funded research done using the virulent Ames supplied by Bruce Ivins?

      • DXer said

        As I’ve told Sherwood and Francis over the years, maybe everyone is right — except Ed of course.

        Warrick writes: “He wasn’t an expert. He was the expert,” said a senior FBI investigator, who answered questions about the still-open case on the condition of anonymity.” “Bruce Ivins was a victim of a vicious plot,” said Ayaad Assaad, a toxicologist who once worked with Ivins at Fort Detrick, in Maryland.

        In a number of patents by University of Michigan researchers in Ann Arbor, Tarek Hamouda and James R. Baker, Jr., including some filed before 9/11, the inventors thank Bruce Ivins of Ft. Detrick for supplying them with Ames. The University of Michigan patents stated: “B. anthracis spores, Ames and Vollum 1 B strains, were kindly supplied by Dr. Bruce Ivins (USAMRIID, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.), and prepared as previously described (Ivins et al., 1995). Dr. Hamouda served as group leader on the DARPA Anti-infective project. A patent application filed April 2000 by the University of Michigan inventors explained:

        “The release of such agents as biological weapons could be catastrophic in light of the fact that such diseases will readily spread the air.

        In light of the foregoing discussion, it becomes increasingly clear that cheap, fast and effective methods of killing bacterial spores are needed for decontaminating purposes. The inventive compounds have great potential as environmental decontamination agents and for treatments of casualties in both military and terrorist attacks. The inactivation of a broad range of pathogens … and bacterial spores (Hamouda et al., 1999), combined with low toxicity in experimental animals, make them (i.e., the inventive compounds) particularly well suited for use as general decontamination agents before a specific pathogen is identified.”

        In late August 2001, NanoBio relocated from a small office with 12 year-old furniture to an expanded office on Green Road located at Plymouth Park. After the mailings, DARPA reportedly asked for some of their product them to decontaminate some of the Senate offices. The company pitched hand cream to postal workers. The inventors company, NanoBio, is funded by DARPA. NanoBio received a $3,150,000 defense contract in 2003. Dr. Hamouda graduated Cairo Medical in December 1982. He married in 1986. His wife was on the Cairo University dental faculty for 10 years. Upon coming to the United States in 1994 after finishing his microbiology PhD at Cairo Medical, Dr. Hamouda was a post-doctoral fellow at the Wayne State University School of Medicine in downtown Detroit. His immunology department biography at Wayne indicates that he then came to the University of Michigan and began work on the DARPA-funded work with anthrax bio-defense applications with James R. Baker at their company NanoBio.

        The University of Michigan researchers presented in part at various listed meetings and conferences in 1998 and 1999. The December 1999 article titled “A Novel Surfactant Nanoemulsion with Broad-Spectrum Sporicidal Activity of against Bacillus Species” in the Journal for Infectious Diseases states:

        “B. anthracis spores, Ames and Vollum 1B strains, were supplied by Bruce Ivins (US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases [USAMRIID], Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD) and were prepared as described elsewhere. Four other strains of B. anthracis were provided by Martin Hugh-Jones (Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge.”

        In the acknowledgements section, the University of Michigan authors thank:
        Shaun B. Jones, Jane Alexander, and Lawrence DuBois (Defense Science Office, Defense Advanced Research Project Agency) for their support.

        Bruce Ivins, Patricia Fellows, Mara Linscott, Arthur Friedlander, and the staff of USAMRIID for their technical support and helpful suggestions in the performance of the initial anthrax studies.
        Martin-Hugh-Jones, Kimothy Smith, and Pamela Coker for supplying the characterized B. anthracis strains and the space at Louisiana State University (Baton Rouge).

        Robin Kunkel (Department of Pathology, University of Michigan) for her help with electron microscopy and a couple of others for technical assistance and manuscript preparation.

        The researchers found that their nanoemulsion incorporated into the growth medium completely inhibited the growth of the spores. Transmission electron microscope was used to examine the spores.

        The authors explained that “The nanoemulsions can be rapidly produced in large quantities and are stable for many months *** Undiluted, they have the texture of a semisolid cream and can be applied topically by hand or mixed with water. Diluted, they have a consistency and appearance similar to skim milk and can be sprayed to decontaminate surfaces or potentially interact with aerosolized spores before inhalation.”

        A March 18, 1998 press release had provided some background to the novel DARPA-funded work. It was titled “Novavax Microbicides Undergoing Testing at University of Michigan Against Biological Warfare Agents; Novavax Technology Being Supplied to U.S. Military Program At University of Michigan as Possible Defense Against Germ Warfare.” The release stated that “The Novavax Biologics Division has designed several potent microbicides and is supplying these materials to the University of Michigan for testing under a subcontract. Various formulations are being tested as topical creams or sprays for nasal and environmental usage. The biocidal agent’s detergent degrades and then explodes the interior of the spore. Funding, the press release explains, was provided by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency of the Department of Defense.

        In a presentation at the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC) on September 26, 1998, Michael Hayes, a research associate in the U-Michigan Medical School, presented experimental evidence of BCTP’s ability to destroy anthrax spores both in a culture dish and in mice exposed to anthrax through a skin incision. “In his conference presentation, Hayes described how even low concentrations of BCTP killed more than 90 percent of virulent strains of Bacillus anthracis spores in a culture dish.” Its website explains that the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy is the “[p]remier meeting on infectious diseases and antimicrobial agents, organized by the American Society for Microbiology.”

        An University of Michigan Medical school, Medicine at Michigan, (Vol. 1, No. 1, Spring 1999) explained:
        “In studies with rats and mice in the U-M Medical School under the direction of James R. Baker, Jr., M.D., professor of internal medicine and director of the Center for Biologic Nanotechnology, the mixture, known as BCTP, attacked anthrax spores and healed wounds caused by a closely related species of bacteria, Bacillus cereus. (The letters BCTP stand for Bi-Component, Triton X-100 n-tributyl Phosphate.)
        Baker describes the process as follows: “The tiny lipid droplets in BCTP fuse with anthrax spores, causing the spores to revert to their active bacterial state. During this process, which takes 4-5 hours, the spore’s tough outer membrane changes, allowing BCTP’s solvent to strip away the exterior membrane. The detergent then degrades the spores’ interior contents. In scanning electron microscope images, the spores appear to explode.” The rapid inactivation of anthrax bacteria and spores combined with BCTP’s low toxicity thus make the emulsion a promising candidate for use as a broad-spectrum, post-exposure decontamination agent.

        The research is sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the central research and development organization for the U.S. Department of Defense.”            

        Dr. Baker, by email, advises me that Ivins did the studies involving Ames for them at USAMRIID. He reports: “We never had Ames and could not have it at our UM facilities.” Before September 2001, it’s office was described as in the basement of a downtown bank which seems to describe 912 N. Main St., Ann Arbor, just west of University of Michigan campus.

        An article in the Summer of 2000 in Medicine at Michigan explains:

        “Victory Site: Last December [December 1999] Tarek Hamouda, Amy Shih and Jim Baker traveled to a remote military station in the Utah desert. There they demonstrated for the U.S. Army Research and Development Command the amazing ability of non-toxic nanoemulsions (petite droplets of fat mixed with water and detergent) developed at Michigan to wipe out deadly anthrax-like bacterial spores. The square vertical surfaces shown here were covered with bacterial spores; Michigan’s innocuous nanoemulsion was most effective in killing the spores even when compared to highly toxic chemicals.”

        As Fortune magazine explained in November 2001 about NanoBio: “Then bioterror struck…. It moved to a bland corporate park where its office has no name on the door. It yanked its street address off its Website, whose hit rate jumped from 350 a month to 1,000 a day.” NanoBio was part of the solution: “in the back of NanoBio’s office sit two dozen empty white 55-gallon barrels. A few days before, DARPA had asked Annis and Baker if they could make enough decontaminant to clean several anthrax-tainted offices in the Senate. NanoBio’s small lab mixers will have to run day and night to fill the barrels. ‘This is not the way we want to do this,’ sighs [its key investor], shaking his head. ‘This is all a duct-tape solution.’ ” James Baker, founder of Ann Arbor’s NanoBio’s likes to quote a Chinese proverb: “When there are no lions and tigers in the jungle, the monkeys rule.”

        It’s naive to think that Al Qaeda could not have obtained Ames just because it tended to be in labs associated with or funded by the US military. US Army Al Qaeda operative Sgt. Ali Mohammed accompanied Zawahiri in his travels in the US. (Ali Mohamed had been a major in the same unit of the Egyptian Army that produced Sadat’s assassin, Khaled Islambouli). Ali Al-Timimi was working in the building housing the Center for Biodefense funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (“DARPA”) and had access to the facilities at both the Center for Biodefense and the adjacent American Type Culture Collection. Michael Ray Stubbs was an HVAC system technician at Lawrence Livermore Lab with a high-level security clearance permitting access. That was where the effort to combat the perceived Bin Laden anthrax threat was launched in 1998. Aafia Siddiqui, who attended classes at a building with the virulent Vollum strain. She later married a 9/11 plotter al-Balucchi, who was in UAE with al-Hawsawi, whose laptop, when seized at the home of a bacteriologist, had anthrax spraydrying documents on it. The reality is that a lab technician, researcher, or other person similarly situated might simply have walked out of some lab that had it. What was NanoBio’s old street address? Why is Aafia Siddiqui associated with an address at 1915 Woodbury Drive in Ann Arbor? An Assistant United States Attorney has claimed in open court (in the opening argument in United States v. Paracha) that Aafia was willing to participate in an anthrax attack if asked.

        Among the documents found in Afghanistan in 2001 were letters and notes written in English to Ayman Zawahiri by a scientist about his attempts to obtain an anthrax sample. One handwritten letter was on the letterhead of the Society for Applied Microbiology, the UK’s oldest microbiological society. The Society for Applied Microbiology of Bedford, UK, recognizes that “the development and exploitation of Applied Microbiology requires the maintenance and improvement of the microbiological resources in the UK, such as culture collections and other specialized facilities.” Thus, Zawahiri’s access to the Ames strain is still yet to be proved or disclosed, but there was no shortage of possibilities or recruitment attempts by Ayman. One colleague of his estimates that he made 15 recruitment attempts over a many year period. Dr. Keim observes: “Whoever perpetrated the first crime must realize that we have the capability to identify material and to track the material back to its source. Whoever did this is presumably aware of what’s going on, and if the person is a scientist, they can read the study. Hopefully, the person is out there thinking: When am I going to get caught?”

        After the February 2009 presentation, the New Scientist summarized: “Eight samples had all four. One came from a flask labelled RMR-1029 that Ivins was responsible for at USAMRIID. The other seven came from cultures taken from that flask, only one of which was not located at USAMRIID. So while these findings show the attack spores came from one of these cultures, the FBI has gone further in concluding the attack came directly from the RMR-1029 flask.” The FBI has not yet identified the location of the 8 isolates downstram from Ivins’ flask known to be an identical match — or the 100+people it says had access. For the US Attorney Jeff Taylor to make it seem, however, that only Ivins had control over anthrax that was genetically identical was specious. The more commonsensical point would be that Ivins would have no reason to use anthrax so directly traceable to him by reason of being a distinctive mix of Ames strains.

  5. DXer said

    Here are some non-fiction books I recommend as useful to any intelligence or true crime analyst in thinking about Amerithrax.

    9/11 Commission report : final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States (2004)

    Anonymous [Michael Scheuer], Imperial hubris : why the West is losing the war on terror, (2004)

    Azzam, Shaykh Abullah, Defense of the Muslim Lands: (2002).

    Bar, S. Warrant for terror: The fatwas of radical Islam and the duty to jihad, (2006)

    Bell, S. 2005. The martyr’s oath: The apprenticeship of a homegrown terrorist. Mississauga, Ont.: John Wiley & Sons, Canada

    Bergen, Peter, Holy War Inc: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden (2001)

    Bergen, Peter , Osama bin Laden I know : an oral history of al-Qaeda’s leader (2006)

    Breeze, R. G., B. Budowle, and S. E. Schutzer, Microbial forensics. (2005)

    Byman, Daniel, The Five Front War: The Better Way to Fight Global Jihad (2007)

    Clark, William, Bracing for Armaggedon (2008)

    Clarke, Richard, Against All Enemies : Inside America’s War on Terror, (2004)

    Cole, Leonard, The Anthrax Letters: A Medical Detective Story (2003)

    Draper, Dead Certain (2007)

    Emerson, Steven The Terrorists Living Among Us (2002)

    Ervic, C. Open target: Where America is open to attack. (2006)

    Gabriel, Mark A. , Journey Into The Mind Of An Islamist Terrorist: Why They Hate Us And How We Can Change Their Minds (2006)

    Ganor, Boaz, The Counter-Terrorism Puzzle: A Guide for Decision Makers (2005)

    Gertz, Bill, Breakdown : How America’s intelligence failures led to September 11 (2002)

    Graysmith, Robert, Amerithrax: The Hunt for the Anthrax Killer (2003)

    Gross, Emanuel, The Struggle of Democracy Against Terrorism: Lessons from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Israel

    Gunaratna, Rohan Inside Al Qaeda: Global Network of Terror (2002)

    Gurr, and Cole, The New Face of Terrorism: Threats from Weapons of Mass Destruction (2002)

    Hamid, Tawfik, Inside Jihad: Understanding and Confronting Radical Islam (2007)

    Harmon, Christopher C., Terrorism Today (2007)

    Hoge, Jr., & Rose, ed., Understanding the War on Terror (2005)

    Holbein, James R, ed., 9/11 Commission : Proceedings and Analysis (2005)

    Hulnick, A. Keeping us safe: Secret intelligence and homeland security., (2004)

    Ibrahim, Raymond The Al Qaeda Reader (2007)

    Jenkins, B. Unconquerable nation: Knowing our enemy, strengthening ourselves, (2006)

    Katona, Peter et al., (ed) , Countering Terrorism and WMD: Creating a Global Counter-Terrorism Network (2006)

    Katz, S. Jihad in Brooklyn: The NYPD raid that stopped America’s first suicide bombers. (2005)

    Kellman, Barry, Bioviolence (2004)

    Kessler, Ron, The Terrorist Watch: Inside the Desperate Race to Stop the Next Attack (2007)

    Kessler, Ronald, The Terrorist Watch (2007)

    Koehler, Theresa M., Anthrax, (2002)

    Kohlmann, Evan F, Al-Qaida’s Jihad In Europe: The Afghan-Bosnian Network (2004)

    Kouziminov, Alexander, Biological Espionage: Special Operations of the Soviet and Russian Foreign Intelligence Services in the
    West. (2005)

    Kushner, H., and B. Davis, Holy war on the home front: The secret Islamic terror network in the United States. New York: (2004)

    Lance, Peter, Triple X (2007)

    Leitenberg, Milton, The Problem With Biological Weapons (2004)

    Leitenberg, Milton, Assessing the biological weapons and bioterrorism threat [electronic resource] (2005)

    Lia, Brynjar, Architect of Global Jiihad, (2008)

    Lichtblau, Eric, Bush Law: The Remaking of American Justice (2008)

    Lustick, I. Trapped in the war on terror, (2006)

    McCarthy, Andrew C, Willful Blindness (2008)

    McDermott, Terry, Perfect Soldiers (2005)

    Mansfield, Laura, His Own Words: Translation and Analsysi of the Writings of Dr. Ayman al Zawahiri (2006)

    Roth, John, National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States: Monograph on Terrorist Financing, (Staff Report
    to the Commission). (2004)

    Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, Countering Biological Terrorism In The U.S.: An Understanding Of Issues and Status (1999)

    Preston, Richard, The Demon in the Freezer (2002)

    Preston, Richard, The Hot Zone (1994)

    Ranstorp, Magnus (ed.), Mapping Terrorism Research: State of the Art, Gaps and Future Direction, (2007)

    Ḍiyāʼ Rashwān, The Spectrum of Islamist Movements  (2007)

    Rice, Condoleeza, “Introductory Remarks,” in The New Terror: Facing The Threat of Biological and Chemical Warfare (1999)

    Roy, Olivier, Globalized Islam: The Search for a New Ummah (2004)

    Sageman, M,.Understanding terror networks, (2004)

    Scheuer, Michael, Through Our Enemies’ Eyes: Osama bin Laden, Radical Islam, and the Future of America (rev. ed. 2007)

    Sheehan, Michael, Crush the Cell: How to Defeat Terrorism Without Defeating Ourselves (2008),

    Shenon, Philip, The Commission: The Uncensored History of the 9/11 Commission (2008)

    Shoebat, W. Why I left jihad: The root of terrorism and the rise of Islam (2005)

    Sperry, Paul, Infiltration (2005)

    Suskind, Ron, One Percent Solution (2006)

    Tenet, George, At the Center of the Storm: My Years at the CIA, (2007)

    Thompson, Marilyn W., The Killer Strain: Anthrax and a Government Exposed, (2004)

    Tibi’, Bassam, Political Islam, World Politics and Europe: Democratic Peace and Euro-Islam versus Global Jihad (2007)

    Weaver, Mary Anne, A Portrait of Egypt, (1999)

    Weaver, Mary Anne, Pakistan: In the Shadow of Jihad (2002)

    Weimann, Gabriel, Terror on the Internet: The New Arena, the New Challenges (2006)

    Weisberg, Jacob, The Bush Tragedy (2008)

    Wenger, Andreas and Wollenmann, Reto, ed. Bioterrorism : Confronting a Complex Threat, (2007)

    Wright, Lawrence, The Looming Tower: Al Qaeda and the Road to 9/11 (2006)

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